Knowing the elderly person’s physical capability and limitations could assist ergonomists, engineers and designers to design environments, products and tasks to accommodate this population. Therefore, future researchers should conduct research on other elderly instrumental activity of daily living (IADLs). Compilation of several studies using method applied in this study hopefully will end-up with ‘code of practice or design guidelines’ for elderly tasks, products or environments. Besides positively facilitating the elderly person’s life, the application of research findings could also be beneficial to other age cohort’s such as adults or the younger population. Furthermore,
106 this will provide better understanding about the elderly living-in-place and their limitations towards instrumental activity of daily living.
In conclusion, the increase in the aging population in Malaysia is inevitable. The aged population has its own unique problems and will generate new challenges and demands to designers, engineers and ergonomists. We will all age and we later on become independent and require the services for the aged at some point in time.
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115 APPENDIX A
QUESTIONNAIRE ON THE TASKS IMPORTANCE, TIREDNESS LEVEL AND PHYSICAL FATIGUE
These questions are an integral part of the ergonomic study of kitchen design for the Malaysian elderly conducted by the Department of Engineering Design & Manufacture,
Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya.
These questions are designed to get your feedback regarding daily tasks and issues pertaining task performing experiences such as pain, discomfort and fatigue.
Your answers will be kept confidential and only be used for academic purposes in order to suggest ergonomic task performing and work space improvements.
Thank you for your cooperation.
SUBJECT’S DEMOGRAPHY, BACKGROUND AND DAILY TASK
PERFORMANCE AT HOME
116 SECTION B
1. How important house-keeping is to you?
1……….……....2………….….3……...…4...5 Not Important Less Important Fair Important Very Important
2. How important food preparing task is to you?
1……….……....2………….….3……...…4………..5 Not Important Less Important Fair Important Very Important
3. What is your tiredness level of the house-keeping task?
1……….………...2…………..…3……….4……..……….….5 Not Tired Less Tired Fair Tired Very Tired
4. What is your tiredness level of the food preparing task?
1……….………...2…………..…3……….4……..……….….5 Not Tired Less Tired Fair Tired Very Tired
Please circle the number that describes the nature of your daily task.
Please do ask if you have any problem or require further clarification.
117 APPENDIX B
QUESTIONNAIRE ON PHYSICAL FATIGUE
You are allowed to tick (√) only ONCE in any column regarding level of fatigue on your body part below.
1 – No tire/pain/discomfort 2 – Less tire/pain/discomfort 3 – Fair
4 – Tire/pain/discomfort 5 – Very tire/pain/discomfort
No. Body parts 1 2 3 4 5
1 Foot sole 2 Calf
Please tick (√) the column that described your level of tire, pain or discomfort on your body parts while performing frying task in the
Please do ask if you have any problem or require further clarification.
118 APPENDIX C
MEASUREMENT OF THE KITCHEN ENVIRONMENT AND ITS TRANGLE DIMENSIONS
1. The kitchen triangle: Total distance between the refrigerator, sink and
2. Kitchen temperature: ………°C.
3. Kitchen humidity:. ………...%RH.
4. Kitchen brightness: .………...lux.
119 APPENDIX D
No. Description of Physical Measurement Measurement
1 Body Height cm
2 Shoulder Height cm
3 Waist Height cm
4 Elbow Height cm
5 Knee Height cm
6 Shoulder Width cm
7 Hips Width cm
8 Shoulder to Thumb-tip Length cm
9 Eye-level Height cm
10 Arm Length cm
11 Shoulder-Elbow Length cm
12 Arm Span cm
13 Elbow-elbow Span cm
14 Foot Length cm
15 Foot Width cm
16 Body Weight kg
120 APPENDIX E
Measurements are taken using Elektrokardiogram (EKG), before and after performing 5 minutes frying task. Analysis is performed using Vernier LabPro apparatus.
