EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG QUALITY ASSURANCE, STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND
SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT TOWARDS
SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN THE ISLAMIC PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SOUTHERN THAILAND
A dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education
Kulliyyah of Education
International Islamic University Malaysia
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between quality assurance and strategic leadership moderated by school-based management towards school effectiveness in the Islamic private secondary schools in Southern Thailand. The quality assurance (QA) and strategic leadership (SL) theory are measured and assessed through the school-based management (SBM) on school effectiveness (SE). The study selects 605 school teachers to complete questionnaire survey out of 683 targeted distribution from Islamic private secondary schools in Southern Thailand. The statistical techniques employed in this study include Descriptive Statistics using SPSS version 19, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and full-fledged Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with software Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) version 20.1 to addresses the research questions and to the test the research hypotheses. This research finds that Quality Assurance and Strategic Leadership are moderated by School-Based Management on School Effectiveness as perceived by teachers. Further analysis shows that School-Based Management has a direct causal effect on School Effectiveness.
Theoretically, the study finds that School-Based Management positively influences the Islamic private secondary schools to be effective schools. There are implications for the study which the Ministry of Education should embrace. As this is the current research of educational management in Thailand, Quality Assurance, Strategic Leadership and School-Based Management are some important strategies that reflect the Ministry of Education’s policy to enhance the quality of education particularly in the Southern Thailand. This study also recommends more research on the additional underlying constructs to authenticate the developed model of school effectiveness.
سرادلما في ةسردلما ةيلاعف ىلع اهيرثأتو لماوعلا ينب ةقلاعلا فاشكتسا لىإ ثحبلا اذه فدهي سلإا ةيوناثلا لخا ةيملا
ةةا .دنلايات بونج في تمو
سايق مييقتو نامض ج
ةدو تلا ميلع ةيرظنو
ةيجيتاترسلإا ةدايقلا للاخ نم
ةيتاذلا ةرادلإ في
ةيلاعف لما ةسرد ةساردلا تلشمو . سردم506
ةلئسأ ىلع اوباجأ لاا
نايبتس ىلع اهعيزوت تم تيلا
لما في اسردم386
ةيملاسلإا ةيوناثلا سراد
.دنلايات بو ثحبلا مدختسا
مادختساب يفةولا ءاصحلإا ةخسنSPSS
،يديكوتلا لماعلا ليلتحو
ةيلكيلها ةلداعلما ةجذنمو، (SEM)
جمانرب مادختسا عم ليلتح
Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS)
تانايبلا ليلحتل .
وتلا لماعلا ليلتح ( يديك
،لماوع ةعبرأ في لثمتت ميلعتلا ةدوج نامض نأ )CFA
في ةيسردلما ةيلاعفلا ايرخأو ،لماوع ةتس في ةسردلما ةرادإو ،لماوع ةعست في ةدايقلا ةيتجاترساو ةيجيتاترسلااو ميلعتلا ةدوج نامض نأ نوسردلما ىري امك ثحبلا جئاتن ترهظأو .لماوع ةعبس ابم يرغ يرثأت امله ةيدايقلا ةرادإ نأ ليلحتلا رهظأ امك .ةسردلما ةيلاعفو ةسردلما ةرادإ ىلع رش
.ةسردلما ةيلاعف ىلع رشابم بيبس يرثأت اله ةسردلما ،ةيرظنلا ةيحانلا نمو
ف ثحبلا راشأ دق لىإ
ا ةيوناثلا سرادلما ةيلاعف ىلع بيايجإ لكشب رثؤت ةسردلما ةرادإ نأ لإ
س لا ةالخا ةيم .ة
لذ نكيم كل
رازو نىبتت نأ ميلعتلاو ةيبترلا ة
نم ثبح لوأ هرابتعاب اهقبطتو ثحبلا جئاتن ن
دنلايات في هعو
لأ نامض ن ج
ةدو تيلا لماوعلا نم ةسردلما ةرادلإاو ،ةيدايقلا ةيجيتاترسلااو ،ميلعتلا ت
ميلعتلاو ةيبترلا ةرازو ةسايس في ةةاخ ،ميلعتلا ةدوج ينسحتل
دنلايات بونج و .
