International Journal of Social Science Research eISSN: 2710-6276 [Vol. 1 No. 2, December 2019]
LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROCESS THROUGH COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM IN TAMANSARI VILLAGE,
BANYUWANGI REGENCY, EAST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA
Harod Rahmad Novandi¹* and Isbandi Rukminto Adi²
1 2 Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, INDONESIA
*Corresponding author: email@example.com: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received date : 28 September 2019 Revised date : 10 October 2019 Accepted date : 6 December 2019 Published date : 26 December 2019
To cite this document:
Novandi, H., & Adi, I. (2019). LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROCESS THROUGH COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM IN TAMANSARI VILLAGE, BANYUWANGI
REGENCY, EAST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA. International Journal Of Social Science Research, 1(2), 159-172.
Abstract: Tourism became an interesting and promising sector for development. World Travel and Tourism Council (2018) estimates that tourism contribute for up to 10.4% of global gross domestic product and 313 million jobs or 9.9% of global employment in 2017, making tourism the largest industry in the world. Tourism is one of the priority sectors eligible for local economic development, including those held in Banyuwangi Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia. This research discusses the process of local economic development (LED) through community based tourism (CBT) in Tamansari village, Banyuwangi Regency, Indonesia, integrated as a collaboration tailored to profile the research area and using qualitative approach with descriptive research. While collecting data using in-depth interviews with 30 informants consisting of local government, local economic organizations and local communities. The results of this research shows the process of local economic development through community-based tourism is done already performing well through five (5) process, that is firstly, to strengthen relations with the community and formulation of regulations, secondly, to assess potentials and alternatives that can be collaborated for change, thirdly, to plan LED activities through community-based tourism, fourth, to implement LEDs through community-based tourism, fifth, to conduct monitoring and evaluation. From this process, based on the physical aspect of the village, human resources, social and cultural activities of citizens there
The development and economic growth in Indonesia are related to Indonesia's poverty level, and based on data in March 2017, Indonesia's Poverty Rate was 10.64 percent. In other words, 1 in 10 people in Indonesia lived below the poverty line (Central Bureau of Statistics or BPS, 2017). Looking at this data, reduction of poverty and inequality is still the focus of the Indonesian government. In the long term, infrastructure development will be able to increase economic growth and open the access for all people, especially people who live below the poverty line, to improve their quality of life (Bappenas, 2017). Meanwhile, the consumption pattern which shifts towards lifestyle and leisure boosts the performance of accommodation and food and beverages providers as well as information and communication business. The recovery of the domestic economy is supported by positive momentum from both global and domestic markets.
Tourism is the sector strengthened to improve Indonesia's economy. Tourism is becoming an attractive and promising sector to be developed. The World Travel and Tourism Council (2018) estimates that tourism accounts for up to 10.4% of global gross domestic product and 313 million jobs or 9.9% of global employment in 2017, making it the largest industry in the world. Tourism contributes quite significantly in efforts to alleviate poverty through the opening of employment opportunities, especially in developing countries. Tourism is one of the sectors that needs to be prioritized for local economic development in rural areas, including in Banyuwangi Regency, East Java Province. Nowadays, Banyuwangi has become a new icon for the Province of East Java with economic growth reaching 5.45 percent (Central Bureau of Statistics or BPS, 2017).
According to the data from Banyuwangi Tourism and Culture Office, this economic growth is supported by an increase in domestic tourist arrivals which reached 4.6 million and 92 thousands for foreign tourists (2017). The strategy for local economic development is carried out through community-based tourism with the support of local economic institutions, namely Village-Owned Enterprises (BUMDes) established in villages as the main formal legal institutions in an effort to improve the welfare of citizens and reduce poverty. The village in Banyuwangi that has implemented local economic development through community-based tourism is Tamansari village. Together with the community and local institution named BUMDes Ijen Lestari, Tamansari village develops various community-based businesses, for example transportation using a tour guide jeep, coffee processing (robusta, arabica, civet cofee), and restaurants with special local food such as sego tempong (tempong rice). There are 3 (three) tourist villages that become the icon of Tamansari Village, firstly, the village of miners in Kebundadap Hamlet, because the majority of people work as sulphur miners, Second, the village of flowers are three types of local economic village development, e.g.:Type A-advanced local economic development , Type B-Mid-range local economic development and Type C- Growing local economic development.
