Page Plate 3.1 (A) Surface sterilized spines of C. castaneus; (B) Mycelial

growth from the internal tissues of spines………... 42 Plate 4.1 Morphological characteristics of C. horii (BP3, BP7, BP12 and

BP13) on PDA; (A) Grey upper colony with cottony mycelia;

(B) Grey upper colony and cottony mycelia with orange spore masses; (C) Greenish grey lower colony towards the centre and near the margin with darker concentric bands; (D) Greenish grey lower colony; (E) Cylindrical conidia; (F) Straight and cylindrical conidia; (G) Conidiophores and conidiogenous cell;

(H) Appressoria……….. 69

Plate 4.2 Morphological characteristics of C. siamense isolates (BP4, BP8 and BP14) on PDA. (A) White upper colony with cottony mycelia; (B) Pale yellowish lower colony; (C) One-celled conidia; (C1) Fusiform; (C2) Oblong; (D) Appressoria formed

from mycelia; (E) Ampuliform conidiogenous cell……… 71 Plate 4.3 Morphological characteristics of C. fructicola (BP5 and SM40)

on PDA; (A) White and dark grey upper colony; (B) Greyish green and white lower colony; (C) One-celled conidia; (C1) Cylindrical; (C2) Oblong; (D) Appressoria; (E1) Conidiophores from hyphae; (E2) Cylindrical conidiogenous

cells………. 73

Plate 4.4 Morphological characteristics of C. cliviae on (SM25 and SM26) PDA; (A) Greyish-white upper colony with dense mycelia; (B) Dark brown to greenish lower colony; (C) Conidia; (C1) Straight cylindrical; (C2) Slightly curved with

obtuse ends; (D) Appressoria……….. 74 Plate 4.5 Morphological characteristics of C. endophytica (BP9, BP10,

BP11, SM31, SM33, SM43 and SM44) on PDA. (A) White to grey upper colony with orange conidial masses; (B) White, dark grey at the centre of lower colony; (C) Unicellular cylindrical conidia; (D) Long and cylindrical conidiophores;

(E) Appressoria from terminal mycelia; (F) Irregular

appressoria……….. 76

Plate 4.6 Morphological characteristics of C. boninense (SM21) on PDA. (A) White and grey upper colony; (B) Pale grey and white grey lower colony; (C) Straight, cylindrical conidia with two polar guttules; (D) Conidiophores; (E) Appressoria; (E1)

Lobate; (E2) Irregular in shape; (F1) Ascus; (F2) Ascospores... 78

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Plate 4.7 PCR products of ITS region of morphologically identified Colletotrichum spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BP3: C. horii; (2) BP4: C. siamense; (3) BP5: C. fructicola; (4) BP7: C. horii; (5) BP8: C. siamense; (6) BP9: C. endophytica; (7) BP10: C.

endophytica; (8) BP11: C. endophytica; (9) BP12: C. horii; (10) BP13: C. horii; (11) BP14: C. siamense; (12) SM21: C.

boninense; (13) SM25: C. cliviae; (14) SM26: C. cliviae; (15) SM31: C. endophytica; (16) SM33: C. endophytica; (17) SM40: C. fructicola; (18) SM43: C. endophytica; (19) SM44:

C. endophytica; (C) Control………... 79 Plate 4.8 PCR products of GAPDH of morphologically identified

Colletotrichum spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BP3: C. horii; (2) BP4; C. siamense; (3) BP5; C. fructicola; (4) BP7: C. horii; (5) BP8: C. siamense; (6) BP9: C. endophytica; (7) BP10: C.

endophytica; (8) BP11: C. endophytica; (9) BP12: C. horii; (10) BP13: C. horii; (11) BP14: C. siamense; (12) SM21: C.

boninense; (13) SM25: C. cliviae; (14) SM26: C. cliviae; (15) SM31: C. endophytica; (16) SM33: C. endophytica; (17) SM40: C. fructicola; (18) SM43: C. endophytica; (19) SM44:

C. endophytica; (C) Control………... 80 Plate 4.9 Macroscopic characteristics of Diaporthe spp. on PDA; (A-D)

Iron-grey upper colony with patches of dirty white; (a-c) Umber lower colony with patches of luteous; (d) White lower colony; (E) White upper colony with greyish undulated margin;

(e) White and iron grey lower colony with undulated margin;