ي ذه يةو ا
ثوحبلا نم ديزم ءانبل
جذونم ةيسردلما ةيلاعفلل روطتم
The dissertation of Musakkid Himphinit has been approved by the following:
Azam Othman Supervisor
Hairuddin Mohd Ali Co-supervisor
Mohd Burhan Ibrahim Co-supervisor
Mohamad Johdi Salleh Internal Examiner
Omar Abdull Kareem External Examiner
Aref T M Al Attari External Examiner
Siam Kayadibi Chairman
I hereby declare that this dissertation is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degrees at IIUM or other institutions.
Signature ... Date ...
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA
DECLARATION OF COPYRIGHT AND AFFIRMATION OF FAIR USE OF UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH
EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN QUALITY ASSURANCE AND STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODERATED
BY SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT TOWARDS SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN THE ISLAMIC PRIVATE SECONDARY
SCHOOLS IN SOUTHERN THAILAND
I declare that the copyright holder of this dissertation is Musakkid Himphinit.
Copyright © 2018 by Musakkid Himphinit and International Islamic University Malaysia. All rights reserved.
No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below
1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgement.
2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.
3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.
By signing this form, I acknowledged that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Right and Commercialization policy.
Affirmed by Musakkid Himphinit
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful I would like to dedicate this work to my family:
To the memory of my late father, Tok Guru Sham-shuddin (Ayoh), my beloved mother Yuwairiyah (Ummi), my parent in law Assoc.prof.dr.Ismail (Babo) and Nurama (Mama) who encouraged, guided and supported me from childhood to the present
Also, my lovely wife Nawal, who sacrificed living as a single mom and provided constant encouragement during the entire process. To my children, Manal and Naif,
who missed out on a lot of Daddy time while I sought intellectual enlightenment. I thank all of them for their patience and love you more than you will ever know.
My utmost gratitude is due to Allah, who in His infinite Mercy gave me the opportunity on the journey of knowledge. Alhamdulillah for the gifts of sound health and strength to complete this programme.
I am indebted to many individuals and institutions that instilled knowledge in my writing this dissertation. First, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and appreciated to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Azam Othman who guided me and given me the suggestions throughout this study. Without him in particular, it is impossible that I can complete this academic journey. I would also record my profound sincere appreciation to Prof. Dr. Hairuddin Mohd Ali and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Burhan Ibrahim for their invaluable advice, support and assistance in this study.
My sincere appreciation and gratitude must be given to all the academic and administrative staff at the Kulliyah of Education IIUM. Recognitions and thanks are owed also to my colleagues at International Islamic University Malaysia.
In addition, I wish to extend my gratitude to Dr. Lasisi Abbas Ayodele, Dr.
Samsoo, Sa-u, Arris Hassama and Shahrul Fhaizal Bin Shabu and others.
Finally, I thank and specifically acknowledged the patience, endurance, valuable support, love and cooperation of Deenul Islamic Private School’s Family, Teacher, Student, Parent and all my friends.
May the Almighty Allah reward you all. Thanks, and God bless you all!
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ... ii
Abstract in Arabic ... iii
Approval Page ... iv
Declaration ... v
Copyright Page ... vi
Acknowledgements ... viii
List of Tables ... xiii
List of Figures ... xv
List of Abbreviation and Acronyms ... xvi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ... 1
1.1 Introduction... 1
1.2 Background of the Study ... 1
1.3 Statement of the Problem... 6
1.4 Purpose of the Study ... 9
1.5 Research Objectives... 10
1.6 Research Questions ... 11
1.7 Conceptual Framework ... 12
1.8 Research Hypotheses ... 14
1.9 Significance of the Study ... 15
1.10 Limitations of the Study ... 16
1.11 Definitions of Terms ... 16
1.12 Chapter Summary ... 18
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ... 19
2.1 Introduction... 19
2.2 Education Setting in Thailand ... 19
2.2.1 The Constitution of Private Education ... 21
