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Academic year: 2022





(2) DECLARATION. I hereby certify that the work embodied in this report is the result of the original research and has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution OPEN ACCESS. I agree that my report is to be made immediately available as hardcopy or on-line open access (full text). CONFIDENTIAL. (Contains confidential information under the Official Secret Act 1972) *. RESTRICTED. (Contains restricted information as specified by the organization where research was done) *. I acknowledge that University Malaysia Kelantan reserves the right as follow.. The report is the property of University Malaysian Kelantan The library of University Malaysia Kelantan has the right to make copies for the purpose of research only The library has the right to make copies of the report for academic exchange. Certified by. Signature Group Representative: MUHAMMAD AMIRUL BIN ABDUL KARIM Date: 19. 6. 2021. Signature of Supervisor Name: CIK MAZNE BINTI IBRAHIM Date: 19. 6. 2021. FYP FHPK. APPENDIX B: DECLARATION.

(3) We would not have been able to complete our thesis without the guidance from our supervisor, committee members, friends and support from our family. Firstly, we would like to say thank you to our supervisor, Miss Mazne binti Ibrahim for guiding us to complete this thesis. She gives much assistance to us for understanding the steps of doing thesis. She also always helps us to solve our problem that we had faced when we doing some challenging task.. We would like to thanks our committee members for giving cooperation to us to finish our task effectively and efficiently. They always help use to cope many problems in this thesis. We very appreciated to our members when we work hand in hand and we also never give up.. Lastly, we would also like to thanks to our parents whom they were always supporting us and encouraging us to complete the thesis.. FYP FHPK. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.

(4) Page. TITLE PAGE. i. CANDIDATE DECLARATION. ii. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. iii. TABLE OF CONTENT. iv. LIST OF TABLES. v. LIST OF FIGURES. vi. LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS. vii. ABSTRACT. viii. ABSTRAK. ix. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study. 1. 1.2 Problem statement. 2. 1.3 Research objectives. 3. 1.4 Research questions. 3. 1.5 Significance of the study. 3. 1.6 Definition of the terms. 4. 1.7 Summary. 7. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction. 8. 2.2 Independent variables. 8. 2.3 Conceptual framework. 20. 2.4 Hypothesis Statement. 21. 2.5 Summary. 22. FYP FHPK. TABLE OF CONTENT.

(5) 3.1 Introduction. 23. 3.2 Research design. 23. 3.3 Target population. 24. 3.4 Sample size. 24. 3.5 Sampling technique. 25. 3.6 Data collection method. 26. 3.7 Research instrument. 27. 3.8 Data analysis. 28. 3.9 Pilot test. 30. 3.10 Summary. 30. CHAPTER 4: DATA AND ANALYSIS 4.0 Introduction. 31. 4.1 Pilot test. 31. 4.2 Reliability analysis. 33. 4.3 Frequency analysis. 35. 4.4 Descriptive analysis. 44. 4.5 Results of Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient. 51. 4.6 Summary. 58. CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 5.1 Introduction. 59. 5,2 Discussion. 60. 5.3 Limitation of the study. 67. 5.4 Recommendations. 68. 5.5 Conclusion. 70. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY.

(6) Tables. Title. Page. Table 3.4.1. Table of Krejcie & Morgan (1970). 25. Table 4.1. Rule of Thumb about Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. 32. by Hair et.al, 2015. Table 4.1.1. Result of Reliability Statistics for Pilot Test. 32. Table 4.2. Results and Analysis of Reliability Cronbach’s. 33. Alpha Coefficient Table 4.3.1. Number of respondents by gender. 35. Table 4.3.2. Number of respondents by race. 36. Table 4.3.3. Number of respondents by age. 37. Table 4.3.4. Number of respondents by marital status. 38. Table 4.3.5. Number of respondents by monthly income. 39. Table 4.3.6. Number of respondents by reason to visit Malacca. 40. Table 4.3.7. Number of respondents by stay in Malacca (duration). 41. Table 4.3.8. Number of respondents by stay in Malacca places. 42. Table 4.3.9. Number of respondents by frequency of visiting Malacca. 43. Table 4.4. Range of Mean and Level of Agreement. 44. Table 4.4.1. Descriptive Analysis Statistics (Domestic Tourist. 45. Perceptions on Malacca Heritage) Table 4.4.2. Descriptive Analysis Statistics (Food Variety). 46. Table 4.4.3. Descriptive Analysis Statistics (Martial Art). 47. Table 4.4.4. Descriptive Analysis Statistics (Historical Buildings). 48. Table 4.4.5. Descriptive Analysis Statistics (Traditional Costumes). 49. Table 4.4.6. Descriptive Analysis Statistics. 50. (Recognition from UNESCO) Table 4.5. Rule of Thumb for Interpretating the Size of Correlation Coefficient. Table 4.5.1. Correlation Coefficient for Food Variety on Domestic 52 Perception on Malacca Heritage. 51. FYP FHPK. LIST OF TABLES.

(7) Correlation Coefficient for Martial Art on Domestic Tourist. 53. Perceptions on Malacca Heritage Table 4.5.3. Correlation Coefficient for Historical Buildings on. 54. Domestic Tourist Perceptions on Malacca Heritage Table 4.5.4. Correlation Coefficient for Traditional Costumes on. 55. Domestic Tourist Perceptions on Malacca Heritage Table 4.5.5. Correlation Coefficient for UNESCO on Domestic Tourist Perceptions on Malacca Heritage. 56. FYP FHPK. Table 4.5.2.

(8) Figures Figure 2.1. Title Conceptual Framework of Independent Variables. Page 20. (IV) and Dependent Variable (DV) Figure 4.1. Percentage of respondents by gender. 35. Figure 4.2. Percentage of respondents by race. 36. Figure 4.3. Percentage of respondents by age. 37. Figure 4.4. Percentage of respondents by marital status. 38. Figure 4.5. Percentage of respondents by monthly income. 39. Figure 4.6. Percentage of respondents by reason to visit Malacca. 40. Figure 4.7. Percentage of respondents by stay in Malacca (duration). 41. Figure 4.8. Percentage of respondents by stay in Malacca places. 42. Figure 4.9. Percentage of respondents by frequency of visiting. 43. Malacca. FYP FHPK. LIST OF FIGURES.

(9) Abbreviations UNESCO. United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. SPSS. Statistical Package for the Social Service. FYP FHPK. LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

(10) This research presents a study of domestic tourist perception on Malacca heritage. Tourism is an important activity in the services sector. Its contribution to national income is increasing. This research objective is to identify domestic tourist perceptions and to examine the factors influencing tourists to engage with heritage tourism in Malacca. To be more specific, in this research to determine significant relationship between food variety, martial art, historical building, traditional costume and recognition from UNESCO. There are 232 domestic tourists have been randomly involving as respondents to answer the questionnaire. Primary data will be gained through a self-administrated questionnaire. The design of the survey will be linked of domestic tourist perception towards Malacca heritage all around Malaysia. The instrument for this research will be created as refereed to the past research and journals. The result indicates that there is a significant relationship of all five variable. The researcher findings on survey conducted by 232 respondents. Based on the finding, the highest value of mean for domestic tourist perception on Malacca heritage is historical building characteristic which show mean score (4.32). Most of the respondents agreed that the historical building is a vital influence for domestic tourist on Malacca heritage. This research would help others to learn more information about Malacca heritage and culture in details.. KEYWORDS: Domestic Tourist, Perceptions, Malacca, Historical Buildings. FYP FHPK. ABSTRACT.

