EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS OF UNDERGRADUATES OF TWO
SITI NORZAHRA BINTI YUSOF
A dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Education
Kulliyyah of Education
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study explores the state of IIUM KOED and IIUM KOE students‟ emotional intelligence and academic success. 103 and 113 of the KOED and the KOE students were chosen respectively using purposive sampling. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires using online Google document and manual distribution.
Two instruments were used the Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) to measure emotional intelligence and the Academic Success Inventory for College Students (ASICS) to assess students‟ academic success. The Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) measured four subscales: perception of emotions, managing own emotions, managing others‟ emotions, and utilization of emotions. The Academic Success Inventory for College Students (ASICS) measured ten subscales: general academic skills, internal motivation/confidence, perceived instructor efficacy, concentration, external motivation/future, socializing, career decidedness, lack of anxiety, personal adjustment, and external motivation/current.
Descriptive i.e. frequency distributions, percentages, mean scores and standard deviations, and inferential statistics namely one-way ANOVA, independent t-test, Pearson moment correlation, and multiple regression analysis were utilized in analysing data. Findings showed that there were no significant differences of students‟
emotional intelligence based their age, gender, CGPA, level of study, and specialization for the KOED. Yet, specialization indicate significant difference in students‟ emotional intelligence for the KOE. There was significant difference in the KOED students‟ academic success based their age, CGPA, and specialization.
Significant and moderate positive relationship was gauged between the students‟
emotional intelligence and their academic success for both kulliyyahs. Emotional intelligence was a good predictor for academic success for both kulliyyahs. Gender and CGPA were found to have significance influence on the KOED students‟
academic success. Thus, it is possible to deduce from this study that emotional intelligence has significant influence on the students‟ academic success. Future research may consider bigger sample size, variations in the population, and to consider other mediating variables in explaining relationship between emotional intelligence and academic success.
ل يملعلاو يفطاعلا ءاكذلا ةلاح ةساردلا هذى فشكتست في ةسدنلذا ةيلك بلاطو ميلعتلا ةيلك بلاط
ايزيلابم ويبملاسلإا ةيلداعلا ةعمالجا .
رايتخا تم 108
و ميلعتلا ةيلك نم ابلاط 130
ةسدنلذا ةيلك نم ابلاط
ةيضرغلا تانيعلا ذخأ ةقيرطب .
مادختساب تانايبتسا عيزوت قيرط نع تانايبلا عجم تم تادنتسم جمانرب
و تنترنلإا برع لجوج ب اضيأ
يوديلا عيزوتلا .
مادختسا تم اهم ،ينتفلتمخ ينتادأ
تياذلا ءاكذلا رابتخا
تووش نم ريرقتلا (
يفطاعلا ءاكذلا سايقل نوزمخ ةادأو،
يلكلا بلاطل ييمداكلأا حاجنلا تا
( ASICS )
ييمداكلأا حاجنلا مييقتل ةبلطلا ينب
. ةادأسيقت SSEIT
ةعبرأ ةيعرف تايوتسم
كاردإ رعاشلداةي ،
و نم ةدافتسلااو ،نيرخلآا رعاشم ةرادإ رعاشلدا
. ةادأ امأ
ASICS ع سيقتف
ةرش ةيعرف تايوتسم :
،ةماعلا ةييمداكلأا تاراهلدا و
عفاودلا / لاةقثلا ش خ يص
روصتلدا وجولدا ،
و ،زيكترلا و ةيجرالخا عفاودلا /
لبقتسلدا ، طلاتخلااو ،يعامتجلاا
و ،يفيظولا رارقتسلإا ةلقو
لقلا ق ، و و ،يصخشلا فيكتلا لا
يجرالخا عفاد /
ليالحا . ةيتلآا ةيفصولا ةيئاصحلاا فرطلا لامعتسا تم
تانايبلا ليلختل :
، ةيوئلدا بسنلاو لىإ ةفاضلإابو،ةيرايعلداتافارنحلااو،تلادعلدا تاجردو،
تنمضت تيلاوةيللادتسلااتاءاصحلإا ANOVA
لأا يداح ة هاتجلاا
، رابتخاو تي
، مزع طابتراو
،نوسيرب ددعتلدا رادنحلاا ليلتحو .