2.2.2 Standards Criteria and Quality Indicators for Private Schools ... 22
2.3 Islamic Private Schools ... 24
2.3.1 Problems and Challenges ... 26
2.4 Islamic Education Schools in Southeast AsIA ... 28
2.4.1 Islamic Education Schools in Indonesia ... 28
2.4.2 Islamic Education Schools in Malaysia ... 30
2.4.3 Islamic Education Schools in Singapore ... 32
2.5 Strategic Leadership ... 34
2.5.1 Theories, Studies and Practices of Strategic Leadership in Education ... 36
2.5.2 Previous Research Findings ... 44
2.6 Quality Assurance ... 48
2.6.1 A Short History of Quality Assurance ... 49
2.6.2 The Quality of Schooling ... 52
2.6.3 Previous Research Findings ... 55
2.7 School-Based Management ... 57
2.7.1 The Characteristics of SBM ... 60
2.7.2 Previous Research Findings ... 62
2.8 School Effectiveness ... 64
2.8.1 The evolution of School Effectiveness ... 65
2.8.2 Previous Research Findings ... 67
2.9 Chapter Summary ... 71
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 76
3.1 Introduction... 76
3.2 Research Design ... 76
3.3 Research Setting ... 77
3.4 Population and Sampling ... 78
3.4.1 Sampling Frame ... 79
3.4.2 Determining Sample Size ... 79
3.4.3 Sampling Technique ... 81
3.4.4 Response Rate, Data Collection and Handling ... 82
3.5 Instrumentation ... 83
3.6 Validity and Reliability... 86
3.6.1 Content Validity of the Scale ... 86
3.6.2 Construct Validity ... 87
3.6.3 Reliability ... 89
3.7 Pilot Test ... 89
3.7.1 Internal Consistency on Quality Assurance ... 90
3.7.2 Internal Consistency and Correlation on Strategic Leadership ... 91
3.7.3 Internal Consistency and Correlation on School-Based Management ... 92
3.7.4 Internal Consistency and Correlation on School Effectiveness ... 93
3.7.5 Validity and Reliability Summary of the Pilot Test ... 94
3.8 Data Screening ... 95
3.8.1 Missing Data Issue ... 96
3.8.2 Outlier Issue ... 96
3.8.3 Normality, Linearity and Homoscedasticity ... 97
3.8.4 Multi-Collinearity and Singularity ... 99
3.9 Data Analysis Method and Statistical Techniques ... 100
3.9.1 Data Screening, Demographic and Construct Analyses ... 100
3.9.2 Constructs Analysis ... 102
3.9.3 Measurement Model Fit for Hypothesized Model ... 103
3.9.4 Structural Model Fit for Hypothesized Model ... 105
3.9.5 Revised Model ... 106
3.9.6 Completing Model ... 106
3.10 Chapter Summary ... 111
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS ... 112
4.1 Introduction... 112
4.2 Data Screening Process... 112
4.3 Testing the Assumptions... 113
4.3.1 Treatment of Outliers ... 113
4.3.2 Testing the Normality of Data ... 114
4.3.3 Testing for Multicollinearity, Linearity and Homoscedasticity ... 115
4.4 Descriptive Analysis and Demographic Information ... 119
4.4.1 Descriptive Statistics on Variables’ Means, Max, Min, SD, Skewness and Kurtosis ... 120
4.5 Establishing The CFA and Full-Fledged Model Based on the Hypothesized Model of the Study ... 124
4.5.1 CFA for Quality Assurance (QA) Construct ... 125
4.5.2 CFA for Strategic Leadership (SL) ... 128
4.5.3 CFA for School-Based Management (SBM) ... 131
4.5.4 CFA for School Effectiveness (SE) ... 133
4.6 Investigating the Causal Relationships among the Latent Variables (QA, SL, SBM and SE) of the Study ... 136
4.6.1 Causal Relationship among Latent Variables ... 136
4.6.2 Causal Direct Relationship between QA, SL, SBM on SE ... 139
188.8.131.52 Direct Relationship between QA and SE ... 139
184.108.40.206 Direct Relationship between SL and SE ... 140
220.127.116.11 Direct Relationship between SBM on SE ... 140
4.6.3 Causal Indirect Relationship between QA, SL through SBM towards SE ... 141
18.104.22.168 Indirect relationship between QA and SE through SBM ... 141
22.214.171.124 Indirect relationship between SL and SE through SBM ... 141
4.6.4 Testing the Model’s Validity, Reliability and Goodness-of- fit ... 142
4.7 Standardized Causal Effects of the Model of the Study ... 145
4.8 The Comparison between the Revised And Moified Models ... 146
4.9 Chapter Summary ... 147
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATION, AND CONCLUSION ... 148
5.1 Introduction... 148
5.2 Discussion of the Findings ... 148
5.2.1 Quality Assurance ... 149
5.2.2 Strategic Leadership ... 150
5.2.3 School-Based Management ... 153
5.2.4 School Effectiveness ... 154
5.2.5 Direct Effect of QA, SL and SBM on SE ... 155
126.96.36.199 Direct Causal Relationship of QA on SE ... 156
188.8.131.52 Direct Causal Relationship of SL on SE ... 157
184.108.40.206 Direct Causal Relationship of SBM on SE ... 157
5.2.6 Indirect Effect of QA and SL through SBM on SE... 158