Keywords: Tourism, Local Economic Development, Community Based Tourism.
in Jambu Hamlet, because the villagers make a living as farmers or florist. The third is the village of milk in Ampelgading Hamlet, because the majority of the people earn a living as cattle ranchers.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Social Welfare and Poverty Problems
Midgley (1995) tried to define social welfare as a condition in a society. Midgley sees social welfare as “a state or condition of human well-being that exists when social problems are managed, when human needs are met, and when social opportunities are maximized.” In this study, the understanding and dimensions of well-being are associated with community welfare. This is because the development of small businesses in the community related to the welfare of rural communities is one of the strategies for the welfare of the community, which aims to support economic development. Economic business is one of the assets in the society or community and in developing the welfare of the community. Special interventions that are carried out jointly by the government and the community in order to achieve the goal of improving people's welfare are needed.
Community welfare is related to investments allocated by the community in their lives, and the investments are related to the welfare as well as poverty which are the problem in this study. When investments are used inappropriately, it will lead to poverty traps as explained by Sachs (2005).
Even though poor people want to get out of poverty, they are unable to do it by themselves. This is likened to a person who wants to climb a ladder. Would it be possible for him to climb a ladder if he is unable to get onto the first rung? The poverty trap cannot be overcome by using just one method of economic growth or deregulation. The poverty trap must be directly addressed and worked on, namely by providing direct "assistance" to the public sector as a process of overcoming the problem of poverty with community assets directed at basic household needs. Sachs did not want to create dependence on aid. He agreed that it is better to give a hook than a fish, but the results and discussion revise this formula by raising the question, how can somebody go fishing when he is hungry. A person must be given food so that he has enough strength to go fishing. The poor must be helped, which in Sachs terms, to jump-start the economy out of the "poverty trap", then they are able to go fishing.
2.2 The Hexagon of Local Economic Development
Figure 1: The Hexagon of Local Economic Development (Stamer, 2004)
Local and Regional Economic Development Target Group
Policy Focus and Synergy Location Factors
Sustainability Process Management
The Hexagon of Local Economic Development emerged as a didactical tool. Its purpose is to organise the key issues in local economic development. Altogether there are six triangles, and adding them graphically creates the Hexagon: (1) The target group of local economic development:
LED addresses companies, particularly three types of companies, namely locally based companies, external investors and business start-ups. (2) Locational factors (i.e. factors which define the attractiveness of a location for business). (3) Synergies: Three interrelated fields in LED are economic promotion, employment promotion / poverty alleviation / community development, and urban development. (4) Sustainable Development: The triangle of sustainable development looks at economic, ecological and social aspects of development. (5) Governance: The triangle of governance postulates that public-private partnership, which is the appropriate governance pattern for LED. (6) Process Management: LED is based on an iterative process with the cornerstones diagnostic and planning, implementation and monitoring, and evaluating (Stamer, 2004).
2.3 Problem Statement
Based on a review of previous research, there are several research gaps, including:
1) Previous studies generally discussed one of the concepts, namely between local economic development or community based tourism as the basis for analyzing, but not many studies have discussed the concept of Local Economic Development (LED) and the concept of Community Based Tourism (CBT) as a collaboration adapted to the profile of the research area.
2) There has not been any research that discusses the process of local economic development through community based tourism and the local economic institutional aspects that support it.
The emphasis of this research is on the development process related to the people centered development paradigm which emphasizes the development of the ability of the community as the main actors of local economic development in order to reduce poverty. Based on the above research gaps, the purpose of this study is to describe the process of local economic development through community-based tourism in Tamansari Village, Licin District, Banyuwangi Regency, East Java Province.