جئاتنلا ترهظأ دوجو مدع
ءاكذلا ينب ةيئاصحإ ةللاد تاذ قورف
بلاطلل يفطاعلا مىرامعأبسح ىلع
، مهسنج لادعمو ، لامته
يمكارت ة وتسمو ، متهاي
ساردلا ي صصتخو ،ة متها
في ميلعتلا ةيلك .
كلذ عمو راشأ
يفطاعلا ءاكذلا في يربك فلاتخا لىإ صصختلا ةيلك بلاط ينب
ةسدنلذا . و بلاطل ييمداكلأا حاجنلا في يربك فلاتخا كانى ناك ميلعتلا ةيلك
لىإ اًدانتسا مىرامعأ
لادعمو لامته يمكارت ة صصتخو ، متها
. قلاع سايق تم ة
و ةيربك ةيبايجإ م
بلاطلل يفطاعلا ءاكذلا ينب ةلدتع
لكل ييمداكلأا مهحانجو تايلكلا
. لكل ييمداكلأا حاجنلل اديج ارشؤم يفطاعلا ءاكذلا ناك ةبلط
دجو اضيأ نأ سنجلل و يمكاترلا لدعلدا يرثأت
ا يربك ا بلاطل ييمداكلأا حاجنلا ىلع ةيلك
لياتلابو ونإف حاجنلا ىلع يربك يرثأت ول يفطاعلا ءاكذلا نأ ةساردلا هذى نم جتنتسن نأ نكملدا نم
بلاطلل ييمداكلأا .
ناكمإب ةيلبقتسلدا ثابحلأا رظنت نأ
ينعلل بركأ مجح في
،تا تافلاتخاو في ىرخأ
تاعوملمجا ىرخلأا تايرغتلدا في رظنلاو ،
ييمداكلأا حاجنلاو يفطاعلا ءاكذلا ينب ةقلاعلا يرسفت
I certify that I have supervised and read this study and that in my opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Master of Education.
Siti Rafiah Abdul Hamid Supervisor
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Master of Education.
Nik Suryani Nik Abd. Rahman Examiner
This dissertation was submitted to the Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling and is accepted as a fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Education
Head, Department of
Educational Psychology and Counseling
This dissertation was submitted to the Kulliyyah of Education and is accepted as a fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Education
Ismail Sheikh Ahmad
Acting Dean, Kulliyyah of Education
I hereby declare that this dissertation is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degrees at IIUM or other institutions.
Siti Norzahra Yusof
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA
DECLARATION OF COPYRIGHT AND AFFIRMATION OF FAIR USE OF UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS OF UNDERGRADUATES OF TWO KULLIYYAHS, IIUM
I declare that the copyright holders of this dissertation are jointly owned by the student and IIUM.
Copyright © 2018 Siti Norzahra Yusof and International Islamic University Malaysia.
All rights reserved.
No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below
1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgement.
2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.
3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.
By signing this form, I acknowledged that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Right and Commercialization policy.
Affirmed by Siti Norzahra Yusof
First and foremost, all praise is due to Allah the Almighty, who taught by the Pen, taught man that which he knew not, for the countless bounties that He has lavished on me throughout my life, especially in accomplishing this task.
It is my utmost pleasure to dedicate this work to my dear parents, friends, lecturers and professors for my lifelong learning journey.
The compilation of this thesis would not have been possible without the encouragement and assistance of my academic advisor who later became my supervisor, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Siti Rafiah Abdul Hamid, who made herself available for questioning and was consistently supportive. May Allah reward her for her painstaking guidance and for being a part of this thesis. I would also like to thank Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nik Suryani Nik Abd. Rahman as my examiner for her valuable advice and comments to improve my thesis.
I would like to thank my entire family especially my beloved father, Yusof bin Kassan, who always gives me financial support. And my caring mother Misthinah binti Abdullah Kamari who always gives me emotional support. And to my siblings, Siti Ainatul Mardhiah, Siti Nor Zawiyah, Muhammad Syakirin, and Muhammad Yusri who have unwavering belief in my ability to accomplish this goal.
I would also like to express my gratitude to my friends, especially kak Nur Atika Hairi, kak Raihana, and Siti Nur E‟zzati Apandi who are always lend their help and be there when I need them. Also, my other friends, kak Hanis Fudhail, Aisyah Shamsun, Fatini, Marini, and Nur Iffa Hairi who gave boundless emotional support.