(F) White upper colony with yellowish aerial mycelia in the

centre; (f) White lower colony with brownish colour………… 86 Plate 4.10 Conidia and conidiophores of Diaporthe spp. on PDA. (A1)

α-conidia; (A2) β-α-conidia; (B) Conidiophores produce α-conidia.. 87 Plate 4.11 PCR products of ITS region for isolates of morphologically

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(8) SM41; (9) SM42; (10) SM45; (11) SM46; (12) SM49; (13) SM59; (14) SM62; (15) SM63; (16) SM67; (17) SM74; (18) BR103; (C) Control………

89 Plate 4.14 Morphological characteristics of morphotype I isolates of

Phyllosticta sp. (SM20, SM23, SM32, SM37, SM48, SM53 and SM58) on PDA. (A) Dark green upper colony; (B) Black lower colony; (C) Ellipsoidal conidia, single apical appendage;

(D) Single apical appendages of conidia; (E) Conidiophores;

(F) Asci, containing 6–8 ascospores, (G) Fusoid ascospores… 96 Plate 4.15 Morphological characteristics of morphotype II isolates of

Phyllosticta sp. (SM27, SM34, SM51 and SM52) on PDA. (A) Olive green upper colony with irregular margins; (B) Greenish black lower colony; (C1) Obovoid; (C2) Ovoid; (C3) Ellipsoidal; (C4) Subglobose; (D) Conidia with apical

appendages; (E) Spermatia; (F) Holoblastic conidiogenous cell 98 Plate 4.16 PCR products of ITS region of morphotypes I and II isolates of

Phyllosticta spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) SM20; (2) SM23; (3) SM27; (4) SM32; (5) SM34; (6) SM37; (7) SM48; (8) SM51;

(9) SM52; (10) SM53; (11) SM58; (C) Control……….. 99 Plate 4.17 PCR products of TEF-1α of morphotypes I and II isolates of

Phyllosticta spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) SM20; (2) SM23; (3) SM27; (4) SM32; (5) SM34; (6) SM37; (7) SM48; (8) SM51;

(9) SM52; (10) SM53; (11) SM58; (C) Control……… 100 Plate 4.18 Macroscopic characteristics of morphologically identified

Xylaria sp. (BR22, BR84, BR85, BR88, BR89, BR90, BR101, BR105 and BR106) on PDA. (A) White upper colony; (B) White lower colony with brown to black aerial mycelia in the

middle; (C-D) Stroma………. 105

Plate 4.19 PCR products of β-tubulin for isolates tentatively identified as Xylaria sp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BP22; (2) BR84; (3) BR85; Plate 4.21 Morphological characteristics of morphotype I isolates of

Trichoderma sp. (BR93, BR94 and BR95) on PDA. (A) White upper colony with cottony mycelia; (B) Yellow lower colony;

(C-D) Globose conidia; (E) Conidiophores; (E) Conidiophore

in situ……….. 110

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Plate 4.22 Morphological characteristics of morphotype II isolates of Trichoderma sp. (BR96, BR97, BR99 and BR100) on PDA.

(A) Green upper colony with cottony mycelia; (B) White lower

colony; (C) Subglobose conidia; (D) Conidiophore………..… 111 Plate 4.23 PCR products of ITS for morphotypes I and II isolates of

Trichoderma spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BR93; (2) BR94; (3)

BR95; (4) BR96; (5) BR97; (6) BR99; (7) BR100; (C) Control.. 112 Plate 4.24 PCR products of TEF-1α for morphotypes I and II isolates of

Trichoderma spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BR93; (2) BR94; (3)

BR95; (4) BR96; (5) BR97; (6) BR99; (7) BR100; (C) Control.. 113 Plate 4.25 Morphological characteristics of morphotype I isolates of

Corynespora sp. (SM61, SM64 and BR87) on PDA. (A) Grey with dirty white upper colony; (B) Green to greyish lower

colony; (C) Conidia; (D) Conidiophores……… 117 Plate 4.26 Morphological characteristics of morphotype II isolates of

Corynespora sp. (BR76, BR78, BR80 and BR83) on PDA. (A) White upper colony with cottony mycelia; (B) White to brown lower surface with concentric growth rings; (C) Conidia; (D)

Conidiophores……….... 118

Plate 4.27 PCR products of ITS region of morphotypes I and II isolates of Corynespora spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BR61; (2) BR76; (3)