(11) Penyelidikan ini mengemukakan kajian mengenai persepsi pelancong domestik terhadap warisan Melaka. Pelancongan adalah aktiviti penting dalam sektor perkhidmatan. Sumbangannya kepada pendapatan negara semakin meningkat. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti persepsi pelancong domestik dan mengkaji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pelancong untuk terlibat dengan pelancongan warisan di Melaka. Untuk lebih spesifik, dalam penyelidikan ini untuk menentukan hubungan yang signifikan antara pelbagai jenis makanan, seni mempertahankan diri, bangunan bersejarah, pakaian tradisional dan pengiktirafan dari UNESCO. Terdapat 232 pelancong domestik yang terlibat secara rawak sebagai responden untuk menjawab soal selidik. Data utama akan diperoleh melalui soal selidik yang dikendalikan sendiri. Reka bentuk tinjauan akan dikaitkan dengan persepsi pelancong domestik terhadap warisan Melaka di seluruh Malaysia. Instrumen untuk penyelidikan ini akan dibuat sebagai pengadil untuk penyelidikan dan jurnal masa lalu. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahawa terdapat hubungan yang signifikan dari kelima-lima pemboleh ubah tersebut. Hasil kajian pengkaji terhadap tinjauan yang dilakukan oleh 232 responden. Berdasarkan temuan tersebut, nilai min tertinggi bagi persepsi pelancong domestik terhadap warisan Melaka adalah ciri bangunan bersejarah yang menunjukkan skor min (4.32). Sebilangan besar responden bersetuju bahawa bangunan bersejarah itu merupakan pengaruh penting bagi pelancong domestik terhadap warisan Melaka. Penyelidikan ini akan membantu orang lain untuk mengetahui lebih banyak maklumat mengenai warisan dan budaya Melaka secara terperinci.. KATA KUNCI: Pelancong Domestik, Persepsi, Melaka, Bangunan Bersejarah. FYP FHPK. ABSTRAK.

(12) INTRODUCTION. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Tourism Malaysia shows food as the main antecedent in attracting tourists for their trip to the state. Malaysia has a lot of heritage by which Malaysia has many ethnics such as Malay, Chinese, Indian, and others. From this ethnicity, there is much heritage that attracts tourists. For example, the existing customary heritage of the state of Malacca such as weddings, musical instruments, dress, language style, and so on. While there are several reasons to travel, tourists naturally have a strong tendency to explore and dine as part of their leisure activities. The problem is that some are worried that our heritage will be forgotten by our future generations. This will make the heritage disappear from the country. Besides, Malaysia's image as a historical destination is still pessimistic. Therefore, this heritage in the state of Malacca is believed to give success to the tourism industry in Malaysia. Timothy and Boyd (2003) assert that heritage tourism is one of the tourism industry and often its products consists of either tangible immovable (sites and building), tangible movable resource (object and document) or intangible (customs and lifestyle). There are several types of museums such as art, sports, music, war, science and local historical (Timothy & Boyd, 2003). Heritage tourism also defined as a person who are travelling to experience the places and also the authentically represent the stories and people of past and present who living there. Heritage tourism can include cultural historic and also natural resources. Malacca has a long tradition of tourism which attracting travelers fascinated by the arts, traditional attires, food and historical buildings that has their own culture that identified Malacca as a cultural state. This proved that Malacca is Malaysia’s one of the most sought after destinations for tourist all around the world. Heritage Tourism is one of the growing tourism products in Malaysia (Ismail, 2018).. 1. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 1.

(13) Generally, many people know that Malacca's heritage especially the food, traditional attire, the festivals, and many more are getting extinct nowadays. The main culture that is going to extinct soon is the Baba and Nyonya. Whereby their culture is going to extinct because no one is focusing on it. For instance, heritage food in Malacca is easily forgotten. This is because the terms of the heritage food cooking techniques and presentation skills are very hard and take a very long time to complete. So, the domestic tourist gets confused about the originality and traditional way of cooking. The improper use of subtle ingredients leads to poor quality of food items. The main importance of preserving Malaysia's natural heritage food and branding is getting extinct as well. So these food branding will go directly to the domestic tourist and would change their perspective towards Malacca's heritage food. Moreover, the changing of lifestyle is another problem that leads to the extinction of Malacca’s heritage. This is because many youngsters nowadays are more focused and attached to other country’s culture. Then, this causes them to forget the original and authentic culture of their own country. They also think that this kind of culture is boring and not interesting enough to make their life happening. In a nutshell, this will lead to a huge problem because the heritage will extinct soon if this scenario continuing. Besides that, less attention from former generations also leads to the extinction of the heritage and culture of a place. This is happening when the elder people did not convey the traditional things to their children or grandkids which leads to this problem. Nowadays people are getting busy because of their working life. So, the relationship between parents and their children are getting not too close. This will make the elder generation would not have enough time to teach the young generation about the existing culture.. 2. FYP FHPK. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT.

(14) This study aims to achieve several objectives as listed below: 1) To identify domestic tourist’s perceptions towards Malacca heritage. 2) To examine the factors influencing tourists to engage with heritage tourism in Malacca.. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS. There will be several research questions that will be asked throughout this study as listed below: 1) What factors might influence domestic tourist's characteristics in heritage tourism destinations? 2) What is the relationship between the factor and tourists? 3) How do domestic tourists’ perceptions could enhance Malacca heritage as a tourism destination in Malaysia?. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY. According to the topic chosen that Domestic Tourist Perceptions on Malacca's Heritage, the researchers will study the relationship between the independent variables and also the dependent variable which involved the food variety, martial arts, recognition from UNESCO, and also historical building. There will be several parties involved which can get the benefits and advantage throughout the process of finding out the perceptions on Malacca Heritage are such as domestic tourist, Malacca tourism sector, and also future researcher.. 3. FYP FHPK. 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES.

(15) The result of the study is important because domestic tourists will know the perceptions of the Malacca Heritage. Thus, it gives the advantage to improve their general knowledge as well.. ii) MALACCA TOURISM SECTOR This study will benefit Malacca as the subject to be studied. This study will contribute to the Malacca tourism sector to know the important things and advantages of Malacca heritage in order to improve the tourism activities in Malacca to be more vibrant.. iii) FUTURE RESEARCHERS This research pursues to contribute clearer information and silk the existence of information to new researchers related to the domestic tourist's perceptions on Malacca's heritage. This can help them to investigate more about the study related to Malacca Heritage.. 1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS. 1.6.1. UNESCO. UNESCO or an acronym for United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency by international convention. Other than its support for science and education program, UNESCO is also involved in cultural preservation and protection by deputed World Heritage Sites which is. 4. FYP FHPK. i) DOMESTIC TOURIST.

(16) heritage sites that are considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. A unique landmark that is historically and geographically identifiable value be inserted to World Heritage Sites (Sullivan & Ann, 2016).. 1.6.2. HISTORICAL BUILDINGS Historical buildings are generally considered to be structures or buildings that have some sort of historical value. People nowadays are connected to it through past events in a certain way. A building may have special historical significance because of its importance concerning certain historical events, situations, periods, or national important people association. Alternatively, a building with specific construction structure, unique design and architecture is the reason there may be an interest in historical structure (Historic England, 2017).. 1.6.3. MALACCA HERITAGE Malacca is one of the famous attraction or destination when tourists travel in Malaysia, it is also declared by UNESCO World Heritage. It is popular due to its rich with an ancient landmark, heritage buildings, and colonial structures. The imprints left behind by the British, Dutch, and Portuguese in forts, churches, towers, and museum in Malacca city. As Malacca is well-known for Baba Nyonya cuisine, it is a top-pick destination for tourists to catch a glimpse of Malaysia's eccentric heritage (Penny, 2020).. 5. FYP FHPK. legally protected by UNESCO, World Heritage Sites are the cultural and.

(17) DOMESTIC TOURISTS The tourists of domestic tourism which mean the tourist that travels within their own country out of interests, attraction or personalize reason and it does not involve to do cross-boarders at entry-point. In tourism history, domestic tourism is the first form of tourism products practiced as it occurs in every country and region in the world. Tourists applied to domestic tourism due to it wellestablished tourism products. Domestic tourism long history has been found in countries that have a solid relationship among tourism of religious and visiting friends and relatives (Ragerson & Lisa, 2005).. 1.6.5. MARTIAL ARTS Fighting arts or fighting systems are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for the reasons of self-defense. Martial arts are widely used in military and law-enforcement which includes competitions, physical, mental and spirited development. In the back days, fighting arts is one of the Sultanes' Palace entertainments for big and important events and preserve for nation's cultural heritage. Divide into the armed and unarmed fighting skills that include swordsmanship, archery and spearmanship (Michael, 2008).. 1.6.6. FOOD Contains essential nutrients that usually consumed by humans, animal, plants, and other creatures to provide nutritional support for body or organism that includes carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fats, and minerals. Food also acts as a major reason to attract tourists for their traveling purpose to certain country 6. FYP FHPK. 1.6.4.