To kak Hasniza Ibrahim as well for giving me some ideas, and kak Aza for assisting me in completing the procedures.
I would like to express my gratitude to KEPSA (Kulliyyah of Education Postgraduate Student Association) members for their motivational support in my completion of this thesis.
I wish to express my appreciation and thanks to those who have given their time, effort, and support for this project. For the test that I have gone through, thank you for sticking with me and making me stay focused and motivated.
All in all, I would like to deeply thank the people who gave me encouragement, love and affection, understanding, and cooperation in completing my thesis. Thank you does not seem sufficient, but is said with appreciation and respect.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ... ii
Abstract in Arabic ... iii
Approval Page ... iv
Copyright Page... vi
Acknowledgements ... vii
List of Tables ...x
List of Figures ... xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ...1
1.1 Background ...1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ...3
1.3 Objectives of the Study ...6
1.4 Research Questions ...7
1.5 Theoretical Framework ...8
1.6 Significance of the Study ...9
1.7 Delimitations of the Study ...10
1.8 Definition of Terms...10
1.8.1 Emotional Intelligence ...10
188.8.131.52 Conceptualized Definitions of Emotional Intelligence ...10
184.108.40.206 Operational Definitions of Emotional Intelligence ...11
1.8.2 Academic Success ...11
220.127.116.11 Conceptualized Definitions of Academic Success ...11
18.104.22.168 Operational Definitions of Academic Success ...11
1.9 Summary ...12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ...13
2.1 Introduction ...13
2.2 Emotional Intelligence (EI) ...13
2.3 Mayer and Salovey‟s (1997): A Model of Emotional Intelligence...15
2.4 Academic Success ...23
2.5 Emotional Intelligence and Academic Success ...25
2.6 Emotional Intelligence in Malaysia ...35
2.7 An Islamic Perspective on Emotional Intelligence ...55
2.8 Summary ...59
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ...60
3.1 Introdcution ...60
3.2 Research Design...60
3.3 Setting and Population ...61
3.5 Sampling Procedures ...66
3.6 Instrumentation ...68
3.6.1 The Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) ...68
22.214.171.124 Breakdown of Constructs or Items ...69
126.96.36.199 Validity ...69
188.8.131.52 Reliability ...71
3.6.2 The Academic Success Inventory for College Students (ASICS) ...72
184.108.40.206 Breakdown of Constructs or Items ...74
220.127.116.11 Validity ...74
18.104.22.168 Reliability ...75
3.7 Pilot Study ...76
3.8 Data Collection Procedures...78
3.9 Data Analysis ...78
3.10 Summary ...80
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS ...82
4.1 Introduction ...82
4.2 Response Rate ...82
4.3 Analyses of Descriptive Statistics ...84
4.4 Analyses of Inferential Statistics ...88
4.5 Summary ...104
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...106
5.1 Introduction ...106
5.2 Summary of Findings ...106
5.3 Summary of the Research Findings ...107
5.3 Conclusion ...124
5.4 Recommendations for Future Study ...125
APPENDIX A: SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE ...144
APPENDIX B: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN MALAYSIA ...150
LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Page No.
