CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH CONTEXT
3.3 Legislative Approaches to Built Heritage Conservation in Malaysia
3.3.3 Local Government
Perak State Structure Plan 2020
The Perak State Structure Plan 2020 is a written statement covering the policies and proposal of the state authority in respect of the development and use of land in the state of Perak. These include measures for the improvement of the physical environment, management of traffic, improvement of socio-economic development, promotion of economic growth and sustainable development within the state of Perak. The plan acknowledges the former tin mining landscapes in Perak not only as state but also as national eminence which have lead to the growth of economy and cultural diversity of the state of Perak. Concentrated in the Kinta, Batang, Padang and Larut Matang districts, the plan encourages the use of former mining land as part of the economy expansion as well as physical development of the state of Perak.
comprises of written statement and diagrams setting out the detailed planning, and manner of executing and implementing the proposals set out in the structure plan of a local planning authority area. The local plan will be a reference for the local planning authority, government departments and agencies as well as the private sector in the process of planning of land development activities. Furthermore, the local plans by their consultative process of preparation also acts as contractual agreements on the use of all land within the planning areas between the local planning authorities, the local residents and land owners (Ministry of Housing and Local Government, 2010). Besides being guide for development, the local plans also concerns with the protection and improvement of the physical environment; preservation of the natural topography;
improvement of the landscape; preservation and planting of trees, provision of open spaces; improvement of communication system; management of traffic; and the preservation and enhancement of character and appearance of buildings in the area of the local plan (Government of Malaysia, 1976d).
b) Special Area Plans
The Special Area Plan is a specific action plan for an area that has been identified by the state or local planning authority. As part of the statutory development plan, the special area plan is prepared by the State Town and Country Planning Director or local planning authority pursuant to Section 16B of the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (Act 172). It is prepared in the form of detailed local plans tailored to specific areas of interest to the local planning authority following the same procedures of the local plan and has the same effect as a local plan. Generally, the plan includes detailed information on the type of treatment, implementing agencies, phasing, costing and funding of a certain proposed project. Preparation of the plan allows local planning authority to expedite an action plan for an area for the purpose of whether to immediately develop,
redevelop, further improve, conserve or manage the area. Based on the case studies selected, two special area plans that are of relevance to the study include:
Kuala Kubu Bharu Special Area Plan
The Kuala Kubu Bharu Special Area Plan is a document gazetted in 2010 for the purpose of guiding the future development taken within the Kuala Kubu Bharu (KKB) town. The plan states the goals, objectives and action plans towards achieving the aim of KKB as a garden city and administrative centre by 2015. The plan acknowledges that there is a rich diversity of cultural and tourism products in the town and the importance of these characteristics for supporting the town‟s identity. In line with the aim, the Hulu Selangor District Council (MDHS) has identified the following six objectives:
to enhance the unique image and character of KKB as a sustainable garden city;
to strengthen the role and function of KKB as the administrative center for the district of Hulu Selangor;
to strengthen the town as a key transit point for economic and tourism activity;
to protect and conserve the natural and man-made resources of cultural significance;
to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the accessibility level; and
to strengthen the role of Hulu Selangor District Council (MDHS) as the implementing agency
Through the analysis of the current state of the town, the plan has identified several issues and problems that have been plaguing the towns. These include lack of small scale landmarks in supporting primer landmark along the main road; inconsistent signage; limited pedestrian pathway; the presence of food stalls which is semi-permanently located in the entrance zone affect the visual quality of the town; use of contemporary street furniture leading to the disruption of the old structure and local
image as historic town; abandonment of historic buildings; piecemeal development as well as lack of green area within commercial area of the town.
Referring to these problems, the plan proposes development action plans covering the town centre development; transport and traffic management; town and landscape beautification; township character enhancement; heritage and tourism development.
Sungai Lembing Special Area Plan
The Sungai Lembing Special Area Plan serves as a basis planning document for the Kuantan Municipal Council (MPK) and other agencies involved in planning and development of the Sungai Lembing town. The plan sets the following objectives in developing Sungai lembing as an eco-tourism town:
to identify historical assets of the Sungai Lembing town;
to enhance the town image through preservation and maintenance of buildings and sites of cultural significance;
to enhance the quality of town environment through landscape beautification and provision of appropriate street furniture;
to improve the provision of facilities of eco-tourism;
to optimize the potential of Sungai Lembing as an international tourism centre through drafting development plans;
to determine measures towards recognizing the town as world heritage site; and
to determine the strategies in implementing each of the development proposal The plan acknowledges that there is rich diversity of cultural and natural resources in the town. Further to this, the plan highlights the need for these valuable assets to be conserved and optimized for the purpose of tourism, research and development of the Sungai Lembing town. Other measures propose by the plan include nominate the Sungai Lembing as national heritage site; maintain and enhance existing tourism products;
update and establish website for the town; provide appropriate signage; encourage coordination among stakeholders; and most importantly promote the potentials of the town to stimulate public interest and awareness in conservation. The guidelines for preservation of Sungai Lembing historical assets complemented in this plan are presented based on the ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas or the Washington Charter 1987.