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There are some weaknesses in the current models of EI especially the ability form of EI. For example, in the Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test – MSCEIT (Mayer, 2002), as the utmost extensively used tests of EI ability, the model does not in any condition measure the intelligence — at all moments, continuously, notwithstanding by its authors — it does not measure any coherent dimension of psychological involvement. This is why it is scientifically unproductive to persevere in the efforts to improve its psychometric properties; for, even if these were to reach adequate standards one day, the resulting scores would still not be interpretable due to the nature of the fundamental scoring system (Petrides, 2011). Murphy (2006) reviewed the problems of Emotional Intelligence and identified four broad conclusions about the current status of emotional intelligence:

1. Emotional intelligence is often poorly defined and poorly measured.

2. The relationship between emotional intelligence and other concepts, including general intelligence, social skills, and personality, is not adequately understood.

3. The most widely publicised claims about the relationship between emotional intelligence and success in school, in the workplace, and in life are not supported and, in some important cases, are almost certainly untrue.

4. There are some reasons for optimism about the future of emotional intelligence, but there is still a long way to go before this concept will come close to living up to the hype.


following this, in 1994, a group of 52 connoisseurs in the study of intelligence and related fields suggested the following definition of intelligence (Gottfredson, 1997, p. 13):

Intelligence is a very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—catching on, making sense of things, or figuring out what to do.

Some other researchers have long contended that human beings have a variety of intelligences but with substantiating degree; for example, an individual may be good at art and music but worst in learning mathematics. A single number (a score on an IQ test) cannot sufficiently signify the complex and diverse abilities of a human being. Hence, Howard Gardner emerged with Multiple Intelligences theory with the updated version of 8 intelligences; verbal skills, mathematical skills, spatial skills, bodily-kinaesthetic skills, musical skills, interpersonal skills, intra-personal skills and naturalistic skills and has written about the possibility of a ninth intelligence—the existential (Gardner, 1999).

Gardner absence himself from committing his writing and discussion in relation to spiritual intelligence, but intimated that an "existential" intelligence may be a useful paradigm (Gardner, 2006).

Sternberg (1999) in his Triarchic Theory outlined three aspects of intelligence which are analytical, creative and practical. Analytical abilities enable individual to evaluate, analyse, compare and contrast information. Creative abilities create inventions, discovery, and other creative activities. Practical abilities draw everything together by allowing individuals to apply what they have learned in the appropriate setting. Individuals who make the best use of their analytical, creative and practical strengths while compensating for weaknesses in any of these areas will lead a successful life. Individuals might engage in refining weak areas to become well reformed to the needs of a particular


environment, or choose to work in an environment that values their particular strengths (Sternberg, 1999). The vital feature of the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence is adaptability--both within the individual and within the individual's sociocultural context (Cianciolo &

Sternberg, 2004).

All the intelligences as discussed above relate to brain capability. Roger Sperry, a Nobel Prize winner, initiated a work that studied the relationship between the right and left brain’s hemispheres. Sperry found that the left side of the brain inclines to function by processing information in an analytical, rational, logical, sequential way in which it deals with data collection, analysis and the use of rational thinking to reach a logical conclusion.

The right side of the brain tends to function by recognising relationships, assimilating and synthesising information, and arriving at intuitive perceptions. The left brain inclines to break information apart for analysis, while the right brain tends to put information together to synthesise a whole picture (Dew, 1996).

Gary Smalley and John Trent claim that emotions are right-brain activities but involved both hemispheres, though each hemisphere “seems to be more in control of different subsets of emotions, the left hemisphere being biased towards the positive and the right towards the negative emotions (Smalley & Trent, 1990). Jerre Levy (1985), a bio-psychologist at the University of Chicago, opposes:

The two-brain myth was founded on an erroneous premise: that since each hemisphere was specialised; each must function as an independent brain. But in fact, just the opposite is true. To the extent that regions are differentiated in the brain, they must integrate their activities. Indeed, it is precisely that integration that gives rise to behaviour and mental processes, greater than and different from each region’s contribution. Thus, since the central premise of the myth makers is wrong, so are all the inferences derived from it (p. 43).


Intelligence is not just a matter of ‘book smart’ but a person with high intelligence is also considered as an individual who is able to comprehend his or her surroundings. He or she is able to make sense of what is happening and deciding what will be done to respond to the environment. Intelligence is also not just about a single intelligence. A person would be able to possess many forms of intelligences, but might vary in terms of the capacity.

All intelligences are interrelated as suggested by the findings on brain lateralisation (Dew, 1996; Smalley & Trent, 1990). Some scientists and psychologists divide the brain into right hemisphere and left hemisphere to its own capability but in reality, all the capacities from both sides of the brain are interconnected. I strongly believe that the brain functionalities are connected to the heart (qalb) that determined the existence of human beings and associated to an intelligence known as Spiritual Intelligence (SI). Qalb is also known as inner heart or inner self that represents the whole human personality in relation to this world and world to come (Che Zarrina, 2007). According to al-Ghazali (Che Zarrina, 2007; Faris, 1970), “it is the heart which enables man to attain the knowledge of God (ma`rifah Allah), to draw one’s self near to Him, to work for Him and labour towards Him.

It is the heart which rejoices in proximity to Him and prospers when man has purified it and it is the heart which is disappointed and miserable when man has defiled and corrupted it”. (Al-Ghazali, 1973, pp. 226 - 227; McCarthy, 1980, p. 364).