(18) The great influence of food towards tourists will able to bring a bright opportunity for the tourism industry. Other than that, food becoming a fundamental aspect for tourists to gain a wonderful travelling experience (Quang & Wan, 2004).. 1.6.7. TRADITIONAL COSTUME Traditional dress or folk costume expresses a society's identity through costume. It features the picture of societies wearing layered colorful, and exotic clothes from the ideal past from some distant place. The phrase folk clothes or traditional costume is always interchangeable in terms of ethnic, regional, and ways of life (Baizerman et.al, 1993).. 1.7. SUMMARY. This chapter is clarifying the reasons for the research by present the research questions and research objectives. This research is to explore the domestic tourists' perceptions in characterizing Malacca Heritage as a tourism attraction in Malaysia. For the next chapter, the existing literature will specify the dependent variable and independent variables which consists of foods, martial art, historical buildings, traditional costume, and recognition of UNESCO as a Malacca heritage tourism attraction.. 7. FYP FHPK. and region..

(19) LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1. INTRODUCTION. This chapter will uniquely review the literature on dependent and independent variables. The independent variable which food variety, martial arts, historical buildings, traditional costumes, and recognition from UNESCO. The dependent variable is Domestic Tourist Perceptions of Malacca's Heritage. 2.2. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES. 2.2.1 FOODS VARIETY. Malay heritage varies from north to south, however there are various similarities and also differences. Food variety refers to the consumption and the mixture of foods from different groups, ethnicity and taste. The food variety also mainly indicates as that a range of foods from each group should be consumed. Essentially, heritage food is influences by mixed up cultures such Arab, Indian, Chinese, Siamese, Javanese, and others. Different types of regions in Malaysia are well known for their own and unique or signature dishes such as Nasi Lemak, Roti Canai, Thosai, Kuey Tiow and many more (MNA Raji, 2017).. 8. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 2.

(20) “Asam Pedas" is well known in Malacca because it is a popular cuisine in Malacca. The recipe to make it is not too complicated and not too easy. However, there are also in Malacca that have different spicy sour recipes. It depends on the taste of each to further enhance their cuisine. The ingredients usually consist of fish such as machete, mackerel, redfish, and pierced fish, dried chili, red onion, garlic, belacan, ginger, galangal, live turmeric, lemongrass, kesum leaves, kantan flowers, tamarind, gelugur acid or kaffir lime leaves. These materials should be in proportion.. CENCALUK. Cencaluk is a kind of side dish in traditional Malacca dishes. Because it is made into fine shrimp which is more widely used as geragau shrimp, cencaluk contains a high protein content. Usually, geragau shrimp are difficult in the state of Malacca, shrimp can be used during certain seasons in Pantai Klebang, Limbongan, Tanjung Kling, and some other coastal areas. Malacca is not only famous for its unique historical heritage, but also in terms of its delicious and appetizing food. According to the old beliefs that are the senda words. Supposedly if on the day of one's wedding it rains all day, said the bride likes to eat cencaluk. But so are all old stories. These foods are a compilation of first pioneered by the Malay community is now favored by all walks of life, not only in his hometown but already beyond Malaysia borders. It is also a necessity of side dish during dinner and some even make petai or jering as a side dish while using cencaluk. (Baxter, 2004).. 9. FYP FHPK. ASAM PEDAS.

(21) Belacan is a type of cooking material made from compressed geragau shrimp. It has a strong smell but is delicious and nutritious to eat. Some people like to burn it a little before use because it can emit its odor. Belacan is also one of the main ingredients to produce belacan sauce.. PALM SUGAR. Palm sugar, also known as Gula Tuak, is one of the many sources of sugar in Malacca. This sugar is made from coconut nira water. The sweetness and subtlety of natural palm sugar are different from the artificial sugar that is widely available in the market today. The process of making palm sugar has several stages. Someone who specializes in making palm sugar can identify coconuts that produce good nira water. This is important to get high-quality palm sugar.. DODOL. Dodol is a type of food that can be categorized into a group of sweet foods (sweets). Dodol is very famous in Malacca. Making dodol can be said to be very complicated. Many people always try to make it but not all will produce high-quality dodol. Usually, those who are good at making these dodol are those who have aged. Ingredients needed to make dodol consist of coconut milk, glutinous flour, granulated sugar, Malacca sugar. This Dodol sweetener is made from old coconut milk, sugar cane, and Malacca sugar as well as glutinous flour. All these ingredients will be blended through a stirring method that lasts continuously for about 5 to 6 hours at high temperatures. As a result, Dodol's physique will turn sticky, thick, and 10. FYP FHPK. BELACAN.

(22) Raya Aidilfitri and Hari Raya Haji. There are many different versions or Dodol either in terms of color shape or taste.. TAPAI. Tapai is a type of dessert made from glutinous rice which is suitable as a dessert. There are 2 types of tapai, namely tapai ubi and tapai pulut. Usually, tapai pulut is more popular than tapai ubi. Tapai glutinous rice tastes better than tapai ubi because tapai ubi cannot match tapai pulut. The ingredients for making tapai are not too complicated. Tapai glutinous rice requires ingredients such as glutinous rice either white or black glutinous rice yeast or a little sugar.. BABA NYONYA FOOD. The Baba and Nyonya community is well known in Malacca. This community is also famous for its traditional food passed down from their ancestors. The Baba food comes from different Chinese cuisine with tastes of the Baba who love spicy Malay cuisine. However, this practice is only done at home. The traditional food and cuisine of the Baba community are usually served on festive days such as Chinese New Year celebrations, birthdays, or weddings. The types of Baba dishes are curry, sambal, pang-teh,bak-wan crab using a mixture of pork and crab soup, timitik duck coated with pickled or fermented vegetables, duck sioh stuffed with duck meat coated with spices, liver pack pork, pickled Nyonya, and nasi lemak.. 11. FYP FHPK. sweet. In most Asian countries, Dodol has become a staple food especially on Hari.

(23) made noodle, namely 'mee sua tau'. This noodle is specially made supposedly to fulfill the desire to prolong life. The traditional cakes of the Baba community also consist of basket cakes or tih kuey and kuey-ku in the form of red, blue, and black tortoises. This basket cake or cake is the heritage of the Chinese people to the Baba people. People are also interested in Baba Malay traditional cakes such as dodol, bahulu, and many others (Youri Oh, 2019).. KUIH BAKAR BERLAUK. Kuih Bakar Berlauk is a popular cake in Malaysia. Kuih Bakar Berlauk resembles the shape of a cake as it tastes but the ingredients are different. It is made from wheat flour and cooked with meat core. Kuih Bakar Berlauk is mentioned because it has side dishes/filling and is cooked by grilling in the oven. Kuih Bakar Berlauk is widely made, and is widely sold every day, and does not need to be ordered in advance. Kuih Bakar Berlauk is less well known. But it is abundant in Malacca, especially during the fasting month.. 2.2.2. MARTIAL ART. The culture of Malacca is famous in Malaysia for being the trading hub of Asia during the 16th century whereby the opening of Melayu spice trade to the west and bringing much wealth and foreign culture to the island. There is one figure of Malaysia's most famous warrior known for his ferocious silat, his keris skills, and his loyalty to the Sultan. This warrior is Hang Tuah. He also is a legendary Malay warrior who lived during the reign of Sultan Mansur Shah of the Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th century. He was the most capable of all the laksamana, or Sultan. 12. FYP FHPK. Apart from that, the Baba community also serves Nasi Kunyit and a specially.