2.3 Summary of Research on EI and AS Conducted Outside
2.4 Summary EI in Malaysia 45
3.1 The Breakdown According to the Respective Kulliyyahs 63
3.2 The Number of Sample Size 65
3.3 The Breakdown of the Characteristics According to Respective
3.4 The Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) 69 3.5 The Academic Success Inventory for College Students (ASICS) 74 3.6 The Cronbach's Alpha Academic Success Inventory for College
Students (ASICS) 76
3.7 The Reliability Statistics Per Scale 78
3.8 The Statistical Analysis According Respective Research
4.1 Descriptive Analysis: Demographic Background 85
4.2 One-Way ANOVA Analysis of Students Emotional Intelligence
of KOED and KOE by Age 89
4.3 Independent T-Test: Emotional Intelligence of KOED and KOE
Students based on their Gender 90
4.4 One-Way ANOVA: KOED and KOE Participants‟ Emotional
Intelligence by CGPA 91
4.5 One-Way ANOVA: KOED and KOE Participants‟ Emotional
Intelligence by their Level of Study 92
4.6 One-Way ANOVA: Specialization for Emotional Intelligence of
KOED and KOE 93
4.7 One-Way ANOVA: KOED and KOE Participants‟ Academic
Success based on Participants‟ Age Groups 95
4.8 Independent T-Test Analysis: Academic Success amongst
KOED And KOE Participants by their Gender 96
4.9 One-Way ANOVA: KOED And KOE Participants‟ Academic
Success Based on their CGPA 97
4.10 One-Way ANOVA: KOED and KOE Participants‟ Academic
Success based on their Level of Study 98
4.11 One-Way ANOVA: Participants‟ Academic Success for KOED
and KOE by their Specialization 99
4.12 Correlation: Emotional Intelligence and Academic Success
100 4.13 Kulliyyah of Education: Predictors of Participants‟ Academic
Success (N=108) 102
4.14 Simultaneous Multiple Regression Analysis Summary:
Emotional Intelligence, Age, Gender, and Year of Study,
Specialization, and CGPA as Predictors of Academic Success 102 4.15 Kulliyyah of Engineering: Means, Standard Deviations, and
Inter-Correlations for Academic Success and Predictors
Variables (N=130) 103
4.16 Simultaneous Multiple Regression Analysis Summary:
Emotional Intelligence, Age, Gender, and Year of Study,
Specialization, and CGPA Predicting Academic Success 104 4.17 Analysis of Emotional Intelligence and Academic Success for
Both Kulliyyahs 105
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No. Page No.
2.1 Emotional Intelligence by Mayer and Salovey (1997) 22 2.2 Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman (1995) 23
3.1 The Calculation of Sample Size for KOED 64
3.2 The Calculation of Sample Size for KOE 65
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Many parties are concerned with factors that contribute to students‟ academic success at learning institutions (Mohzan, Hassan & Halil, 2013). The concern begins from pre- school level to tertiary level of education (Mohzan et al., 2013). Learning is the process of studying to obtain knowledge and skills which includes the ability to think (Yani, 2016). All human beings are different in their understanding and thinking abilities and as well as acquisition of soft skills (Farooq, 2014). Yani (2016) stated that emotion plays a crucial role in a learning process, especially to determine the success of a learner. Learners will not merely achieve better personal development but also better academic development if they enjoy the learning process (Farooq, 2014).
Numerous research has revealed that factors affecting academic success are different. The factors that have been identified to have strong influence on individual‟s academic success are; student‟s IQ, students‟ personality, learning and achievement motivation, peer-relationships, teacher-student relationships, socio-economic status, and parental involvement (Mohzan et al., 2013). IQ has commonly been used as a determinant among these factors and has been associated with academic success (Wang, Zhou, Chen, Yang, Chen, Wang & Gong, 2017). Nevertheless, IQ alone is not a reliable predictor of student academic success (Ramesh, Thavaraj & Ramkumar, (2016). Goleman (1995) claimed that only 20% of a person‟s success can be attributed to IQ. This led to academicians to identify another 80% of individual‟s success which one of them is emotional intelligence, or have been known as EQ.
Emotional intelligence (EI) plays an essential role in determining the academic and life successes of an individual, whether in their studies or in their careers. Many educators are interested to determine how emotional intelligence or EI of a student can help him or her to learn better and perform well academically (Mohzan et al., 2013).
Ebrahimi, Khoshsima and Zare-Behtash (2018) stated that by having emotional intelligence skills, students are better able to cope with difficult and challenging college experiences. When students are able to stay focus during learning and can perform well academically, it is possible that they may be experiencing a successful academic life.
In relation to emotional intelligence (EI) that may contribute to academic success, it has been found that an individual who has a high level of emotional intelligence is also said to function better as a worker. The reason for this is that they are more likely to be a team player, be able to work under pressure, and contribute to the productivity of an organization. Employers nowadays are no longer looking for employees with only good grades. Instead, they are looking for applicants who can meet work demands and adapt to the changing climate and needs of their organization (Mohzan et al., 2013). This suggests that employees today need to possess high level of emotional intelligence to manage stress at the workplace effectively. It is important to note that, stress occurs in the workplace and this includes learning institutions.
Furthermore, it involves educators such as teachers and lecturers and it is an unavoidable problem (Mohzan et al., 2013) as the teaching profession is acknowledged to be one of the most stressful professions due to the active role of teachers (Danilewitz, 2017; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2015).
