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1.0 Background of the Study


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1.0 Background of the Study

Education has long been recognized as one of the most important factors in a country's development. The result is a rapid expansion of education in developed as well as developing countries. In Malaysia, education is also recognized as an important investment in human capital. This has led to a rapid expansion of education, particularly secondary and tertiary education, over the last three decades. As a result, a substantial proportion of the country's resources has been allocated to education. In 1997, for instance, about 25 per cent of the recurrent public expenditure was expended on education (Malaysia, 1997). As the nation continues to devote more of its resources to education, the outcomes of education need to be assessed. Economists, for instance, have been concerned with the influence of education on earnings and labour market performance (Becker, 1975; Mincer, 1974; Rosen, 1977). Sociologists, on the other hand, have been concerned with the effects of education on occupational choice and mobility (Duncan et al, 1972). Others have gone on to examine the role of education on

household production and health (Cochrane et al, 1980; Hinchliffe, 1986).

Since the potential outcomes or effects of education are many and varied, educational achievement measured by test score is still widely used to evaluate educational programmes. The public, parents and students generally value higher test




in Leader

Research Project

DR.HIM Yours fekhfully


With reference to the above, I am pleased to submit two copies of the final research report entitled The Relationship Between Administrative Academic Staffs Leadership Styles And Their Level of Emotional Intelligence : A Case Study in UiTM Sarawak.

Thank you.

Dear Associate Professor,

Research Management Unit (RMI) Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak 94300 Kota Samarahan


:31 March 2017 : 600-UiTMKS (RMU/DANA 5/3 (2/2013)


Project File No



1.Letter of Report Submissioniii 2.Letters from Research Management Institute (RMI)iv

2.1.Letter of Offer (Research Grant)iv 2.2.Letter of Approval For Extension (Research Grant)v 3.Acknowledgementsvi 4.Enhanced Research Title and Objectivesvii 5.Report1 5.1.Proposed Executive Summary1 5.2.Enhanced Executive Summary2 5.3.Introduction4 5.4.Brief Literature Review6 5.5.Methodology10 5.6.Results and Discussion14 5.7.Conclusion and Recommendation37 5.8 References / Bibliography38 6.Research Outcomes42 7.Appendices44


.rv- 5.1. Proposed Executive Summary

As the context of leadership is changing, to lead effectively will be critical to the long- term success of organizations. Therefore, academic leaders at higher education institutions need to combine several leadership qualities in order to succeed. Academic leaders have to develop their rational in establishing which leadership style will result to high performance outcomes and leadership effectiveness. Thus, the nature of the leader's emotional connectedness to others is apparently in the growing interest in numerous studies on the effect of emotional intelligence on leadership. Moreover, at present, there seems to be increasingly attention being given to organizational life and leadership and general agreement about the need to incorporate the role of emotion into research on academic leaders at higher education institutions.

Research on effective leadership and emotional intelligence is growing. Yet, there still remains a gap on the relationships that exist between leadership and emotional intelligence especially at higher education institutions such as colleges and universities.

Utilizing these connections, the main aim of this study was to identify the relationship of administrative academic staffs leadership styles and their level of emotional intelligence. This study utilized the quantitative approach in gathering the data for this study. A total of 20 administrative academic staff of UiTM Sarawak participated in this study. Two adapted research instruments that were used for this study were Bass and Avolio's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ5X Form) that identified the administrative academic staffs leadership styles, and Mayer - Salovey - Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) as used to operationalize emotional intelligence. The findings of this study were as follow. First, it indicated that the administrative academic staff perceived themselves as exhibiting a highly transformational leadership style as compared to the other two leadership styles, namely transactional and laissez- faire. Second, it revealed that the administrative academic staff assessed themselves as demonstrating more on


5.3. Introduction

Educational change has been a constant element of educational systems and institution. Leadership in times of change is a highly emotionally charged activity and there is now a widely held view that there is a need to incorporate the role of emotions on academic leaders at higher education institutions. The emotional role of the leader is of particular importance in times of change and reform which explains the growing interest in the significance of emotional intelligence in leadership (Harris et al., 2003). Emotions convey information about relationships and therefore leaders with emotional intelligence might be more socially effective that others in certain respects (Caruso et al., 2002).

It has been suggested that a leader's success depends partly on the understanding of emotions in leaders themselves and others and the ability to manage these effectively.

Due to the continuing restructuring initiatives in higher education institutions, views of academic leadership are also continuing to change (Curry, 2008). In effectively maintaining and achieving positive standards of educational performance, academic leaders keen to promote and demonstrate their styles of leadership. For instance, transactional leadership can be used to communicate to followers the work that must be accomplished. Furthermore, transactional leader demonstrates how work will be done and uses rewards when work is completely successful (Avolio et al., 1991).

As for transformational leaders, they attempt to maintain and communicate a vision of where their group or team is headed. They concentrate on viewing problem situations as opportunities and take an active interest in developing individual employee relationships. Transformational leaders are also aggressively address a crisis or problem situation and actively motivate their followers to pursue alternative and creative methods resulting in successful organizational change (Avolio et al., 1991; Yulk, 1999).

Unlikely, for laissez-faire leaders, they exercise little control over one's group and leave individuals to sort out their roles and to successfully complete their work and there are environments where it can prove to be effective (Bass, 1997).However, studies have shown that leaders promoting this style of leadership demonstrate deficits



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