(24) Hang Tuah is held in the highest regard, even in present-day Malaysian Malay culture, and is arguably the most well-known and illustrious warrior figure in Malaysian history and literature ( Low, 2010). The name Tuah means good fortune, and the title Hang is given by the palace as a title of honor for his service and contribution to the Sultanate. It is equivalent to the title Sir. Hang Tuah picking up silat at a very young age, Hang Tuah became proficient and mastered the art in only a few weeks. He later traveled to discover more about silat, religion, and tactics from 3 wise teachers. The first guru was Sang Adi Putra who taught him the knowledge known as Ilmu Segala Parajurit and Hulubalang which is the knowledge of warriors and guards (Binson, 2016). The next guru was Sang Persanta Nala where he acquired the knowledge of wisdom and military tactics. Sang Persanta Nala made Tuah promise to bring the knowledge with him to his grave. The last person was Sheikh Mansur who taught him extensive knowledge of weapons combative, and that is proven by the gift that he gave to Tuah before he finished learning with him, a small knife that Tuah always kept by his side (Farrer, 2009). In the conclusion, martial art is an act of self-defence that everyone can learn easily and master if they have the willpower to do it and it will be useful if we know the right method and the technique with an effective strategy. This martial art is the heritage of the eldest to protect themselves from danger.. 13. FYP FHPK. admiral, and is considered in Malaysia to be one of history's greatest silat masters..

(25) The attachment of value and importance in the remains of the predecessor creates a heritage. In 1999, International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) stated there are three keys to be included: material culture, natural environment, and the built environment. Generally, the description of heritage is where the ideas of habits and customs took place in a specific geographic context that gives rise to the belief of traditions, ways of life, architecture, and social formation. According to Ashworth (2011) said biological diversity, collections, practices of past culture, experiences of life, pieces of knowledge, historic landscapes and built environment is important to the foundation of development. Moreover, the built environment of buildings described the background of ancient people live their life that filled with meaning and gives impacts to their emotions, senses, and community life. The architecture of the buildings conveys the personal history of the people, interpersonal relationships, events, and culture of the community (Ashworth, 2011). Natural or cultural heritage is vital for architecture historical. Significant cultural landscapes, flora and fauna, and landforms are the natural heritage while cultural heritage includes tangible tourism products such as buildings, artifacts, tomb, monument, and art. Regarding heritage is a deep subject to talk about, focusing on tangible cultural heritage especially historical buildings as the main keys that societies or communities created to share and pass onto the next generation. Historical buildings are also regarded as the foundation culture heritage components that strengthen the national identity of the country's authority and sovereignty as well as encompasses the soul (Ahmad, 2006).. 14. FYP FHPK. 2.2.3 HISTORICAL BUILDINGS.

(26) buildings told stories of nations and people which includes the ways of life in the past and how the building is decorated. Preservation of heritage which has great architectural and historic value buildings structure in the past needs endless protection and care to maintain its cultural heritage significance (Idris, 2010). According to Badaruddin (2005) stated the growth has led to the emergence of potential heritage tourism alternative forms of tourism for both local and international tourists. The growing interest in heritage tourism like mushroom after the rain which bring a positive number of tourists visited heritage cities of Malaysia especially the historic city of the straits, Malacca (Badaruddin, 2005). Moreover, Mustafa et.al (2011) regarded historical buildings as the fundamental product in promoting heritage tourism to the people. As heritage buildings have high-value assets, heritage tourism regarding it is as a strong motivation to visit heritage cities. Furthermore, tourists became attracted to heritage buildings due to their cultural uniqueness and high architectural structure. The uniqueness of buildings, history, lifestyle, culture, and products has made Malacca inaugurated as one of the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. The recognition of Malacca by UNESCO has spread to the world through the tourism sector. The variety of unique attractions in Malacca describes the distinctive historical background and ethnicities like Malay, Chinese, Indian, Baba Nyonya, and the Chitty. In 1511, Malacca been conquered by the Portuguese. During the Portuguese era, they built buildings for governor along with a place for bishops, churches, hospitals, and colleges. To worship their pope or bishop, they design and built a stone fortress to present-day St. Paul's Hill, A Famosa or known at the time as Our Lady of the Hill. Most of the fort has been destroyed but the remnants still been there.. 15. FYP FHPK. Remnants of the buildings can express historical heritage form whereby the.

(27) before. In that period, the Portuguese governor’s resident was converted to Dutch Town Hall or known as Stadthuys and it was the oldest building in the Asian region. St. Paul’s church was built during the Portuguese era while in the Dutch era, they built catholic St. Peter's church, three years after, they built the protestant Christ Church. Within the area, the port-red theme building, Dutch Square was the main character in the photographed view of Malacca. After a century over a century, these buildings converted into a museum. It is now History and Ethnography Museum, and Stadthuys become a Literature museum. As written in history, Malay society becomes essential to Malacca and contributes to Malacca history as a few Malay heritage attractions being recognized as an association of beginning Empire of Malacca Sultanate. The most popular Malay heritage building in Malacca is the Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum. It was built in the 15th century. Using Malay structure techniques which were built entirely without using nails and only supported with carved, wooden pillars is the most unique and attractive point of this replica wooden palace. Other than that, Baba Nyonya brought their influence into the Malacca community. Baba Nyonya heritage building is the culture of traditional Peranakan town base in Chinatown that was built with unique art to give out richness vibe of Baba Nyonya. The building was built with Chinese hardwood style in a mixture of Chinese, Dutch, and Victorian design. The various colors of ceramic designs from provinces in China stand out from the natural 19th century wealthy Baba Nyonya. As Malacca is a multiracial society, the Chinese temple is a must in Malacca. Cheng Hoon Teng Temple or The Temple of Green Cloud was built to show dedication to the God of Mercy.. 16. FYP FHPK. In 1641, the Dutch captured Malacca city and restructure Portuguese buildings.

(28) materials and artisans were imported from China. It is still being used till now as it is known as a sacred site and served as the main temple worshipper for the Hokkien community.. 2.2.4 TRADITIONAL COSTUME. Heritage Malacca begins more than six centuries in which various ethnic costume and traditions blended perfectly. The peaceful life of the people of Malacca races due to the life that gave birth to the Malay, Chinese, Indian, Baba and Nyonya, Portuguese, Chitty, and Eurasia. Each ethnic group gives a different taste of the famous people of Malacca as friendly people. Malay women wear loose clothing and long sleeves called baju and sarong worn with little or tight clothes baju kebaya (Yusof, 2018). Malay male dress worn with loose pants with a cloth known as well as tied at the waist. Also, Nyonya clothing similar to Malay traditional costume, which is made up of kebaya clothe (long shirt and batik sarong) and kerongsang. Manek shoes are handmade footwear that requires skill and patience to create the fabric of facetted glass beads finely sewn on fabric tarpaulin (Abbas, 2009). Initially, the beads needed to decorate mannequin shoes came from Europe, but over time many were obtained from Japan. Beginning in the 1930s, Manek shoes changed with modern design and added heels. Malacca Malay traditional costume is comfortable wearing a dress with a decorative pattern on the chest and shoulder, while his jacket on the outside than the Malay clothes.. 17. FYP FHPK. Being mentioned in Malaysia history as the oldest temple in Malaysia, the.

(29) colonizers in the 16th century. The traditional dress of the woman is a dress with large sleeves and the man wears a suit just like in the West (Sarkissan, 2005).. 2.2.5 RECOGNITION FROM UNESCO. Malacca was listed as a UNESCO world heritage site in 2008. The declaration changes between the east and west in Malacca. Normally, Malacca was one of the most popular destinations in the world and the most important trading ports in Southeast Asia. The historic allure of Malacca draws visitors to visit more often because of the cultural uniqueness and also rich in traditional values. Then the number of tourists visiting Malacca constantly increasing every year. The researcher concludes that Malacca recognizes as a UNESCO heritage site on 7 July 2008 has put Malaysia's country to promote more heritage tourism (Harun, 2011). Malacca was established as a UNESCO recognition site that designates the unique and diverse culture of the place. This is because the beautiful mixture of British, Portuguese, Dutch, Chinese, and Islamic architecture is still largely present as it was 100 years ago. Furthermore, this world heritage site also illustrates the development of maritime urban settlement in the region over time because of the diverse ethnic and cultural groups. Because of UNESCO recognition, Malacca was established as the main state that getting a lot of tourist population in Malaysia. Malacca was also chosen as a historical place that has a lot of places and things which can teach new people about their own culture. Recognition of UNESCO is very important for a minimal state like Malacca to improve the level of the place.. 18. FYP FHPK. Malacca also has a Portuguese community due to the remains of the Portuguese.