BR78; (4) BR80; (5) BR83; (6) BR87; (C) Control……… 119 Plate 4.28 PCR products of LSU region of morphotypes I and II isolates

of Corynespora spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BR61; (2) BR76;

(3) BR78; (4) BR80; (5) BR83; (6) BR87; (C) Control………... 119 Plate 4.29 Morphological characteristics of morphotype I isolates of

Penicillium sp. (SM65 and BR91) on MEA. (A) Greyish green upper colony with wavy and powdery mycelia; (B) Brown lower colony; (C) Globose conidia; (D1) Conidia formed in chains; (D2) Monoverticillate conidiophores; (D3) Vesicle

apices of conidiophore……… 123

Plate 4.30 Morphological characteristics of morphotype II isolates of Penicillium sp. (BR102, BR104, BR107 and BR108) on MEA.

(A) Dark green upper colony with velvety mycelia; (B) Cream yellowish to brown lower colony; (C) Ellipsoidal conidia; (D)

Biverticillate conidiophores……… 124 Plate 4.31 PCR products of ITS region of morphotypes I and II isolates of

Penicillium spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) SM65; (2) BR91; (3)

BR102; (4) BR104; (5) BR107; (6) BR108; (C) Control……… 125

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Plate 4.32 PCR products of β-tubulin of morphotypes I and II isolates of Penicillium spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) SM65; (2) BR91; (3)

BR102; (4) BR104; (5) BR107; (6) BR108; (C) Control……… 125 Plate 4.33 Morphological characteristics of morphologically identified F.

lateritium (BR66 and BR82). (A) Pale orange upper colony with thin mycelia; (B) Orange to pale yellow lower colony; (C) Macroconidia; (D) Microconidia; (D1) Ellipsoid; (D2) Club

shaped; (E) Chlamydospores……… 129

Plate 4.34 Morphological characteristics of morphologically identified F.

decemcellulare (BR72 and BR77). (A) White to cream upper colony with yellow sporodochia; (B) White to cream lower colony; (C) Macroconidia; (D) Microconidia; (E)

Microconidia from monophialide in chains………….………... 131 Plate 4.35 Morphological characteristics of morphologically identified F.

oxysporum (BR86). (A) White upper colony with sparse mycelia; (B) White lower colony with violet concentric ring;

(C) Macroconidia; (C1) Straight; (C2) Slightly curved; (D) Oval shape and 0-septate microconidia; (E) Singly

chlamydospores; (E1) Smooth walled; (E2) Rough walled…… 133 Plate 4.36 Morphological characteristics of morphologically identified F.

solani (BR92) on PDA. (A) White to cream upper colony with sparse mycelia and yellow sporodochia; (B) White to cream lower colony; (C) Macroconidia; (D) Microconidia; (D1) oval;

(D2) Ellipsoid; (D3) Fusiform; (E) Long monophialides……… 134 Plate 4.37 PCR products of TEF-1α of morphologically identified

Fusarium spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BR66: F. lateritium; (2) BR72: F. decemcellulare; (3) BR77: F. decemcellulare; (4) BR82: F. lateritium; (5) BR86: F. oxysporum; (6) BR92: F.

solani; (C) Control……….. 135 Plate 4.38 PCR products of β-tubulin of morphologically identified

Fusarium spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BR66: F. lateritium; (2) BR72: F. decemcellulare; (3) BR77: F. decemcellulare; (4) BR82: F. lateritium; (5) BR86: F. oxysporum; (6) BR92: F.

solani; (C) Control……….………. 135 Plate 4.39 Morphological characteristics of morphotype I isolate of

Neopestalotiopsis sp. BP1 on PDA. (A) White upper colony with edge crenate; (B) Cream lower colony; (C) Fusiform conidia; (C1) Second cell, pale brown to olivaceous; (C2) Third cell darker, brown to dark olivaceous; (C3) Fourth cell, dark; (D1) Apical cell with 3-tubular apical appendages; (D2)

Filiform appendages at basal cell; (E) Conidiophores……….... 139

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Plate 4.40 Morphological characteristics of morphotype II isolates of Neopestalotiopsis sp. (BP2 and BP6) on PDA. (A) White upper colony with edge undulate; (B) Pale honey coloured lower colony; (C) Conidia; (C1) Pale brown of second cell; (C2) Dark brown of third cell; (C3) Fourth cell, brown; (D1) Apical cell, 2–3 tubular apical appendages; (D2) Single tubular

appendage; (E) Conidiophores………... 141 Plate 4.41 PCR products of ITS region for morphotypes I and II isolates

of Neopestalotiopsis spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BP1; (2) BP2;