The purpose of this research is to describe the process of local economic development through community based tourism in Tamansari Village. Therefore, the right method to be used is qualitative research approach that has the characteristics of “construct social reality, cultural meaning, focus on interactive processes, authenticity is key, values are present and explicit, theory and data are fused, situationally constrained, few cases, thematic analysis and researcher is involved " (Neuman, 2016) . Meanwhile, because it has the aim to provide a description or systematic illustration of a problem and the properties and relationships among the phenomena investigated, the type of this research is descriptive research. As explained by Neuman, descriptive research is “Research in which the primary purpose is to "paint a picture" using words or numbers and to present a profile, a classification of types, or an outline of steps to answer questions such as who, when, where, and how” Neuman, 2016: 44). Furthermore, the technique of data collection is carried out by study of literature and documentation, observation and in-depth interviews. Respondents in this study were 30 people from Banyuwangi regional government, specifically from Tourism and Culture Office, Community and Village Empowerment Office,
Licin Sub-district, Tamansari Village Head, Village Consultative Council, Tourism Awareness Group or Pokdarwis, Chairman and management of BUMDes Ijen Lestari, leaders of Hamlets, activists of local economic and tourism as well as village cadres.
Based on the stages of data analysis, in organizing the raw data collected from interviews the results are recorded through a voice recorder, field observations and written as field notes. Then grouped in one pattern or made in the form of taxonomy of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding, according to the purpose of research which is then analyzed according to interesting field findings discussed and linked to the theoretical framework.
4. Results and Discussion
The results of research in Tamansari Village show that the process of local economic development through community based tourism emphasizes the development of local community abilities as the main actors of economic development. Local economic development is carried out in the village or in the internal community with the capital they have, namely human capital, cultural capital, physical capital and social capital. In addition, there are 5 (five) processes undertaken in Tamansari Village, firstly, by strengthening relations with the community and drafting regulations, secondly, assessing the potential and alternatives that can be collaborated for change, thirdly, drawing up plans for local economic development through community-based tourism, fourthly, implementing local economic development through community-based tourism, and lastly, conducting monitoring and evaluation. Further description of the process of local economic development (LED) through community based-tourism (CBT) in Tamansari Village can be conveyed in the following explanation:
1) Strengthening Relationships with the Community and Drafting Regulations
• Efforts to Strengthen Relationship
- Comparative study is conducted on the location of the pilot project to find inspiration on activities that can be done. This activity was carried out in Pentingsari Tourism Village in Yogyakarta.
- Personal approach, starting with the village cadres.
- Territorial approach in Tamansari Village, where the (9) Hamlets in Tamansari village are culturally different, therefore strengthening is carried out with a different strategy because of the high degree of heterogeneity.
- Giving example to citizens, which starts from community leaders builds a homestay and it is then replicated by residents in the community.
• Strengthening and regulation results
- There is togetherness in the aspect of tourism through actions and collaboration among residents in building accommodation, access and destinations.
- Do not hesitate to share information about local economic development through community- based tourism (CBT) for mutual progress.
- The community believes that local economic development through CBT is a mainstay of the family economy.
- Regulation, through village regulations (Perdes) of Village-Owned Enterprises (BUMDes), become the basis and protectors for programs or activities
2) Assessing Potential and Alternatives for Change
• Local Economy: The potential local economy that can be developed are plantations, farms, MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises) through souvenir products, food, packaging of coffee, honey and others or new destinations to be visited and new potential with good prospect of development such as Banyuwangi batik. The potentials of the village which become the focus are as follows:
- Village Youth: Embrace the village youth as the next generation of local economic development or LED through community-based tourism as a potential human resource.
- Social and Culture: Assets that can be utilized for example rural customs, harmony and mutual cooperation; cultural attractions or performances can be the icons, for example Gandrung dance.
- Travel Destinations: Ijen blue fire crater is the main icon; the destination of terracotta Gandrung complex consists of museums, cafes, amphi theater for musical and cultural performances, and terra cotta sculptures in the form of Gandrung dancers.