(30) income and economic level which will help the country's economic level as well (Ertan, 2016). Malacca remarkable examples of historical towns on the Straits of Malacca that demonstrate a succession of historical and cultural influences arising from their former function as trading ports which linking East and West. These things are the most complete surviving which leading the historic city center on the Straits of Malacca with a multi-cultural living heritage originating from the trade routes among Great Britain and Europe. Both towns testimony to a living multi-cultural heritage and tradition of Asia, where the many religions and cultures met and coexisted. They reflect the coming together of cultural elements from the Malay archeology to create a unique architecture, culture, and townscape (Bakar, 2008). The integrity of the nominated areas in Malacca is related to the presence of all the elements necessary to express their own culture. The properties have retained their authenticity which listed monuments and sites have been restored with appropriate treatments regarding design, materials, methodologies, techniques, and workmanship, following conservation guidelines and principles. These factors will create a huge impact for Malacca to get recognition from UNESCO. In this context, UNESCO protects the cultural heritage of Malacca by means focusing on standard-setting. activities. which. mean. concerning. the. preparation. and. implementation of international legal instruments. Moreover, UNESCO will support the building capacity and also any illicit trafficking. Not only that, UNESCO will preserve the safety and conservation of the museum to promote, educate, and raise awareness to many people. These responsibilities will be taken by UNESCO to improve Malacca to a better level.. 19. FYP FHPK. Because of this recognition, Malacca can promote their state more to gain higher.

(31) Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. FOOD VARIETY (MNA Raji, 2017; AN Baxter, 2004; Youri Oh, 2019). MARTIAL ART (PKC Low, 2010; B Binson, 2016; D S Farrer, 2009). HHISTORICAL BUILDING. DOMESTIC TOURIST PERCEPTIONS ON MALACCA HERITAGE. (Ashworth, 2011; Ahmad, 2006; Badaruddin, 2005). TRADITIONAL COSTUME (S Abbas, 2009; M Sarkissan, 2005; Z Yusof, 2018). RECOGNITION FROM UNESCO (Harun, 2011; T Ertan, 2016; AA Bakar,2008). Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework of Independent Variables (IV) and Dependent Variable (DV) Figure 2.1 will represent the relationship in this study between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The researchers may make a couple of assumptions about the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variable based on the context. This research focuses on domestic tourist perception towards Malacca Heritage tourism as a dependent variable (DV) while food variety, martial art, historical building, traditional costume and recognition from UNESCO to be assessed as an independent variable (IV).. 20. FYP FHPK. 2.3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK.

(32) between the independent variables and dependent variables among domestic tourists on Malacca heritage.. 2.4 HYPOTHESIS STATEMENT. The main objective of this research is to investigate domestic tourists' perceptions of Malacca heritage. This research is useful for the study of domestic tourists’ perceptions of the heritage of Malacca. Various types of heritage available in Malacca that is different domestically to gain experience and feel the heritage itself in Malacca. The specific objectives of this research are:. 1. H0: Food variety has no relationship with domestic tourist perception of Malacca Heritage. H1: Food variety has a positive relationship with domestic tourist perception of Malacca Heritage.. 2. H0: Martial art has no relationship with domestic tourist perception of Malacca Heritage. H1: Martial art has a positive relationship with domestic tourist perception of Malacca Heritage.. 3. H0: Historical buildings have no relationship with domestic tourist perception of Malacca Heritage. H1: Historical buildings have a positive relationship with domestic tourist perception of Malacca Heritage.. 21. FYP FHPK. This research will identify the relationship that researchers mentioned in Figure 2.1.

(33) Malacca Heritage. H1: Traditional costumes have a positive relationship with domestic tourist perception of Malacca Heritage.. 5. H0: Recognition from UNESCO has no relationship with domestic tourist perception of Malacca Heritage. H1: Recognition from UNESCO has a positive relationship with domestic tourist perception of Malacca Heritage.. 2.5 SUMMARY. This chapter of literature review in this study focuses on existing heritage in Malacca which affect on domestic perceptions of the heritage of Malacca such as food variety, martial arts, historical building, traditional costume, and recognition from UNESCO. Every dependent and independent variable is defined to provide knowledge about the heritage in Malacca to tourists through this research.. 22. FYP FHPK. 4. H0: Traditional costumes have no relationship with domestic tourist perception of.

(34) METHODOLOGY. 3.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the researcher would like to study the methodology carried out of this research. This part includes research design, target population, sample size, unit of analysis, sampling technique, data collection, research instrument, pilot study, and data analysis. It will clarify the details about every stage in the research and will give the readers more understanding of this research.. 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN The researcher will use quantitative research approach in order to conduct this study. Quantitative research is a process of collecting through numerical data. It can be used in finding patterns and averages, make prediction and also generalize results to wider population. This segment of research as the master plan will determine the technique and methodology for gathering and examining the required data. This investigation will be finished by using the descriptive research method to get all the related information. The information will be gathered by analysing the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variables. This examination strategy utilizes the fact that quantitative information has been gathered through the survey. The survey will comprise the data of age, gender, study profile, ethnicity, and so forth. The questionnaires incorporate four sections which are A, B, C, and D which is connecting the demographic variable, dependent variable, and also independent variables. The amounts of respondents that will be selected from this study are around 384 respondents from Malaysia who were been traveling domestically.. 23. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 3.

(35) Target population can be defined as the total category of subjects which is to aim the attention in a research project. The population is also can be defined as a collection of objects or individuals known to have similar characteristics. The population is identified as a group of individuals, events, or items of interest to be investigated by the researcher. In this research, the target population was 1,000,000 domestic tourists all around Malaysia. This is a statistic from Tourism Malaysia Department in 2019. Thus, the population from which the sample was derived to identify the relationship between domestic tourist’s perceptions towards Malacca’s heritage.. 3.4 SAMPLE SIZE The focus of this study is to identify the relationship between domestic tourist’s perceptions towards Malacca’s heritage. The sample size is a very important aspect of a research design to allow the researcher to make inferences from the sample statistics to the demographic population. According to Hinkin (1998) suggests that a sample used for data collection should be representative of the population of interest. The researchers decide to use Krejcie and Morgan (1970) as a guideline to calculate the sample size for this study. The population size is around 1,000,000 domestic tourists in Malaysia, thus for the sample size employed for this study are 384 domestic tourists according to the suggestion of Krejcie and Morgan (1970).. 24. FYP FHPK. 3.3 TARGET POPULATION.

(36) Source: Adopted from Krejcie & Morgan (1970). 3.5 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE. Sampling is a method used in statistical analysis in which a fixed number of sample size are taken from a larger population. There are two types of sampling methods that can be used to recruit research participants. The first one is random sampling which is sometimes referred to as probability sampling and another one is non-random sampling which is sometimes known as non-probability. In non-probability sampling, the researchers use convenience sampling by considering the time factor for the survey and population. A convenience sample is a type of non-probability sampling method in which the sample is taken from an easy to contact or reach the group of people. This technique of sampling is also referred to as grab sampling or sampling of availability. The sampling technique has no other criteria, except that people are available and willing to participate. Furthermore, this type of sampling technique does not require the creation of a random sample, since the only criteria are whether the participants agree to participate.. 25. FYP FHPK. Table 3.4.1 Table for determining sample size for the finite population..