A review by Ishak, Iskandar and Ramli (2010) indicated that teachers are frequently challenged by their work surroundings such as the implementation of
School Based Assessments (SBA), heavy workloads, disruptive students, hectic working environments, insensitive administrators, as well as the high expectation of parents. As a consequence of these factors, students must have a high level of emotional intelligence to manage their stress level effectively.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Possessing emotionally intelligent can help a person excel through different life transitions, beginning from school to college and later to the working world (Mohzan et al., 2013). Emotional intelligence is viewed as a valuable skill that helps students manage and cope with the demanding nature of academic workloads at college (Mohzan et al., 2013).
Previous studies (Unnikrishnan, Darshan, Kulkarni, Thapar, Mithra, Kumar, Holla, Kumar, Sriram, Juanna, Sanjana Rai & Najiza, 2015; Joyce & Portillo, 2011) have found positive relationships between students‟ emotional intelligence and academic achievements. The findings indicated that emotionally intelligent students have better interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, are more adaptable, and are better at managing stress. In other words, students with a high level of emotional intelligence are more successful in their college lives and therefore are able to learn and academically perform better.
Moreover, being emotionally intelligent can determine the career success of students, especially for those who want to go into a profession that involves a high level of emotional-related competence, such as teaching (Mohzan et al., 2013).
Teaching is high in emotional labor and teachers face the risk of burning out (Basim, Begenirbaş & Yalçin, 2013). Thus, there is a dire need for those who aspire to become educators to possess emotional intelligence skills.
Based on the systematic review of literature forty studies, gaps were found in two particular areas. Firstly, research on emotional intelligence in Malaysia has been conducted in selected settings. Fewer studies have been conducted in educational settings (40%), while others were mostly conducted in occupational settings (60%) respectively.
The educational settings with a percentage of 40% comprised of three main settings which were firstly, 30% of educational settings allocated for tertiary education (Aziz & Pangil, 2017; Chen & Lai, 2015; Chew, Md Zain & Hassan, 2013; Dev &
Abdul Rahman, 2016; Hassali, Hussain, Saleem, Iqbal, Ahmad, Ahmed, Dhingra, 2017; Marzuki, Mustaffa & Saad, 2015; Mohzan, Hassan & Abd Halil, 2013;
Rajasingama, Suat-Cheng, Aung, Dipolog-Ubanan & Wei, 2014; Thomas, Noordin &
Francis, 2016; Saddki, Sukerman & Mohamad, 2017; Saibani, Sabtu, Harun, Wan Mahmood, Muhammad, Wahab & Sahari, 2015; Yusoff, Esa, Mat Pa, Mey, Aziz &
Rahim, 2017), secondly, 7.5% of educational settings allocated for secondary education (Abd Rani & Marzuki, 2016; Dev, Ismail, Abdullah & Geok, 2014; Nor, Ismail & Yusof, 2016), and lastly, 2.5% of educational settings allocated for primary education (Mirzajani & Bayekolaei, 2013).
Meanwhile, 60% of occupational settings consisted of two main categories which were academic, which had a percentage of 32.5% (Ghani & Zain, 2014;
Hassan, Md. Jani, Mat Som, Abd Hamid & Azizam, 2015; Mahdinezhad, Shahhosseini, Kotamjani, Bing & Hashim, 2017; Md. Shahid, Md. Jani, Thomas &
Francis, 2015; Mehrad, Hamsan, Redzuan & Abdullah, 2015; Mohamad & Jais, 2016;
Thomas, Francis, Md. Shahid & Md. Jani, 2015; Mustafa, Buntat, Abdul Razzaq, Daud & Ahad, 2014; Selamat & Nordin, 2014; Shamsudin, Romle & Halipah, 2015;
Tajudin, Omar, Yunus, Tajuddin, Aziz & Abd Hadi, 2014; Yin, Hussain & Abdul
Jaafar, 2016; Yoke & Panatik, 2016), and non-academic which had a percentage of 27.5%. The non-academic setting can be categorised into two sub-settings which are public services 20% such as in a hospital (Kaur, Sambasivan & Kumar, 2015), a clinic (Wisker & Poulis, 2014), a local authority office (Johar, 2014), among call centre agents (Shamsuddin & Abdul Rahman, 2014), a library (Abdullah Sani, Masrek, Sahid & Nadzar, 2013), and a leadership training programme (Chin, Raman, Yeow &
Eze, 2014). On the other hand, the industry setting 7.5% involved financial (Pau &
Sabri, 2015) and manufacturing industries (Chin, Raman, Yeow & Eze, 2014;
Jamaluddin, Gunaseelan & Jusoh, 2015).