(3) BP6; (C) Control………... 142 Plate 4.42 PCR products of TEF-1α for morphotypes I and II isolates of

Neopestalotiopsis spp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BP1; (2) BP2;

(3) BP6; (C) Control………... 142 Plate 4.43 Morphological characteristics of tentatively identified

Arthrinium sp. (SM47, SM55 and SM56) on PDA; (A) White upper colony; (B) Brownish lower colony with dark blackish

brown to black spot; (C) Conidia; (D) Conidiophores………… 145 Plate 4.44 PCR products of ITS region of tentatively identified Arthrinium

sp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) SM47; (2) SM55; (3) SM56; (C)

Control……….………... 146

Plate 4.45 PCR products of β-tubulin of tentatively identified Arthrinium sp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) SM47; (2) SM55; (3) SM56; (C)

Control………...………. 146

Plate 4.46 Morphological characteristics of tentatively identified Cyphellophora sp. (BR71 and BR73) on PDA. (A) Pale grey upper colony with entire margin; (B) Olivaceous black lower colony; (C) Straight conidia; (D) Slightly sigmoid conidia; (E)

Flask-shaped conidiogeneous cells; (F) Flexuous hyphae…….. 150 Plate 4.47 PCR products of ITS region of tentatively identified

Cyphellophora sp. isolates. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BR71; (2)

BR73; (C) Control………..……... 151

Plate 4.48 PCR products of β-tubulin of tentatively identified Cyphellophora sp. isolates. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BR71; (2)

BR73; (C) Control………..……… 151

Plate 4.49 Morphological characteristics of tentatively identified Cladosporium sp. (SM50 and BR75) on PDA. (A) Pale green upper colony with crumpled, grey mycelia; (B) Black lower colony; (C) Conidia; (C1) Subglobose; (C2) Ovoid; (C3)

Ramoconidia; (D) Conidiophore; (E) Conidiophores in situ….. 155

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Plate 4.50 PCR products of ITS region of tentatively identified Cladosporium sp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) SM50; (2) BR75; (C)

Control……… 156

Plate 4.51 PCR products of ACT gene of tentatively identified Cladosporium sp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) SM50; (2) BR75; (C) Control………

156 Plate 4.52 Morphological characteristics of Cur. luanata (SM54) on PDA;

(A) Dark green to greyish upper colony with cottony mycelia;

(B) Blue black lower colony; (C) Conidia; (D) Conidiophores... 159 Plate 4.53 PCR product of ITS region of morphologically identified Cur.

luanata (SM54). (M) 100 bp marker; (1) Cur. lunata: SM54

(C) Control………. 160

Plate 4.54 Morphological characteristics of tentatively identified Bionectria sp. (BR69) on PDA. (A) Creamy white upper colony with felty mycelia; (B) Pale yellow lower colony; (C) Ovoid conidia; (D) Primary conidiophore; (E) Secondary

conidiophore. forming chains………... 162 Plate 4.55 PCR products of ITS region of tentatively identified Bionecia

sp. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) BR69 (C) Control………. 163 Plate 4.56 Morphological characteristics of tentatively identified

Acremonium sp. (BR70) on PDA. (A) White upper colony with powdery and crumpled mycelia; (B) White to cream lower colony; (C) Fusiform conidia; (D) Long unconnected chains;

(E) Phialides; (F) In situ phialides………..………….... 166 Plate 4.57 PCR product of ITS region of tentatively identified

Acremonium (M) 100 bp marker; BR70; (C) Control…………. 167 Plate 4.58 Macroscopic characteristics of morphotype I isolate (SM60) on