(37) Malacca. Convenience sampling will be used in this study because the population of domestic tourists who traveled to Malacca is just too large which comes from different states of Malaysia. This sampling technique will be carried out for 384 respondents were the researcher cannot include all, 1,000,000 domestic tourists because every person cannot and impossible to be included. Convenience sampling is commonly used in pilot studies as it helps researchers to collect data regarding domestic tourist’s perceptions towards Malacca as tourism attractions. The survey will be conducted unassisted. The method was simple and compatible with the budget and time constraints (Manuel, 2008).. 3.6 DATA COLLECTION METHOD. The researcher will use the quantitative method based on the research questions and the objectives of the research based on previous research. The researchers will use the quantitative approach based on domestic tourist’s perceptions towards Malacca’s heritage and evaluated the hypothesis of data. Quantitative methods attempt to create new data of tourist's perceptions towards Malacca's heritage. The researcher uses both primary and secondary data collection method:. 3.6.1 Primary Data Primary data will be gain through a self-administrator questionnaire. The design of the survey will be linked of domestic tourist perceptions towards Malacca's heritage as developing by the questionnaires that had adopted by the researchers will be distributed for domestic tourists all around Malaysia. These questionnaires are structured for the respondents to complete without researchers' involvement. The questionnaire will be distributed to the respondents through Google Form. 26. FYP FHPK. The questionnaires will be distributed to domestic tourists who were been travelling to.

(38) The researcher collected data on the study such as traditional foods, martial arts, historical buildings, traditional attire, and also recognition from UNESCO. Data will be collected via the internet, journals, and past year student's thesis. Besides, the information collects from the articles as references that related to theories and empirical findings have a better understanding of domestic tourist's information.. 3.7 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT. The instrument for this research will be created as referred to the past research and journals. The participants of domestic tourists will be collected and the analysis will be captured to complete the research. These questionnaires were divided into 3 parts. Part 1 section will be designed to capture the data of the demographic characteristics of the respondents, while part 2 will be designed to capture the domestic tourist perceptions on Malacca heritage. Part 3, capture the food variety, martial arts, historical building, traditional costume and recognition from UNESCO that affecting the domestic tourist perceptions.. 3.7.2 Questionnaires. The questionnaires are arranged in close-ended questions and dual language, English and Malay languages. The researchers very meticulous about the questions in the surveys and make sure the respondents have a clear understanding of the questions. This is to make sure the avoidance of measurable error can be done. Overall, the domestic tourist perceptions will be captured by ordinal and a nominal scale will be used to collect data of domestic tourist perceptions towards Malacca heritage as tourism attraction.. 27. FYP FHPK. 3.6.2 Secondary Data.

(39) Demographics is the information that involved gender, race, status, and age. Through the demographic data, the researchers will get the information about respondent's gender, race, status, and age. This demographics information will find out more details about the tourists.. 3.7.4 Recruitment of participants The information will be briefly about the study of domestic tourist's perceptions towards Malacca heritage and the online questionnaires will be sent via a Google form. The response from 384 respondents will be collected and data will be analysed.. 3.7.5 Statistics. Data will be analysed using statistics of (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) SPSS. The frequencies will be collected and the comparisons will be taken based on the data that will be gained. The data collected will show the domestic tourist's perceptions towards Malacca heritage as tourism attraction.. 3.8 DATA ANALYSIS. The researcher will use a software in analysing the data which is a statistical tool or otherwise called Statistical Package Social Science (SPSS) programmed version 25.0 computer software. The SPSS software will help the analyst in deciding the best measurable technique to be used. SPSS information will translate into measurements, for example, mean, variance, standard deviation, and the reliability test. The researcher has picked a basic descriptive analysis to assess data. A frequency distribution is a mathematical distribution and. 28. FYP FHPK. 3.7.3 Demographic.

(40) respondents partner with the various value of one variable and to express this include in percentage. The researcher will use this method because it is easy to understand and to analyse. Besides, this method gives a quick and accurate result.. 3.8.1 Descriptive Analysis. Descriptive statistics describe the basic features of the data in a study. Descriptive analysis can stand on its own as a research product, such as when it identifies a phenomena or patterns in data that have not previously been recognized (Susanna, 2017). They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis, they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data. Then, descriptive statistics also will be used to present quantitative descriptions in a manageable form. Descriptive statistics help the researchers to simplify large amounts of data sensibly.. 3.8.2 Reliability Analysis. Reliability is synonymous with the consistency of a test, survey, observation, or another measuring device. Reliability test is the degree to which test scores are consistent, dependable, or repeatable, and it is a function of the degree to which such scores are free from errors of measurement. Reliability Chronbach Alpha will be used to assess the consistency among items in a summated scale and consistency of scale is acceptable. Furthermore, reliability is a major consideration in evaluating any scale and it must be carefully considered in selecting tests for use within the research.. 29. FYP FHPK. one variable is considered at a time. The goal is to acquire a count of the number of.

(41) The researcher will distribute the questionnaire for 30 respondents as a trial to ensure that the research instrument is reliable. It will be conducted before the actual data collection process take place.. 3.10 SUMMARY. This chapter explains the methodology and design of the research study. The main purpose of this survey design sets out to study the relationship between food variety, martial arts, historical buildings, traditional costume and recognition from UNESCO that affects domestic tourist's perceptions on Malacca heritage. The method that will be used in this study is the quantitative method which is the researcher prepare the questionnaire through the google form. The researcher will use convenience sampling for selecting the respondents in this study. This method will give a great understanding of a researcher's and provide sufficient information and data to complete this research systematically.. 30. FYP FHPK. 3.9 PILOT TEST.

(42) DATA AND ANALYSIS. 4.0 INTRODUCTION. This chapter will discuss the results and findings from the analysis conducted on the data collected from the questionnaires. Total numbers of 232 respondents among those who visited Malacca through the online survey; Google form and all of them were valid. The data collected from the questionnaires analyse using descriptive and inferential analysis. Data obtained from the questionnaires have been evaluated by a software program using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS).. 4.1 PILOT TEST Before conducting the actual data collection, a pilot test had been conducted on the 30 respondents by the researcher to find out any possible problems or errors in the questionnaire such as a vague question. This is crucial as it provides opportunities for the researchers to discover and refine various potential problems that will occur in the preparation of the questionnaire. and. correct. them. before. the. 31. actual. questionnaire. is. distributed.. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 4.

(43) Cronbach’s Alpha Range. Internal Consistency. 0.9 to > 1.0. Excellent. 0.8 to < 0.9. Very Good. 0.7 to < 0.8. Good. 0.6 to < 0.7. Moderate. < 0.6. Poor. Table 4.1 had clearly stated the internal consistency regarding Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient Range. The Cronbach’s Alpha value of the reliability of questionnaire closer to the value of 1.0, the higher value of internal consistency considered as excellent reliability of items in the survey while in the strength of association is lower than 0.6 it should be considered as poor reliability.. Table 4.1.1: Result of Reliability Statistics for Pilot Test No.. Construct. Cronbach’s. No. of Item. N. Alpha 1.. Food Variety. 0.773. 5. 30. 2.. Martial Art. 0.692. 5. 30. 3.. Historical Building. 0.869. 5. 30. 4.. Traditional Costumes. 0.766. 5. 30. 5.. Recognition from UNESCO. 0.789. 5. 30. 6. Domestic Tourists Perceptions 0.869. 5. 30. on Malacca Heritage. In this table, it demonstrates the reliability of independent variables and dependent variable. Cronbach’s Alpha was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaires and to examine the six constructs.. 32. FYP FHPK. Table 4.1: Rule of Thumb about Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient Values by Hair et al., 2015..

(44) to high. The Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient value for the dependent variable; domestic tourist's perceptions on Malacca heritage were 0.869 which indicated very good reliability. On the other hand, the construct of independent variables has shown from the result that martial art has the lowest coefficient and poor reliability (0.692) while the highest coefficient and very good reliability is the historical building (0.869).. 4.2 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS. Reliability analysis is an unbiased indicator of stability and consistency to help to evaluate the goodness of a measure (Sekaran, 2003). This analysis assesses using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient values. As the value of the alpha is increasing between 0 and 1 means the terms in the survey are more reliable for each other (Tavakol & Dennick, 2011). From the value results in the survey, the researchers can determine whether the questionnaire is valid, credible, and understood by respondents.. Table 4.2: Results and Analysis of Reliability Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient Item of Description. N. No. of Items. Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. Food Variety. 232. 5. 0.847. Martial Art. 232. 5. 0.846. Historical Building. 232. 5. 0.902. Traditional Costumes. 232. 5. 0.852. UNESCO. 232. 5. 0.864. Domestic Tourists Perceptions. 232. 5. 0.911. on Malacca Heritage. 33. FYP FHPK. The result from Table 4.1.1 shown that the reliability of each construct has ranged from low.