• Partnership with Investors
- Potential partnerships with investors. This partnership alternative must also pay attention to sustainability, not just pursuing profit.
- Relations with investors are influenced by key figures or entrepreneurs who develop the village.
3) Develop LED Activity Plan Through Community-Based Tourism
• HR Development
- Improving the quality of Human Resources (HR) in Tamansari Village, for example from the cadre of family welfare empowerment or PKK by improving its welfare aspects.
- Increasing the capacity of local tour guides dominated by village youth by giving training on environment, language and courtesy.
- The existence of a key figure as the person who moves the community, not only embrace the people but also have innovative thoughts.
• Development of Destinations Through Village Branding
- Different branding, such as branding of village of miners, village of flowers and village of milk.
- This branding takes part in supporting the main destination, namely the Ijen crater so that it can become educational spot developed by the community.
• Marketing Preparation
- This marketing is for destinations around Ijen-blue fire crater which are still unknown and need more attention in the area of Tamansari Village, and it is done by using social media, such as Facebook, Instagram and YouTube.
- Marketing is based on information technology (IT) and tour packages are also provided to make it easier to market the packages as a group.
4) Implement LED through Community Based Tourism
• Human, Social and Cultural Development
- Dance and Music: Dance and music studios are developed as a response to the increasing numbers of tourists who come to Tamansari village; and there is Meras Gandrung dance performance which takes place regularly as an expression of village culture.
- Human Resources: Preparing human resources related to public service innovation are carried out through training in cooperation with the village, BUMDEs Ijen Lestari, Communities and other stakeholders.
• Tourism Village Destinations and Nature Tracking
- Village Branding (village of miners, village of milk and village of flowers) as a way to introduce Tamansari Village to tourists.
- Natural Tracking: There is a potential for the conservation of birds that live in the Mount Ijen region, i.e. puyuh gonggong or chestnut-bellied partridge for birdwatching- ecotourism tracking; Ecotourism is the future of the LED through CBT in Tamansari Village and Banyuwangi Regency in general.
• Marketing of LED Products Through Community-Based Tourism
- Tourist Transportation: travel agents and tourists need a convenient and safe transportation with the type of "Tropper"
- Homestay: There are 53 houses that serve as homestay in Tamansari village, and in average, there are 2-3 rooms in each house available for receiving guests. However, the distribution of homestays is uneven across the Hamlets in Tamansari Village. More homestays are located in Hamlets with direct access on the highway.
- Tour Guides: Training local tour guides is carried out to improve competitiveness, for example friendly culture, knowledge about the track, first aid skills and English language skills.
- Micro, small and medium-sized Enterprises (MSME): developing coffee industry, especially civet coffee; livestock breeding and production of cow's milk and honey beekeeping; culinary market; BUMDes Ijen Lestari as a local economic organization has become a mainstay of business, for example through the packaging of MSME products.
5) Monitoring and Evaluation
• Human Resources Conditions
- Regular English language training from the village, BUMDes or community initiative is needed.
• LED Conditions
- Condition of Tourism Destination: Sendang Seruni (Seruni spring) has not been maximized because there are limitations in the management; community needs to be mentored; land prices have skyrocketed; The branding village of flowers was not quite successful.
- Visitors: For homestay, monitoring is conducted based on reviews from visitors who stay at the homestay; various innovations significantly encourage the flow of tourists to come.
• Economic Conditions of the Community and BUMDes
- Related to financial condition of BUMDes Ijen Lestari as local economic organization, there is good development of its business unit in supporting the community although BUMDes has not been established for long.
- Strengthening the local economy is pursued by involving various stakeholders in economic activity, where the tourism sector serves as the main locus to improve the financial condition of families.