PDA. (A) Grey upper colony; (B) Brownish lower colony

diffusing brown pigment……….……… 170

Plate 4.59 Macroscopic characteristics of morphotype II isolates (BR68 and BR81) on PDA. (A) Dark green to greyish upper colony with cottony mycelia; (B) Blue black lower colony with white

colour in the middle of plate………..…….………… 170 Plate 4.60 Macroscopic characteristics of morphotype III isolate (BR98)

on PDA. (A) Grey upper colony with cottony mycelia; (B) Dark

olivaceous lower colony……….……… 171

Plate 4.61 Macroscopic characteristics of morphotype IV isolates (BP15 and BP16) on PDA. (A) Yellowish Upper colony; (B) Black

lower colony………..………. 171

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Plate 4.62 Macroscopic characteristics of morphotype V isolates (SM17, SM18, SM19, SM24, SM57 and SM79) on PDA; (A) White to brown upper colony; (B) White lower colony with patches of

grey………. 172

Plate 4.63 PCR products of ITS region of morphotypes I, II, III and IV isolates. (M) 100 bp marker; (1) SM60: morphotype I; (2) BR68: morphotype II; (3) BR81: morphotype II; (4) BR98:

morphotype III; (3) BP15: morphotype IV; (4) BP16:

morphotype IV; (C) Control………..……… 173 Plate 4.64 PCR products of LSU of morphotypes IV and V isolates. (M)

100 bp marker; (1) BP15: morphotype IV; (2) BP16: Plate 5.2 Inoculated leaves in a tray……….……… 210 Plate 5.3 Disease score based on estimation of infected leaf area

following Mascher et al. (2015) with modification for C.

castaneus leaves. (A) Score 1 = less than one percent (<1%);

(B) Score 3 = 1 - 10%; (C) Score 5 = 11 - 25%; (D) Score 7 =

26 - 50%; (E) Score 9 = >51%... 211 Plate 5.4 Estimation of infected leaf area adapted by James (1971) for

bertam and oil palm leaves……….. 212 Plate 5.5 Pathogenicity of C. boninense (SM21) using mycelial plug

method on wounded C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrow showing point of inoculation. (A) Control showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated area showing necrosis

symptom………. 217

Plate 5.6 Pathogenicity of C. boninense (SM21) using conidial suspension method on unwounded C. castaneus leave after 9th day of inoculation. Arrow showing point of inoculation. (A) Control showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated area showing

necrosis symptom....………... 218

Plate 5.7 Pathogenicity of Neopestalotiopsis spp. (BP1 and BP2) using conidial suspension method on wounded C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrows showing point of inoculations. (A) Control showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated

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N. saprophytica (BP1) showing irregular tan lesion; (C)

Inoculated N. formicarum (BP2) showing lesion……… 220 Plate 5.8 Pathogenicity of Neopestalotiopsis spp. (BP1 and BP2) using

conidial suspension method on unwounded C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrows showing point of inoculations. (A) Control showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated N. saprophytica (BP1) showing circular lesion; (C) Inoculated

N. formicarum (BP2) showing no symptom………..… 221 Plate 5.9 Pathogenicity of End. endophytica (BR98) using conidial

suspension method on C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrows showing point of inoculations. (A) Control on wounded area showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated wounded area showing irregular tan lesion; (C) Control on unwounded area showing no symptom; (D) Inoculated

unwounded area showing irregular necrosis………...… 222 Plate 5.10 Pathogenicity of Nem. primolutea (BP15) using conidial

suspension method on C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrows showing point of inoculations. (A) Control on wounded area showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated wounded area showing irregular tan lesion; (C) Control showing no symptom; (D) Inoculated unwounded area showing

irregular lesion.………... 224

Plate 5.11 Pathogenicity of X. cubensis (SM22) using conidial suspension method on C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation.

Arrows showing point of inoculations. (A) Control on wounded area showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated wounded area showing irregular lesion; (C) Control on unwounded area showing no symptom; (D) Inoculated unwounded area showing

irregular lesion……… 225

Plate 5.12 Pathogenicity of P. carochlae (SM27) using mycelial plug method on wounded C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrows showing point of inoculations. (A) Control on wounded area showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated area showing necrosis symptom; (C) Control on unwounded area showing no symptom; (D) Inoculated unwounded area showing

necrosis symptom……… 227

Plate 5.13 Pathogenicity of D. hongkongensis (SM42) using mycelial plug method on wounded C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrow showing point of inoculation (A) Control showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated area showing necrosis

symptom..………... 228

Plate 5.14 Pathogenicity of D. hongkongensis (SM42) using mycelial plug method on unwounded C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of

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inoculation. Arrow showing point of inoculation (A) Control showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated area showing necrosis

symptom..………... 229

Plate 5.15 Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. showing disease symptoms on wounded C. castaneus leaves using mycelial plug method after 9th day of inoculation. Arrows showing point of inoculations (A) Control, showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated F. solani (BR92) showing necrosis symptom; (C) Inoculated F.