It is important to note that, all the studies were mostly conducted on one homogenous population. Among the numerous research conducted in a Malaysian context, it was reported the research conducted in a similar population. For example, the researcher employed only one population in their research such as; pharmacy students (Hassali et al., 2017), students of the School Medical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia (Yusoff et al., 2017), students of the School of Dental Sciences, University Sains Malaysia (Saddki et al., 2017), students of the Faculty of Educational Studies at Universiti Putra Malaysia (Dev et al., 2016), students of the Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, UKM (Saibani et al., 2015), medical students in USCI (Rajasingama et al., 2014), and students of the Faculty of Education, UiTM (Mohzan et al., 2013).
When examined, it was found that there were limited comparative studies done on the different populations as several research have done to compare students from different universities: USM, UUM, UM, UIAM, UNIMAS, UTM and UITM in their research (Aziz et al., 2017; Marzuku et al., 2015). In the present study, the researcher will compare students from two different populations from two kulliyyahs. More
specifically, students from the Kulliyyah of Education, which is also known as (KOED) and the Kulliyyah of Engineering is also known as (KOE).
Despite the availability of research conducted on emotional intelligence, there is limited research in an educational setting within Malaysia that has covered this area of study at the tertiary level, especially one that compares students across kulliyyahs or faculties, at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address the two gaps in the literature by looking into the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic success of students at the KOED and the KOE, IIUM. It was also intended that this study will ascertain the predictors for students‟ academic success.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This proposed study was conducted with four objectives:
1) To ascertain significant differences in students‟ emotional intelligence in KOED and KOE by considering the following:
i) Age ii) Gender iii) CGPA
iv) Level of study, and v) Specialization
2) To ascertain significant differences in students‟ academic success in KOED and KOE, IIUM by considering the following:
i) Age ii) Gender iii) CGPA
7 iv) Level of study, and
3) To examine if there is any significant relationship between students‟
emotional intelligence and their academic success in KOED and KOE, IIUM.
4) To investigate predictors of students‟ academic success in KOED and KOE, IIUM.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Are there significant differences in students‟ emotional intelligence in KOED and KOE by considering the following?
i) Age ii) Gender iii) CGPA
iv) Level of study, and v) Specialization
2. Are there significant differences in students‟ academic success in KOED and KOE, IIUM by considering the following?
i) Age ii) Gender iii) CGPA
iv) Level of study, and v) Specialization
3. Is there any significant relationship between students‟ emotional intelligence and their academic success in KOED and KOE, IIUM?
4. What are the predictors of students‟ academic success in KOED and KOE, IIUM?
1.5 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Mayer and Salovey (1990) proposed a model for Emotional Intelligence which they termed as “EI”. The model related to individual differences in processing styles and abilities and noted the existence of a century-long tradition among clinicians and discovered that people differ in their capacities to understand and express their emotions. Moreover, such differences may be rooted in underlying skills that can be learned. The learning and development of these skills can contribute to the mental health of people. They divided emotional intelligence into four branches: (i) identifying emotions on a nonverbal level, (ii) using emotions to guide cognitive thinking, (iii) understanding the information emotions convey, and (iv) the actions emotions generate. In addition to this, Mayer and Salovey (1990) formerly viewed emotional intelligence as part of social intelligence, which suggested that both concepts were related and represented interrelated components of a same construct.
In 1995, emotional intelligence was popularized by a psychologist Daniel Goleman who wrote a book, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. Goleman was exposed to Mayor‟s and Salovey‟s work and took the concept of emotional intelligence a step further. He broadened Mayer‟s and Salovey‟s four branch system to incorporate five important aspects of emotional intelligence or EQ, the shorthand he sometimes used. The aspects were: (i) emotional self-awareness which is knowing what one is feeling at any given time and understanding the impact those moods have on others, (ii) self-regulation by controlling or redirecting one‟s emotions or anticipating consequences before acting on impulse, (iii) motivation by
utilizing emotional factors to achieve goals, enjoying the learning process, and having perseverance in the face of obstacles, (iv) empathy, which is one‟s senses of other‟s emotions (recognizing feelings in others), and lastly (v) social skills such as managing relationships, inspiring others, and inducing desired responses from them (successful interactions with others). Goleman‟s (1995) model is unique among emotional intelligence models because it places much emphasises on motivation and is associated with academic achievement (Atkinson & Feather, 1966; Eysenck, 1953).