The people of Tamansari Village has quite strong bonds, but in the process of developing local economy through community-based tourism, the first process undertaken is strengthening relations between residents and communities. Basically, it is more to nourishing the sense of belonging and love for the more developed Tamansari Village from the aspect of local economy through community-based tourism. The point is that a person feels as an inseparable part of the community and is actively involved. Here people live in an area that is growing and developing so that they are willing to do many things for the economic welfare of their family specifically and for the public interest to promote Tamansari Village. Suansri (2003) asserted that it was an effort to recognize, support and promote the sense of belonging of the community in tourism, involve community members at every stage of tourism development in various aspects, and make the community to have pride in it.
Related to social capital in Tamansari Village, besides bonding capital, bridging capital is also needed to strengthen relationships. The process of bridging capital means uniting people who are not familiar with each other in order to form new social ties to provide new information, access additional social networks, and fill "structural holes" in the network system in the community (Green and Haines, 2008) .
Furthermore, in the second process of local economic development through community based tourism, the potential and alternatives that can be collaborated are significant. Tamansari Village is the main village that serves as the gate for the flow of tourists before entering the Ijen crater area which is a potential destination and has social, cultural, and local economic potential and various investment opportunities. Developing regional potentials for increasing income and family welfare is through Local Economic Development (LED). According to Swinburn, Goga and Murphy (2006) LED aims to build the economic capacity of a region to improve the quality of life for all, meaning that economic development not only seeks on how people earn income through production activities but also how people can use these revenues to meet the basic needs of their life .
In order to be able to meet its needs, the economic capacity of Tamansari Village must be seen from the potential it has to make changes. The potential exists in physical and natural, socio- cultural indicators and activities of the local economy itself. Existing analysis illustrates that the community is still focused on specific physical and natural destinations that combine the uniqueness of isolated locations and nature as shown in the village of miners. Then, in socio- cultural aspect, there are efforts to form and develop cultural centers as part of fostering the village's young generation and attractions combined with local economic management such as coffee, milk, culinary treat and honey which are the potentials of the village.
Next, the third process, in preparing plans for local economic development activities through community-based tourism, Ife (2013) explains a conservative approach to developing local economic development plans through community-based tourism. By developing tourism as an appealing alternative, it will be a potential resource that can generate income and also a "clean"
industry that does not cause pollution and can support the opening of jobs. The objectives of the community's economic development strategy are: (i) attracting more tourists to come, either as a primary destination or as a route to other locations; (ii) to encourage tourists to stay as long as possible in the local area (the longer they stay, the more money they will spend); (iii) to make them spend as much money as possible while they are there. In developing the strategy, the process is not easy to create partnerships that involve the government, the business community and the people to achieve common goals.
Glen (1993) states that to achieve common goals an integrated manner involving all components in society including government and related institutions must be carried out. This is referred to as community joint practices with continuous involvement, self-help efforts and efforts to involve the community in planning and implementing activities. Planning for local economic development activities in Tamansari Village is organized with efforts to develop tourist attractions, arrange accessibility, accommodation and interesting culinary treat. In the analysis of potential, attractions in the community are still focused on how to utilize the wealth of local resources and an estimate of the benefits that can be obtained from certain localities. Planning for easy access is also the priority, not only on discussion but also on the execution of development. In addition, interest in rural nature tourism also continues to increase from year to year. Tourism activities are now experiencing a shift from mass tourism to small group tourism which emphasizes in-depth experiences of nature and culture of ecotourism. Special interest tourism as in birdwatching developed by communities in Tamansari Village is a trend, and other destinations which are planned by promoting the element of sustainability are too.
The fourth process of local economic development through community-based tourism is the implementation of local economic development through community-based tourism. The livelihood of the residents of Tamansari Village initially relies on the primary economic sector, namely agriculture and plantations, and is supported by livestock and sulphur mining sectors. The economy of the people depends on land management for farming purposes. The residents of Tamansari Village only focuses on obtaining raw materials for food, clothing and others to meet the economic welfare of the family.