oxysporum (BR86) showing lesion..………... 230 Plate 5.16 Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. showing disease symptoms on

unwounded C. castaneus leaves using mycelial plug method after 9th day of inoculation. Arrows showing point of inoculations (A) Control, showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated F. solani (BR92) showing necrosis symptom; (C) Inoculated F.

oxysporum (BR86) with necrosis symptom………...…. 231 Plate 5.17 Pathogenicity of Pen. indicum (BR91) using mycelial plug

method on wounded C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrow showing point of inoculation (A) Control showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated area showing necrosis

symptom..……… 233

Plate 5.18 Pathogenicity of Pen. indicum (BR91) using conidial suspension method on unwounded C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrow showing point of inoculation (A) Control showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated area showing

necrosis symptom..………. 234

Plate 5.19 Pathogenicity of T. koningiopsis (BR96) using conidial suspension method on wounded C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrow showing point of inoculation (A) Control showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated area showing leaf

spot symptom..……… 235

Plate 5.20 Pathogenicity of T. koningiopsis (BR96) using conidial suspension method on unwounded C. castaneus leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrow showing point of inoculation (A) Control showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated area showing leaf

spot symptom..………..……… 236

Plate 5.21 Leaf spot symptoms on bertam leaves (A) Scale 2: DS = 22.22%; (B) Scale 3: DS = 33.33% (C) Scale 4: DS = 44.44%;

(D) Scale 5: DS = 55.56%;……….…… 238 Plate 5.22 Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum spp. showing leaf spot

symptoms on wounded bertam leaves after 9th day of inoculation using mycelial plug method. (A) Control; (B)

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Moderate virulence; (C) Low virulence; (D) Leaf spot symptom on wounded area.………

241 Plate 5.23 Pathogenicity of N. formicarum (BP2) showing leaf spot

symptoms on bertam leaves after 9th day of inoculation using mycelial plug method. (A) Control; (B) Low virulence; (C)

Leaf spot symptom on wounded area. ……… 243 Plate 5.24 Pathogenicity of End. endophytica (BR98) showing leaf spot

symptoms on bertam leaves after 9th day of inoculation using mycelial plug method. (A) Control; (B) Low virulence; (C)

Leaf spot symptom on wounded area. ……… 245 Plate 5.25 Pathogenicity of Nem. primolutea showing leaf spot symptoms

on bertam leaves after 9th day of inoculation using mycelial plug method. (A) Control; (B) Low virulence of Nem.

primolutea; (C) Leaf spot symptom on wounded area………… 246 Plate 5.26 Pathogenicity of X. cubensis (SM22) showing leaf spot

symptoms on bertam leaves after 9th day of inoculation using mycelial plug method. (A) Control; (B) Low virulence; (C)

Leaf spot symptom on wounded area..…………..……….. 248 Plate 5.27 Pathogenicity of P. carochlae showing leaf spot symptoms on

bertam leaves after 9th day of inoculation using mycelial plug method. (A) Control; (B) Low virulence; (C) Leaf spot

symptom on wounded area..………... 249 Plate 5.28 Pathogenicity of Diaporthe spp. showing leaf spot symptoms

on bertam leaves after 9th day of inoculation using mycelial plug method. (A) Control; (B) Low virulence of D. arengae;

(C) Leaf spot symptom on wounded area……...………. 250 Plate 5.29 Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. showing leaf spot symptoms on

bertam leaves after 9th day of inoculation using mycelial plug method. (A) Control; (B) Low virulence; (C) Leaf spot

symptom on wounded area..………... 252 Plate 5.30 Pathogenicity of Penicillium spp. showing leaf spot symptoms

on wounded bertam leaves after 9th day of inoculation using mycelial plug method. (A) Control; (B) Low virulence; (C) Leaf spot symptom on wounded area………..………

254 Plate 5.31 Pathogenicity of Trichoderma spp. showed leaf spot symptoms

on wounded bertam leaves after 9th day of inoculation using conidial suspension method; (A) Control; (B) Low virulence;

(C) Leaf spot symptom on wounded area……… 256

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Plate 5.32 Pathogenicity of endophytic fungi on oil palm leaves (A) Control, wounded; (B) Control, unwounded; (C) Scale 1: DS =

<1%; (D) Scale 3; DS = 1 – 10%; (E) Scale 5; DS = 11 – 25%.... 258 Plate 5.33 Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum spp. using conidial suspension

method on wounded oil palm leaves after 9th day of inoculation.