220.127.116.11 Indirect Causal Relationship of QA through SBM on SE ... 159
18.104.22.168 Indirect Causal Relationship of SL through SBM on SE ... 160
5.2.7 Validity, Reliability and Model’s Goodness-of-fit ... 161
5.3 Implication ... 162
5.3.1 Theoretical Implications ... 163
5.3.2 Managerial Implications ... 164
5.3.3 Practical Implications ... 165
5.3.4 The Implications of Islamization of Knowledge ... 166
5.4 Limitations of the Study ... 168
5.5 Recommendations... 169
5.5.1 Recommendations for Future Study ... 170
5.6 Conclusion ... 171
REFERENCES ... 173
APPENDIX A: PERMISSIONS TO USE AN INSTRUMENT ... 187
APPENDIX B: RESEARCH QUESTIONAIRES (ENGLISH VERSION) ... 188
APPENDIX C: RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRES (THAI VERSION) ... 198
APPENDIX D: UNIVARIATE’S EXTREME OUTLIERS ... 210
APPENDIX E: MULTIVARIATE OUTLIERS ... 224
APPENDIX F: NORMALITY DISTRIBUTION ... 227
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Core Curriculum under Basic Education B.E. 2551 and Islamic
Education B.E.2544 27
Table 2.2 Related Researches on Quality Assurance, Strategic Leadership, School-Based Management and School Effectiveness 73 Table 3.1 Numbers of Schools and Teachers in Five Provinces in Southern
Table 3.2 Sample size Determination Table 81
Table3.3 The Characteristics, Details, Constructs and Sources of the
Questionnaire for the Study 85
Table 3.4 Internal Consistency Test on QA of the Pilot Test Instrument 90 Table 3.5 Internal Consistency Test on SL of the Pilot Test Instrument 91 Table 3.6 Correlation Test on SL of the Pilot Test Instrument 91 Table 3.8 Internal Consistency Test on SBM of the Pilot Test Instrument 92 Table 3.9 Internal Consistency Test on SE of the Pilot Test Instrument 93 Table 3.11 Correlation Test on SE of the Pilot Test Instrument 93 Table 3.12 Internal Consistency Test on SE of the Pilot Test Instrument 94 Table 3.10 Correlation Test on SE of the Pilot Test Instrument 94 Table3.11 Data Analysis and Statistical Techniques for Every Research
Questions and Hypotheses 108
Table 4.1 Residuals Statistics (Multivariate Outliers Detection) 113
Table 4.2 Correlations 116
Table 4.3 Coefficients 117
Table 4.4 School Teachers’ Demographic Information 120 Table4.5 Descriptive Statistics of Quality Assurance with Sub-Factors
(Learner, Plan, Process, Input) Means, Standard Deviation,
Minimum, Maximum, Skewness and Kurtoses 122
Table 4.6 Descriptive Statistics of Strategic Leadership with Sub-Factors (SO, ST, SA, SI, SC, RE, AB, AD, WI) Means, Standard Deviation, Minimum, Maximum, Skewness and Kurtoses 122 Table 4.7 Descriptive Statistics of School-Based Management with Sub-
factors (DE, SM, PA, SP, MO, AC) Means, Standard Deviation,
Minimum, Maximum, Skewness and Kurtoses 123
Table 4.8 Descriptive Statistics of School Effectiveness with Sub-Factors (SE, HI, IL, LO, FM, MP, HR) Means, Standard Deviation,
Minimum, Maximum, Skewness and Kurtoses 123
Table 4.9 Summary of Fitness Indexes for the QA Measurement Model 127 Table 4.10 Summary of Fitness Indexes for SL Measurement Model 130 Table 4.11 Summary of Fitness Indexes for SBM Measurement Model 132 Table 4.12 Summary of Fitness Indexes for SE Measurement Model 135 Table 4.13 Summary of Fitness Indexes of Revised Structural Model 138
Table 4.14 Hypothesis Testing Summary 143
Table 4.15 Summary of Goodness-of-fit Indices of Modified Structural
Table 4.16 Maximum Likelihood Estimate of Modified Structural Model 144 Table 4.17 Comparison between Generated and Revised Models 146
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 The Conceptual Framework Model 13
Figure 2.1 National Education Standards and Quality Assurance of
Private Education 24
Figure 4.1 Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual
(Dependent Variable: SE) 114
Figure 4.2 Scatterplot (Dependent Variable: SE) 115
Figure 4.3 Hypothesized Model of the Study 125
Figure 4.4 Generated Hypothesized QA Model 126
Figure 4.5 Generated Revised QA Model 127
Figure 4.6 Generated Hypothesized SL Model 129
Figure 4.7 Generated Revised SL Model 130
Figure 4.8 The Generated Hypothesized SBM Model 131
Figure 4.9 Generated Revised SBM Model 133
Figure 4.10 Generated Hypothesized SE Model 134
Figure 4.11 Generated Revised SE Model 135
Figure 4.12 Generated Hypothesized Structural Model of the Study 137
Figure 4.13 Revised Structural Model of the Study 139
Figure 4.14 Modified Structural Model of the Study 145
LIST OF ABBREVIATION AND ACRONYMS
AMOS Analysis of a Moment Structures AVE Average Variance Explained CFA Confirmatory Factor Analysis CFI Comparative Fit Index
DV Dependent Variables