Heart Rate/sec. (EKG)
Minimum Maximum SD
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
121 APPENDIX F
RAPID ENTIRE BODY ASSESSMENT (REBA)
Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) introduced by Sue Hignett and Lynn McAtamney (2000).
122 APPENDIX G
INSTRUMENTAL ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING SCALE (IADL)
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL) introduced by M.P.Lawton &
123 APPENDIX H
124 APPENDIX I
OXYGEN GAS (%) GRAPHS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTOR
139 APPENDIX J
ELDERLY PERFORMING FRYING TASK AT THEIR ACTUAL KITCHEN SETTING (n=30)
143 APPENDIX K
ELDERLY PERFORMING FRYING TASK AT LABORATORY KITCHEN SETTING (n=12)
144 APPENDIX L
Classes / Courses Attended
a. Applied Ergonomics at Cititel Mid-Valley Hotel, KL on 27-29th June 2006 b. KGX 6103 Ergonomics in Manufacturing. Semester 1, 2006/2007 Faculty of
Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
c. Basic Statistics (SPSS V13) at Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor on 15-16th December 2005.
d. Advanced Statistics (SPSS V15) at Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor on April & May 2009.
a. Methodological issues, theory and philosophy.
b. Ergonomics issues, material handling, musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), Cumulative trauma disorder (CTDs), task performance.
c. Design issues, therapeutic products, universal design, design for all.
d. Elderly issues, demography, statistics, BADLs and IADLs.
e. Books covered ergonomics, design, manufacturing, research approaches and many more from related sources as noted in the references of this writing.
f. Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) g. Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)
h. Literature from research papers and Journals related to human factors such as ergonomics, applied ergonomics, industrial ergonomics, human factors, physiology, biomechanics, gerontology, gerontechnology and some medical journals.
i. Conference proceedings.
a. 14 week lab sessions during KGX 6103 class held in Ergonomics Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
b. Lab sessions during the Applied Ergonomics Workshop at Cititel Mid-Valley Hotel, Kuala Lumpur.
a. Research Student Presentations. CPDM. Progress of research work. End of each semester.
b. 19th. December 2006. Meeting Room, JKRP. Defend of research proposal.
c. 22-23rd. December 2008. Seminar Room, JKRP. Progress of research work.
145 d. 17-18th June 2009. Seminar Room, JKRP. Presentation of second paper
Title: A Biomechanical Study of Grip and Pinch Strength among Malaysian Elderly Population
e. 28-30th December 2009. Seminar Room, JKRP. Progress of research work.
f. 22nd.December 2010.Seminar Room, JKRP. Progress of research work and thesis writing.
Seminar and Conferences
a. 3rd. – 5th December 2007. International Conference on Ergonomics 2007.
Istana Hotel, Kuala Lumpur. Conference committee member.
b. 3rd. – 5th December 2008. The 9th. Asia Pacific Industrial Engineering &
Management Systems (APIEMS 2008) Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia. Title of paper: Ergonomics Consideration in the Design of Products for the Elderly Population.
c. 1st.-2nd. December 2010. Sustainable Tropical Environmental Design Conference 2010 (SusTED’10). Dewan Taklimat UPM. Organised by Faculty of Design & Architecture, UPM. Conference committee member as well as chairperson of one parallel session.
d. 7th. – 10th December 2010. The 11th. Asia Pacific Industrial Engineering &
Management Systems Conference (APIEMS 2010) Melaka, Malaysia. Title of paper: The Ergonomics Study of Elderly Cooking Space: Kitchen Triangle. Also as chairperson of two parallel sessions.
e. 20th. December 2010. Seminar on Promoting Ergonomics Awareness and Practice. Organised by Malaysian Society for Engineering & Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang Selangor.
All PhD students must present and pass his/her research in a session called
‘candidature defence’ as requested by Institute of Graduate Studies, University of Malaya for its new regulation. It was held at the CPDM Seminar Room, Faculty of Engineering on 4th. May 2011.