Arrow showing point of inoculations. (A) Control showing no

symptom; (B) Inoculated area showing leaf spot symptoms…... 260 Plate 5.34 Pathogenicity of Neopestalotiopsis spp. using conidial

suspension method on wounded oil palm leaves after 9th day of inoculation. Arrow showing point of inoculations. (A) Control showing no symptom; (B) Inoculated area showing leaf spot

symptoms………... 262

Plate 5.35 Pathogenicity of F. solani showing discoloration symptoms on wounded oil palm leaves using mycelial plug method. Arrows showing point of inoculations. (A) Low virulence; (B) Leaf

discoloration symptom on wounded area.……… 266 Plate 5.36 Pathogenicity of Pen. oxalicum showing leaf necrosis

symptoms on wounded oil palm leaves using mycelial plug method; (A) Low virulence; (B) Leaf necrosis symptom on

wounded area……….. 267

Plate 5.37 Pathogenicity of Pen. oxalicum showing leaf necrosis symptoms on wounded oil palm leaves using mycelial plug method; (A) Low virulence; (B) Leaf necrosis symptom on

wounded area……….. 269

Plate 6.1 Antagonistic assay on PDA. (A) Control plate: Pathogen without endophyte; (B) Dual culture plate: endophyte with

pathogen; (P) Pathogen; (E) Endophyte……… 283 Plate 6.2 Antagonistic interaction between endophytes against C.

truncatum using dual culture method. (P) Pathogen; (A) Control: C. truncatum; (B) T. harzianum (BR94); (C) T.

koningiopsis (BR96); (D) End. endophytica (BR98); (E) D.

tectonae (BR62); (F) D. cf. heveae (BR74); (G) C. endophytica (BP9); (H) C. boninense (SM21); (I) D. cf. nobilis (BR67); (J) N. saprophytica (BP1); (K) D. arengae (SM45); (L) C.

siamense (BP14); (M) Pen. indicum (BR91); (N) Pen.

oxalicum (BR102); (O) X. cubensis (BR90); (P) X. cubensis

(SM22)………... 287

Plate 6.3 Antagonistic interaction between endophytic fungi against C.

scovellei using dual culture method. (P) Pathogen; (A) Control:

C. scovellei; (B) T. koningiopsis (BR96); (C) T. harzianum (BR94); (D) D. tectonae (BR62); (E) D. cf. heveae (BR74); (F) D. arengae (SM45); (G) C. siamense (BP14); (H) N.

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saprophytica (BP1); (I) End. endophytica (BR98) ; (J) D. cf.

nobilis (BR67); (K) C. boninense (SM21); (L) C. endophytica (BP9); (M) Pen. oxalicum (BR102); (N) Pen. indicum (BR91);

(O) X. cubensis (BR90); (P) X. cubensis (SM22)……… 290 Plate 6.4 Antagonistic interaction between endophytic fungi against F.

solani. (P) Pathogen; (A) Control: F. solani; (B) T. Plate 6.5 Antagonistic interaction between endophytic fungi against F.

oxysporum. (P) Pathogen; (A) Control: F. oxysporum; (B) T.

harzianum (BR94); (C) T. koningiopsis (BR96); (D) D.

tectonae (BR62); (E) D. arengae (SM45); (F) End.

endophytica (BR98); (G) D. cf. heveae (BR74); (H) C.

siamense (BP14); (I) N. saprophytica (BP1); (J) Pen. oxalicum (BR102); (K) D. cf. nobilis (BR67); (L) C. boninense (SM21);

(M) Pen. indicum (BR91); (N) C. endophytica (BP9); (O) X.

cubensis (SM22); (P) X. cubensis (BR90).………. 296 Plate 6.6 Antagonistic interaction between endophytic fungi against F.

proliferatum using dual culture method. (P) Pathogen; (A) Control: F. proliferatum; (B) T. harzianum (BR94); (C) T.

koningiopsis (BR96); (D) D. tectonae (BR62); (E) N.

saprophytica (BP1); (F) C. endophytica (BP9); (G) End.