Timothy (1999) describes community-based tourism as an understanding with regard to the certainty of the benefits gained by the community and the mentoring plan that helps local communities and other groups having interest in local tourism and the management of tourism that gives a bigger access to bring prosperity to the local community. In attempts to realizing economic welfare of the society, expansion of market access through tourism with the use of digital technology is also major project. Based on the analysis in this study, the community in Tamansari Village uses digital technology through social networks and websites that have been integrated with social media although there has not been a specific operator to handle this job. Moreover, the implementation of local economic development is also seen from the development of community human resources where trainings on capacity of skills, knowledge and values related to homestay, community culture, tour guides, MSMEs and tourism
transportation are carried out. All of these are carried out for the continuity of local economy and Tamansari Village tourism activities.
Finally, the fifth and the last process is monitoring and evaluation. In LED hexagon, Stamer (2004) conveyed the management process, namely monitoring and evaluation in a participatory manner, stakeholder involvement with the indicators of monitoring and evaluation (Monev), the frequency of monitoring and evaluation, problem-solving discussions, and the results of monitoring and evaluation versus planning. In monitoring and evaluation, the analysis focuses on the development of digital media where the community in Tamansari Village already uses social media as well as blogs and videos in YouTube. This proves that there is development in human resource without forgetting the local culture. However, the development of tourism and sustainable economics in Tamansari Village is aimed at achieving profit and making efforts to find a balance between nature and social and economic needs. It is has not reached the stage of being able to distribute the benefits of local economic development through community-based tourism to community members proportionally.
In the five processes above, it is also seen that there is a linkage and focus of policy where local economic development only focuses on activities or business units that target tourism activities. This has the consequence that there is a need for an institution that targets behavior change, promotion, business networks and mediates business competition and problems, coordination with government, information on employment opportunities and the development of expertise in the community. In the Hexagon related to sustainable development there has not been any efforts of the community to conserve natural resources, for example by requiring that every visitor staying at the homestay pays a certain conservation fee where the funds can be used to buy tree seedlings and for maintenance costs as an effort to preserve the environment and maintain the availability of water resources.
From the analysis and abstraction above, a typology can be arranged which is adjusted to the type or level of the local economic development process of community groups by classification. In this study the meaning of the classification system will be used to clarify and simplify phenomena by using as few phrases as possible to explain a phenomenon that exists from empirical generalizations. With this typology approach, Tamansari village was analyzed using the physical aspects of Tamansari village which involve human resources, social and cultural aspects of the people and the location of the community activity. It is possible to explore the potential for local economic development and partnerships with investors related to the physical environment of tourism. The typology type consists of three typologies, namely Type A-advanced local economic development , Type B-Mid-range local economic development and Type C-Growing local economic development. This typology wants to show the position (type) of Tamansari Village in the local economic development process of community groups.
Discussion on the analysis is adjusted with the purpose of research which is to understand the process of local economic development (LED) through community-based tourism which was conducted at Tamansari Village. From the analysis, Tamansari Village is considered to be quite good and includes in Type B-Mid-range local economic development. This is because many of the analysis indicators of the parameters of strengthening relations, the potential for change, planning
of local economic development activities, implementation of LED, and monitoring and evaluation lead to the typology.
Looking at the previous condition in Tamansari Village, livelihoods were limited and could not generate income and improve the economic welfare of the community, it was a necessary step to jump-start to get out of the "poverty trap", and then they were able to go fishing (Sachs, 2005). The process related to endogenous development through key people can be understood as entrepreneurs, local economic leaders and those who link it with other economic resources (Tsurumi, 1999) or endogenous development tends to focus on local needs and community participation in development (Barquero, 2002). This is because endogenous development focuses on local needs and community participation. This is certainly needed to overcome the poverty trap. Endogenous development also pays attention to community assets which consist of capital in an effort to develop the community. If community assets are managed properly, people's lives will run smoothly. Local economy development (LED) is an effort to overcome poverty with the process that takes place with the involvement of the poor themselves, the community, local economic organization co-founded by the village government and cooperation carried out by the interaction of various parties. As explained by Biggs (2008), the role of the poor must be increased as one of the efforts to reduce poverty in rural areas. Poverty alleviation through the development of tourism that is oriented towards local potential is important to increase income and welfare.