EFA Exploratory Factor Analysis GFI Goodness-of-Fit Index IFI Incremental Fit Index
IV Independent Variables
NT National Test
ONESQA Office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment ONET Ordinary National Education Tests
OPEC Office of the Private Education Commission PCA Principal Component Analysis
IPST Islamic Private Secondary Schools in Southern Thailand KMO Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin
MI Modification Indices
QA Quality Assurance
RMSEA Root Mean Square Error of Approximation SBM School-Based Management
SEM Structural Equation Modeling
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences VIF Variance Inflation Factor
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents an overview of the study. It begins with the background of the study, followed by the statement of the problem, which addresses the essentials of the study. Next, it discusses the purpose, research objectives, research questions, conceptual framework and hypotheses of the study. This chapter also includes the significance of the study, its limitations and operational definition and ends with the chapter summary.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
School effectiveness of Thai education schools, both public and private schools, can be viewed through school-based management. This is because school-based management is one of the strategic education’s policies, which aims to improve the quality of education and increasing the country competition (Zahiri et al., 2014). The 1999 National Education Act emphasizes the importance of quality assurance and national education standards (Pitiyanuwat, 2007). Thai education is attempting on several implementations to achieve the quality of education. The principles such as quality assurance, strategic leadership and school-based management are implementing in the present. However, the quality of education for Thais is needed to ensure students’
academic achievement (UNESCO, 2011).
Moreover, global demand for strategic education to improve the quality of education are needed, as it the key impact on people, the economy and the well-being of the society (Hanushek, Jamison & Woessmann, 2008). This is because when the level
and quality of education is poor, policy makers need to review and consider education reform to gain improvement. In the global trend, effective education is measured by the student’s outcomes such as the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (Ko, Cheng & Lee, 2016). Hence, the principles to enhance the quality of education are as follows.
Firstly, school-based management (SBM) is a strategy in education reforms in this decade. It offers a means to promote improvement by decentralizing control from the central district offices to individual school sites (Wohlstetter & Mohrman, 1993). It is the process of delegating the authority from centralization to various school levels.
Several countries have implemented the school-based management system in diverse ways. For example, in Canada, it is concentrated on financial delegation while Hong Kong emphasizes on organization management such as allowing parents the flexibility to be involved and to participate in decision-making. On the other hand, the United Kingdom and New Zealand are similar, they offer an autonomy to the local community in decision making and give them accountability in the school’s operations. In contrast, the United States is different for each state, as some states are responsible in strategizing school-based management to overcome students’ academic achievement. (Abu-Duhou, 1999). Moreover, SBM creates organizations which are more responsible and independently sheltered in various situations such as in decision-making, curriculum design, recruitment, budget allocation etc. (David, 1989). Schools which employ SBM will have power in hand in operating the school system which allows people join in decision-making and participation.
However, there are different views among scholars regarding the impact of school-based management on school effectiveness (Nir & Eyal, 2003). Several studies have concluded that implementing school-based management in education has more
positive impact than practicing a centralized education system. It encourages leaders, teachers, and the community to share accountabilities and decision- making to assist school improvement (Gaziel, 1998). A research relating to the Thai education system reveals that school principals and school board members are satisfied with SBM functions such as structures, procedures, and process which affect school improvement.