endophytica (BR98); (H) D. cf. heveae (BR74); (I) D. arengae (SM45); (J) C. siamense (BP14); (K) D. cf. nobilis (BR67); (L) Pen. oxalicum (BR102); (M) Pen. indicum (BR91); (N) X.

cubensis (BR90); (O) X. cubensis (SM22); (P) C. boninense

(SM21). ……… 299

Plate 6.7 Antagonistic interaction between endophytic fungi against F.

fujikuroi using dual culture method. (P) Pathogen; (A) Control:

F. fujikuroi; (B) T. harzianum (BR94); (C) T. koningiopsis (BR96); (D) D. tectonae (BR62); (E) D. arengae (SM45); (F) End. endophytica (BR98); (G) D. cf. heveae (BR74); (H) N.

saprophytica (BP1); (I) C. endophytica (BP9); (J) D. cf. nobilis (BR67); (K) C. siamense (BP14); (L) Pen. indicum (BR91);

(M) Pen. oxalicum (BR102); (N) C. boninense (SM21); (O) X.

cubensis (SM22); (P) X. cubensis (BR90)……….…… 302 Plate 6.8 Antagonistic interaction between endophytic fungi against

Lasiodiplodia theobromae F. fujikuroi using dual culture method. (P) Pathogen; (A) Control: L. theobromae; (B) T.

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harzianum (BR94); (C) T. koningiopsis (BR96); (D) End.

endophytica (BR98); (E) C. siamense (BP14); (F) C.

endophytica (BP9); (G) D. arengae (SM45); (H) Pen. oxalicum (BR102); (I) Pen. indicum (BR91); (J) C. boninense (SM21);

(K) X. cubensis (BR90); (L) N. saprophytica (BP1); (M) X.

cubensis (SM22); (N) D. cf. nobilis (BR67); (O) D. cf. heveae

(BR74); (P) D. tectonae (BR62)..……... 305 Plate 6.9 Antagonistic interaction between endophytic fungi and

Pestalotiopsis mangiferae. (P) Pathogen; (A) Control: P.

mangiferae; (B) T. harzianum (BR94); (C) T. koningiopsis (BR96); (D) D. tectonae (BR62); (E) D. cf. heveae (BR74); (F) End. endophytica (BR98); (G) C. siamense (BP14); (H) D. cf.

nobilis (BR67); (I) C. endophytica (BP9); (J) N. saprophytica (BP1); (K) D. arengae (SM45); (L) X. cubensis (SM22); (M) X. cubensis (BR90); (N) C. boninense (SM21); (O) Pen.

oxalicum (BR102); (P) Pen. indicum (BR91)……… 308 Plate 6.10 Antagonistic interaction between endophytic fungi against

Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae. (P) Pathogen; (A) Control:

L. pseudotheobromae; (B) T. koningiopsis (BR96); (C) T.

harzianum (BR94); (D) D. tectonae (BR62); (E) End.

endophytica (BR98); (F) N. saprophytica (BP1); (G) D. cf.

heveae (BR74); (H) Pen. oxalicum (BR102); (I) D. cf. nobilis (BR67); (J) D. arengae (SM45); (K) C. endophytica (BP9); (L) C. siamense (BP14); (M) Pen. indicum (BR91) (N) C.

boninense (SM21); (O) X. cubensis (BR90); (P) X. cubensis

(SM22)………... 311

Plate 6.11 Antagonistic interaction between endophytes and Diaporthe pascoei. (P) Pathogen; (A) Control: D. pascoei; (B) T.

cubensis (BR90); (P) X. cubensis (SM22)..………... 314 Plate 7.1 (A) Yellow clear zone around the colony (arrow) indicated

positive cellulase production; (B) No production of cellulase;

(C) Control……… 335

Plate 7.2 Clear zone around the colony (arrow) indicated positive pectinase production; (B) No production of pectinase; (C)

Control……… 336

Plate 7.3 Lipase production on peptone agar. (A) Growth of colony; (B)

Control……… 337

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Plate 7.4 (A) Clear zone around the colony (arrow) indicated positive protease production; (B) No production of protease; (C)

Control……… 338

Plate 7.5 (A) yellow clear zone around the colony (arrow) indicated positive amylase production; (B) No production of amylase;

(C) Control………. 339

Plate 7.6 Blue colour indicated positive of urease production; (B) No

production of urease. ……….. 340

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In document IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM SPINES OF (halaman 21-36)

DOKUMEN BERKAITAN