This study will employ Goleman‟s theory in ascertaining selected IIUM students‟ emotional intelligence.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is significant as the findings will help to provide empirical data on emotional intelligence and its influence on the academic success of students, lecturers, and academic counsellors. Furthermore, this study might contribute in the form of evidence to raise awareness among students about their level of emotional intelligence. Thus, this particular evidence may also help them find strategies to enhance their emotional intelligence through programs and might indirectly influence their academic success. The study may also help educators suggest methods and strategies to boost students‟ emotional intelligence, such as giving advice in the classroom and by being aware of students‟ level of emotional intelligence. Moreover, it may also help academic counsellors plan effective programs in order to enhance the emotional intelligence of students which may lead to them performing better in their academics.
10 1.7 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Firstly, the present study is designed to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic success, and whether it can be a predictor of academic success. Secondly, this study used the Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) and the Academic Success Inventory for College Students (ASICS). So, it is not appropriate to other types of scale. Thirdly, this study focuses on students in the KOED and the KOE, IIUM, regardless of their age, gender, levels of study and specialization. Participants will be selected from undergraduate students at the two kulliyyahs. Thus, this study is not applicable to other kulliyyahs either undergraduate and postgraduate students in the university. Finally, the study only focuses on emotional intelligence. Thus, it is not relevant to other types of intelligence.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1.8.1 Emotional Intelligence
22.214.171.124 Conceptualized Definitions of Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence is conceptually defined as “the ability to monitor one‟s own feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one‟s thinking and actions” (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p.189). Goleman (1998) defined it as “the ability of identifying our own feelings and those of others, for inspiring ourselves, and for handling emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships” (p.317). It has also been defined as “an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one‟s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” (Bar On, 2004, p.14).
126.96.36.199 Operational Definitions of Emotional Intelligence
One of the scales that measure emotional intelligence is the Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT). It was developed by Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden and Dornheim, (1998) and will be used in this study. The scale has 33 items which assesses four dimensions. The four dimensions are emotion perception, utilizing emotions, managing self-relevant emotions, and managing others‟
emotions. All items are answered using a 5-point Likert scale format ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).
1.8.2 Academic Success
188.8.131.52 Conceptualized Definitions of Academic Success
Bernard (2004) referred to academic success as academic achievement which indicated the accomplishment of an important developmental task. Shonk and Cicchetti (2001) mentioned it as the cognitive competence in school and other social settings. Academic success is the marker of and a prerequisite for, resiliency. It is the expression of skills determined or information acquired through points or test scores or both, given by teachers and developed in classes provided in schools (Yildizbas, 2017).
184.108.40.206 Operational Definitions of Academic Success
Academic success will be operationally defined by (i) the students‟ Cumulative Grade Point Average. The CGPA is based on overall achievement during a period of study.
The researcher used CGPA as a predictor of students‟ academic success. (ii) Academic success was measured using the Academic Success Inventory for College Students (ASICS) which was developed by Prevatt, Welles, Dreher, Yelland and Lee
(2011). It has 50 items that are measured in 10 subscales. The 10 subscales are general academic skills, internal motivation/confidence, perceived instructor efficacy external motivation/future, socializing, career decidedness, lack of anxiety, personal adjustment, and external motivation/current. All items were rated between 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).
Some studies have been conducted in school settings such as elementary or secondary schools. However, the lack of studies at the university settings, particularly in Malaysia, require another study in this particular area. Thus, this is a significant area which can contribute to this body of knowledge. This study aimed to investigate the level of emotional intelligence of participants by considering their age, gender, CGPA, the level of study, and specialization in both kulliyyahs. Furthermore, the researcher will examine the level of academic success of the participants by also considering their age, gender, CGPA, level of study, and specialization in the KOED and the KOE.
Eventually, this study intends to explore predictors of the students‟ academic success in both kulliyyahs.