The public involvement and community participation in decision making are the sources of success in implementing school-based management. (Gamage & Sooksomchitra, 2004).
Secondly, strategic leadership (SL), effective leaders lead schools to success. It is noted that they play a key role to manage the schools in line with the central office, either district or provincial, to meet their requirements (Caldwell, 2005). Apart from that, strategic leadership has been taken into account in almost every organization. In pursuit of school effectiveness and school improvement, strategic leadership is an imperative style to accomplish a school’s mission in these decades (Davies & Davies, 2004). Strategic leaders are capable of attaining education’s goal. For example, strategic leadership strategizes possible ways to maximize accomplishments based on the school’s expectations such as student academic achievement in current situation.
(Quong & Walker, 2010). Many researchers in the educational management fields have agreed that Davies is one of the prominent scholars in this field. As Hairuddin (2012) recommends in his research, future research on strategic leadership should apply ideas and thoughts under the guidelines of Davies and Davies (2006, 2008) and Eacott (2008) as their concepts approach to contemporary issues on strategic leadership. Therefore, in this study, the researcher will follow the suggestion from Hairuddin (2012) to identify and examine strategic leadership among leaders at the Islamic private secondary schools in Southern Thailand. Based on Davies and Davies (2006, 2008), strategic leaders’
characteristics are consisting of two components: (i) individual characteristics include of restlessness, absorptive, adaptive and wisdom. (ii) organizational capabilities include of strategic orientation, strategic translation, strategic alignment, strategic intervention and strategic competence.
Thirdly, quality assurance (QA) is used widely in the manufacturing industry as a systematic approach to find market needs and implementing working methods to meet those needs (Freeman, 1994). It is the concept that the customer fulfils a range of criteria, essential to a market-based approach which gives high priority to meet the real needs, (Tovey, 1994). On the other hand, the education systems at all levels, particularly higher education, have brought in the underlying principles of quality assurance to assure quality standard to meet customer satisfaction. Therefore, quality standards is determined by the quality assurance. Consequently, quality assurance becomes a global issue for all kinds of organizations, either business or academic. It produces high quality product and sustains standard performance in organizations. Most education institutions today have employed quality assurance to assess various activities to maintain quality standards (Cheng, 2003). In Thailand, quality assurance is implemented to sustain the quality based on three objectives: (i) to assure learners, parents and society of the importance of quality and standards of educational services being provided, (ii) to promote continuing improvements of educational quality and (iii) to ensure transparency and accountability of the educational institutions (Amornwich, 2009).
Lastly, school effectiveness (SE), is recognized by researchers as a prominent issue in education institutions for long decades. Researches on school effectiveness attempts to identify the factors that contribute to effective education, especially those that can be implemented (Luyten, Visscher & Witziers, 2005). It aims to enhance instructional and administrative practices to improve the school’s general success as
well as students’ academic achievements (Patton, Maddahian & Lai, 2005). This attracts involvement and heightens the interest, particularly of school leaders to this issue.
Edmonds (1979) is a prominent scholar in this field and the founder of effective school characteristics known as Edmond’s five Correlates. He identifies five characteristics of effective schools which include safe and orderly environment, instructional leadership, climate of high expectation for success, frequent monitoring of student progress and pupil acquiring of basic skills. He believes that these factors will unlock the gateway for educators to guide their students to perform well. After a decade, Lezotte has developed Edmond’s five model into Lezzotte’s seven model, a reputed model for school effectiveness in contemporary education. Hence, this research will employ Lezzotte’s seven model in examining the school effectiveness in Islamic private secondary schools in Southern Thailand, to identify that the determinant characteristics of effective schools and to improve students’ outcome in attaining quality education as outlined by the Ministry of Education as well as to meet the needs of the country.
Conclusively, the study has hypothesized a model that would be a guide in this study in order to understand the effects of quality assurance and strategic leadership as moderated by school-based management towards school effectiveness. The study would contribute to school effectiveness in Thai education schools particularly to the Islamic private secondary schools in Southern Thailand. It would also assist the Thai Ministry of Education in identifying the major factor towards school effectiveness, as well as to create an awareness for principals to improve on their shortcomings. Thus, it contributes to the knowledge of research on school effectiveness through specific approach, theory, strategy, model development as it tests for additional underlying constructs and authenticate the developed model for school effectiveness.