(45) variable and independent variables. Food variety is the first independent variable that evaluates through 5 questions and brings the result of 0.847 of Cronbach's alpha coefficient value which indicates a very good range in terms of the internal consistency and becomes more reliable in the Likert Scale. The next independent variable is a martial art. 5 questions were used as a measure to examine the reliability through Cronbach's alpha value which shows the result is 0.846 which indicated as very good and more reliable. The third independent variable, the historical building was put to test to evaluate the reliability and validity. The Cronbach's Alpha result is 0.902 which range as excellent in term of internal consistency and the coefficient that obtained in the Likert-scale question is considered as more reliable. The fourth independent variable, traditional costumes within 5 questions are used to test the validity and reliability. The Cronbach's Alpha result is 0.852 which range as very good in term of internal consistency and the coefficient that obtained in the Likert Scale is considered as more reliable. The last independent variable is UNESCO. 5 question was used to identify the validity and the reliability using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient which the result is 0.864 which range as very good in term of internal consistency and the coefficient obtained in the Likert-scale question is considered as more reliable. Lastly in measuring the dependent variable which is domestic tourist perceptions on Malacca heritage, the Cronbach's Alpha result is 0.911 which ranges as excellent and more reliable.. 34. FYP FHPK. The table above shows the result of the reliability alpha coefficient based on the dependent.

(46) 4.3.1 Gender of Respondents Table 4.3.1: Number of respondents by gender Gender. Frequency. Percent. Male. 70. 30.2. Female. 162. 69.8. Total. 232. 100.00. Figure 4.1: Percentage of respondents by gender Based on Table 4.3.1 and Figure 4.1 shows the percentage of a total of 232 respondents. 162 respondents were female which 69.8% while the other 70 respondents were male which 30.2%. It shows that female respondents' percentage was higher than the male respondent percentage in this survey.. 35. FYP FHPK. 4.3 FREQUENCY ANALYSIS.

(47) Table 4.3.2: Number of respondents by race Race. Frequency. Percent. Malay. 172. 74.1. Chinese. 18. 7.8. Indian. 12. 5.2. Others. 30. 12.9. Total. 232. 100.00. Figure 4.2: Percentage of respondents by race. Table 4.3.2 and Figure 4.2 shows the percentage of respondents by the race which categorized into four different races group. Based on the table, the highest percentage: 74.1% is Malay with a total of 162 respondents while the lowest percentage is Indian with 5.2%, 12 respondents, and this followed by Chinese hold 7.8% with 18 respondents. The second highest percentage is others race with 12.9% and 30 respondents.. 36. FYP FHPK. 4.3.2 Race of Respondents.

(48) Table 4.3.3: Number of respondents by age Age. Frequency. Percentage. 13 – 20 years old. 18. 7.8. 21 – 30years old. 181. 78.0. 31- 40 years old. 21. 9.0. 41 – 50 years old. 12. 5.2. Total. 232. 100.0. Figure 4.3: Percentage of respondents by age. Table 4.3.3 and Figure 4.3 shows the percentage out of 232 respondent’s age. The age group was divided into 4 categories. There are 18 respondents in the questionnaire were below 20 years old that presented 7.8%. Next, 181 respondents are between 21 to 30 years old that represents 78% while for respondents 31 to 40 years old represent 9%, 21 people and 12 respondents (5.2%) are between 41 to 50 years old.. 37. FYP FHPK. 4.3.3 Age of Respondents.

(49) Table 4.3.4: Number of respondents by marital status Marital Status. Frequency. Percent. Single. 195. 84.0. Married. 28. 12.1. Others. 9. 3.9. Total. 232. 100.00. Figure 4.4: Percentage of respondents by marital status. Based on Table 4.3.4 and Figure 4.4 a total of 232 respondents involved in the survey. There were 195 respondents (84%) who represented as a single status. 28 respondents (12.1%) who represented as married status while others consist of 9 respondents (3.9%). From Figure 4.4, the percentage of single status is higher than the married status percentage.. 38. FYP FHPK. 4.3.4 Marital Status.

(50) Table 4.3.5: Number of respondents by monthly income. Monthly Income. Frequency. Percentage. RM 1000 – RM2000. 174. 75.0. RM 2001 – RM 3000. 22. 9.5. RM 3001 – RM 4000. 19. 8.2. RM 4001 – RM 5000. 3. 1.3. More than RM 5000. 14. 6.0. Total. 232. 100.00. Figure 4.5: Percentage of respondents by monthly income. Table 4.3.5 and Figure 4.5 shows the 232 respondents' monthly income. Among all of the monthly income groups, respondents who gain income between RM 1000 – RM 2000 per month were the highest, which stand of 174 respondents (75%). The second-highest monthly income group was 22 respondents who gain between RM 2001 – RM 3000 per month, which stand at 9.5%. The third and fourth groups were respondents who gain between RM 3001RM 4000 per month and respondents who gain more than RM 5000 per month, which were. 39. FYP FHPK. 4.3.5 Monthly Income.

(51) number of respondents who gain income between RM 4001 – RM 5000 per month, which was 3 respondents (1.3%).. 4.3.6 Reason to Visit Malacca Table 4.3.6: Number of respondents by reason to visit Malacca Reason To Visit Malacca. Frequency. Percentage. Family Vacation. 91. 39.2. Leisure Holiday. 101. 43.5. Visit Relatives. 18. 7.8. Events. 11. 4.7. Others. 11. 4.7. Total. 232. 100.00. Figure 4.6: Percentage of respondents by reason to visit Malacca. 40. FYP FHPK. 19 respondents (8.2%) and 14 respondents (6%) respectively. Lastly, there was the lowest.

(52) conclusion, family vacations and visit relatives represented 91 respondents (39.2%) and 18 respondents (7.9%) respectively. However, the highest survey percentage done by 101 respondents is leisure holidays while events and others are the lowest percentage hold by 11 respondents (4.7%).. 4.3.7 Stay in Malacca (Duration) Table 4.3.7: Number of respondents by stay in Malacca (Duration). Stay in Malacca Duration. Frequency. Percent. A Day Trip. 19. 8.2. 1-2 Night. 124. 53.4. 3-4 Nights. 73. 31.5. More than 4 nights. 16. 6.9. Total. 232. 100.00. Figure 4.7: Percentage of respondents by stay in Malacca (duration). 41. FYP FHPK. Table 4.3.6 and Figure 4.6 above shows the reasons to visit Malacca of 232 respondents. In a.

(53) respondents. The survey of 232 respondents, a day trip has 19 respondents with 8.2% and 1-2 night and 3-4 nights was among the highest percentage of 124 respondents (53.4%) and 73 respondents (31.5) meanwhile more than 4 nights represented as the lowest percentage, 6.9%.. 4.3.8 Stay in Malacca Places Table 4.3.8: Number of respondents by stay in Malacca Places. Stay in Malacca Places. Frequency. Percentage. Hotel. 95. 40.9. Homestay or Resort. 96. 41.4. Relative’s House. 23. 9.9. None Day Trip. 18. 7.8. Total. 232. 100.00. Figure 4.8: Percentage of respondents by stay in Malacca Places. 42. FYP FHPK. Table 4.3.7 and Figure 4.7 shows the stay in Malacca (duration) by a total of 232.