Empirical generalization from reality abstraction can be seen from the process of local economic development through community-based tourism that seeks to avoid the poverty trap, where poor households in Tamansari Village are families who do not have jobs and activities that generate income to meet their basic needs. Therefore, efforts were made to provide jobs from an institution formed by the community, namely BUMDes Ijen Lestari. In addition, other people were given access to skills development to open a local economic business through community-based tourism from homestays, culinary product, tourist transportation, MSMEs and tour guides. From the analysis in Tamansari Village, the existing institution directs the community or family to allocate some of the income or profits they have for household saving and investment needs, in addition to being used for daily operation. This can increase the capitals from individuals and communities so that local economic growth will increase, free families and communities from the poverty trap and shift to the economic welfare of the community. The process pays attention to community assets that comprise existing and developed capital, specifically in humans, social, cultural and physical aspects. Therefore, the process is divided into typologies of growing LED, Mid-range LED and advanced LED.
The purpose of the study is to describe the process of local economic development through community-based tourism in Tamansari Village, Licin District, Banyuwangi Regency, East Java Province. Based on this research, a few facts will be explained as follows:
• Besides having local economic potential and partnership with investors, Tamansari Village also has a scarcity factor of the tourist destination as it has very close access to Ijen crater with its blue fires. This destination cannot be found in other regions in Indonesia, even there are only 2 (two) in the world.
• Tamansari Village makes an effort to develop Human Resources (HR), destination development through village branding and marketing by involving local communities. The activities are carried out by empowering existing communities to participate in the process of local economic development through community-based tourism.
• Tamansari Village has a superiority and uniqueness in its destination that can be compared with other destinations around it, for example the village of miners where the sulphur porters of the Ijen crater live in, and the beautiful nature, i.e. locations that are very well preserved, for example ecotourism with birdwatching tracking .
• There is collaboration or optimization of the destination arena, with the development of culture as a tourist attraction, marketing of homestay as an accommodation facility and fostering MSMEs as an effort to develop a community-based local economy.
• The human resources in Tamansari Village still need to be improved by facilitating various trainings. Meanwhile, tourist destinations such as Sendang Seruni (Seruni Spring) and village of flowers still need to be assisted for better marketing and innovation.
Furthermore, field finding provides a picture that shows that there are 5 (five) local economic development processes through community based tourism. Of the 5 (five) processes included in the parameters that form the typology of local economic development process of community groups, in each parameter there are various indicators that describe each type in the typology. The typology consists of Type A- advanced local economic development, Type B-Mid-range local economic development and Type C-Growing local economic development. . Based on the field findings and the facts, it can be concluded that the process of local economic development (LED) through community-based tourism carried out in Tamansari Village is considered quite good and includes in Type B-Mid-range local economic development. This is because many of the analysis indicators of the parameters of strengthening relations, the potential for change, planning of local economic development activities, implementation of LED, monitoring and evaluation lead to the typology . Based on this conclusion, some suggestions can be given for this study:
• For the Government: Making regulations that govern the existence of BUMDes as an innovation in public services that synergizes with villages, businesses (investors) and the community. The regulation in particular controls village spatial planning.
• For BUMDes Ijen Lestari : Focusing on the development of destinations and activity packages, developing expertise in the digital field, carrying out partnerships and innovating activities further by adjusting millennial market trends.
• For the Communities: Improving service and product quality and holding regular meetings to discuss various matters. Requiring every visitor who stays at a homestay to pay a certain conservation fee where the funds are used to buy tree seedlings and for
maintenance costs as an effort to preserve the environment and maintain the availability of water sources.
• For the Business World: Continuing Partnerships with BUMDes or local communities through management of destinations, skills enhancement, mentoring and other supports that are continuous and form independence.
This work was supported by the PITMA B 2019 scheme grants of Universitas Indonesia.
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