6 1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Thai education system is facing various challenges to produce and to promote effective education in the 21st century. The Ministry of Education has implemented strategies to attain a higher quality of education throughout the country but has not yet succeeded until today. A large budget was allocated by the government of 140 billion baht which had increased to 350 billion baht in 2009, and later escalated to nearly 460 billion baht in 2012 (Somkiat, 2013). It comprises 20% of the national budget, which is highest in the region and the world (Fernquest, 2013). Nevertheless, inadequate resource management at the school level and the students’ low academic performance are still recorded both at the public schools and the private schools (Bangkok Post, 2015). The education system is aggravating in performance and may impede national growth in the future.
The Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI, 2013) reports two problems regarding the Thailand education system it lacks an accountability system and does not provide students with the necessary skills for modern living. These are the impacts of a declining quality of education. Furthermore, teachers, school leaders, and education ministers lack accountability to improve students’ outcome at both national and international levels particularly in core subjects such as sciences and mathematics (Ammar, 2012). On the other hand, James (2013) expresses that Thailand is falling to the bottom among ASEAN countries, educationally and economically because the government and the Ministry of Education waste their time on ridiculous new rules and new policies instead of reviewing and developing what has been implemented to achieve quality education in the long run.
This study focuses on the Islamic private secondary schools in Southern Thailand, which formerly known as “Pondok” is a form of Islamic traditional school.
Today, it has been transformed into conventional schools like other public schools in the country. However, Islamic studies and the Muslims culture are retained at the school. The reason for the change is that the Thai government aims at enhancing their efficiency and quality (Uma, Vanitsupawong & Churngchow, 2009). Thus, the school curriculum has been changed from offering purely religious knowledge such as Quran, Tafsir and Tauheed to integrating conventional knowledge such as Sciences, Mathematics and Thai language into the curriculum, under the supervision of the Ministry of Education. Although, the Islamic private schools are supported financially by the government, the schools’ standard is still far behind the public schools in terms of students’ performance.
A research by Yala Rajapat University (YRU) finds that there are several components pertinent to quality education of the Islamic private schools. For instance, students’ performance, school materials, teaching and learning process, curriculum and facilities (YRU, 2006). To support this claim, Niloh (2009) asserts that the majority school leaders in the Islamic private schools are lacking of administrative skill and are unable to allocate budgets to develop the school with effective education. On the other hand, most teachers do not teach subjects related to their specialization which may impact the quality of teaching and learning in relation to students’ outcome.
Nawal (2001) investigates the educational quality of the Islamic private schools in the Three Southern Border Provinces. It is found that the majority of the quality education requires urgent improvement on a number of issues such as insufficient adherence to stipulated school objectives and philosophies, the curriculum design, teaching and learning process which are not in line with the school objectives and philosophies, in adequate number of staff, insufficient budget to allocate resources and unskilled.
Abdullah (2003) conducts a study on the administrative problems of internal quality assurance of the administrators of Islamic private schools in Pattani. He compares the level of administrative problems of 52 principals in the Islamic private schools in Pattani concerning internal quality assurance in the process of Plan (P), Do (D), Check (C), and Action (A). Based on his findings, the principals indicate that the administrative problems as according to internal quality assurance of the Islamic private schools in Pattani are moderate among the four components of PDCA.
Jeeranan (2009) has conducted a study on the administration of Islamic private secondary schools in Bangkok. She reveals various problems on administration which include financial problem, lack of government support, lack of parental support, school facilities, teacher qualification and students’ outcome. Moreover, Musakkid (2009) conducts a study on the role of principal in enhancing student academic achievement.
It is found that the leadership among school principals is moderate and thus affecting students’ academic achievements which proven to be lower than the National Test (NT) examination particularly on the core subjects.
Since the Thai National Education Act (1999) was enacted to replaced centralized education with decentralized education to achieve effective education, the reform serves the needs and responds to the nature of each school as well as the Islamic private secondary schools in Southern Thailand. Therefore, school-based management (SBM) is a strategic reform where the government gives an autonomy to the schools to maintain their roles in managing the budget and evaluating school programs for effectiveness.
It is inevitable for school leaders to face organizational change and school improvement. As a leader, he or she must plan and find strategies to overcome pedagogical challenges. Therefore, a strategic leader would know what he or she wants