(54) places. Out of 232 respondents, 96 respondents (41.4%) decided to stay at a homestay or resort. 95 respondents (40.9%) choose to stay at the hotel and follow up 23 respondents (9.9%) representative for relative’s house. After that, the other 18 respondents (7.8%) choose none day trip during their visit to Malacca.. 4.3.9 Frequency of Visiting Malacca Table 4.3.9: Number of respondents by frequency of visiting Malacca Frequency of Visiting Malacca. Frequency. Percent. Once. 90. 38.8. 2-3 times. 97. 41.8. 3-4 times. 24. 10.3. More than 4 times. 21. 9.1. Total. 232. 100.00. Figure 4.9: Percentage of respondents by frequency of visiting Malacca. 43. FYP FHPK. Table 4.3.8 and Figure 4.8 shows the number of respondents based on their stay in Malacca.

(55) Malacca. Out of 232 respondents, 90 respondents (38.8%) were once visited Malacca and the majority of respondents 97 respondents (41.8%) has visited Malacca 2 to 3 times. Moreover, there were 24 respondents (10.3%) who had visited Malacca 3-4 times. Lastly, the minority of the respondents 21 respondents (9.1%) were more than 4 times visit Malacca.. 4.4 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS Descriptive analysis has been used to describe the mean of each statement in independent and dependent variables. Mean and average mean is used to identify the level of agreement of respondents towards the statements. Table 4.4 below shows the range of mean and level of agreement. Table 4.4: Range of Mean and Level of Agreement Range of Mean. Level of Agree. 4.51 – 5.00. Strongly Agree. 3.51 – 4.50. Agree. 2.51 – 3.50. Neutral. 1.51 – 2.50. Disagree. 1.00 – 1.50. Strongly Disagree. Based on Table 4.4 shows that the range of mean for strongly agree is between is 4.51 to 5.00. The range of mean for agreeing is between 3.51 to 4.50. The range between 2.51 to 3.50 is at the level of neutral. The range of mean between 1.51 to 2.50 is in the level of disagreeing while 1.00 to 1.50 range of meaning is in the level of strongly disagree.. 44. FYP FHPK. Table 4.3.9 and Figure 4.9 shows the number of respondents by frequency of visiting.

(56) Perceptions on Malacca Heritage) and independent variables (Food Variety, Martial Art, Traditional Costumes, Historical Building, and Recognition from UNESCO). Table 4.4.1: Descriptive Analysis Statistics (Domestic Tourists Perceptions on Malacca Heritage) No Item of Descriptions . 1. I am interested in cultural and heritage. N. Mean. 232. 4.17. Level of Agree Agree. 232. 4.23. Agree. 232. 4.23. Agree. 232. 4.21. Agree. 232. 3.91. Agree. 232. 4.15. Agree. places. 2.. In the future, I am willing to visit historical places.. 3.. I think by participating in cultural and heritage tourism I could gain new experience.. 4.. I would love to explore a different culture.. 5.. I will consider learning about the backgrounds of Malacca history. Average Mean. Based on Table 4.4.1 above shows the range of the mean of dependent variables which is domestic tourist perceptions on Malacca heritage. The first statement, “I am interested in cultural and heritage places” has the mean of 4.17 representative as agree level. The second statement, “In the future, I am willing to visit historical places” and the third statement,” I think by participating in cultural and heritage tourism I could gain new experience” indicate the same mean of 4.23 which has been categorized into agree level. The next statement is “I would love to explore different cultures” which has a mean of 4.21 and at the level of agreement. While the statement, “I will consider to learn about the backgrounds of Malacca history” was recorded as the lowest mean (3.91) but still being at the level of agree.. 45. FYP FHPK. The table below shows the mean of the dependent variable (Domestic Tourists’.

(57) on Malacca heritage is 4.15 shows that the dependent variable is on the level of agree.. Table 4.4.2: Descriptive Analysis Statistics (Food Variety) No.. Item of Descriptions. N. Mean. Level of Agree. 1.. I know the heritage food of Malacca.. 232. 3.63. Agree. 2.. I have tasted all kinds of food. 232. 3.09. Neutral. inherited from Malacca. 3.. Malacca heritage food is my taste.. 232. 3.46. Neutral. 4.. Traditional food in Malacca not only. 232. 3.94. Agree. 232. 3.76. Agree. 232. 3.57. Agree. can be cooked by ethnic groups in Malacca but also other ethnic groups. 5.. When I like other ethnic foods in Malacca, I want to know how to prepare them. Average Mean. Table 4.4.2 shows the descriptive analysis statistics for the independent variable of food variety. Using the Five Likert Scale in the survey to calculate the respondent’s response mean. In the questionnaire, the first question is “I know the heritage food of Malacca” which has a mean of 3.63 which is in the level of agree. The second question is “I have tasted all kinds of food inherited from Malacca” which has a mean of 3.09 which is in the level of neutral. “Malacca heritage food is my taste” is the next question that indicates 3.46 and was a neutral level. However, the highest mean, 3.94, and was on a agree level is the question of traditional food in Malacca not only can be cooked by ethnic groups in Malacca but also other ethnic group. The last question is “When I like other ethnic foods in Malacca, I want to know how to prepare them” has the mean of 3.76 and which is in the level of agree.. 46. FYP FHPK. In conclusion, the average mean for the dependent variable: domestic tourist perceptions.

(58) and categorized as agree shows the importance of food variety influencing domestic tourist perceptions on Malacca heritage.. Table 4.4.3: Descriptive Analysis Statistics (Martial Art) No.. Item of Descriptions. N. Mean. Level of Agree. 1.. I know the history and types of. 232. 3.31. Neutral. 232. 3.83. Agree. 232. 3.91. Agree. 232. 4.07. Agree. 232. 4.20. Agree. 232. 3.86. Agree. Malacca’s martial art. 2.. ‘Silat’ is recognized as one of the martial arts in Malacca.. 3.. Learning ‘Silat’ is one of the ways to maintain the heritage of Malacca.. 4.. I am aware that Hang Tuah using ‘Silat’ as a self-defense for protecting their self from any type of danger.. 5.. I agree martial arts are still relevant in the year 2021. Average Mean. Table 4.4.3 shows the independent variable of martial art descriptive analysis statistics. The first statement “I know the history and types of Malacca’s martial art” has the lowest mean 3.31 which is in the level of neutral. The next statement “’Silat’ is recognized as one of the martial arts in Malacca” has a mean of 3.83 which is in the level of agree. The third statement “Learning ‘Silat’ is one of the ways to maintain the heritage of Malacca” has a mean of 3.91 which is in the level of agree. Categorized into agree level with the mean 4.07 where the statement is “I am aware that Hang Tuah using ‘Silat’ as a self-defense for protecting their self from any type of danger”. The last statement has the highest mean of 4.20 which indicates at agree level where “I agree martial art are still relevant in the year 2021” 47. FYP FHPK. As the conclusion of the independent variable of food variety has an average mean of 3.57.

(59) shows 232 respondents agree on how martial art is a crucial point to domestic tourist perceptions on Malacca heritage.. Table 4.4.4: Descriptive Analysis Statistics (Historical Building) No. 1.. Item of Descriptions I know that Malacca is a city. N. Mean. Level of Agree. 232. 4.35. Agree. 232. 4.45. Agree. 232. 4.42. Agree. 232. 4.23. Agree. 232. 4.18. Agree. 232. 4.32. Agree. overflowing with historic buildings 2.. I agree that historic buildings represent the history of a country.. 3.. I agree that the remnants of history symbolize an event in the past.. 4.. I want to travel to Malacca to see historical buildings. 5.. I want to visit Malacca to gain knowledge about historical buildings. Average Mean. Table 4.4.4 shows the mean and the average mean of independent variable of historical buildings. The statement “I know that Malacca is a city overflowing with historic buildings” has a mean of 4.35 which is in the level of agree. The second statement “I agree that historic buildings represent the history of a country” has the highest mean among others which is 4.45 but it still at the level of agree. The statement “I agree that the remnants of history symbolize an event in the past” has the mean of 4.42 and is indicated into agree level. The next statement is “I want to travel to Malacca to see historical buildings” was categorized into agree levels as the mean is 4.23. Lastly, “I want to visit Malacca to gain knowledge about historical buildings” is the statement with 4.18 mean which is in the level of agree. 48. FYP FHPK. In conclusion, the average mean for independent variable of martial art is 3.86. This.



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