JUDICIAL REVIEW OF POLITICAL QUESTIONS IN NIGERIA AND MALAYSIA: A COMPARATIVE
SAMBO OLADAPO ABDULFATAI
A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyya of Laws International Islamic University
This thesis aims at finding the Nigerian and Malaysian courts‘ approach or attitude in the exercise of judicial review power on political questions. Because of similar circumstances stated in the research, these two jurisdictions are chosen. The researcher develops the pragmatic theory in order to delimit the meaning and scope of political questions. This is borne out of the weaknesses in the classical and prudential theories on the doctrine of political questions to realistically delimit the meaning and scope of political questions. Based on this premise, the thesis analyses the two jurisdictions‘ approach or attitude in the exercise of judicial review power on political questions. To achieve the aims of this research, the thesis analyses the concept of judicial review and political questions as well as the legal frameworks for judicial review as affecting political questions. It uses many case laws to analyse the reactions of the courts to political questions flowing from legislative actions, executive actions and affairs of political parties over the years with July, 2012 being the cut-off date of the research. Interviews with many stakeholders formed the basis of the research findings. The thesis finds that political questions though appear political in nature have come with legal and constitutional stings which the courts need to interprete.
However, the legal frameworks on the exercise of judicial review power on political questions are weak and inadequate mainly because of ouster of the courts‘
jurisdictions. It further finds that the courts in Nigeria have abandoned its initial application of political question doctrine. While it now largely reviews political questions, Malaysian courts refrain from this practice to a large extent. To this extent, the thesis finds that judicial review or judicialisation of political questions is the current doctrine in Nigeria. It therefore reveals the merits and the risks in this practice.
It also finds the legal and political implications of the practice. The thesis also reveals major legal impediments and constitutional usefulness of judicial review of political questions. As a result of this finding, the thesis recommends constitutional and legislative amendments in order to allow the courts properly decide, on their merits, matters which appear political in nature but with legal and constitutional stings. It recommends far-reaching measures that, if adopted, will improve the quality of courts‘ decisions in areas of political questions, better the relationship between the judiciary and the political class and sustain peace, security and democratic institutions.
The thesis of Sambo Oladapo Abdulfatai has been approved by the following:
Shamrahayu Binti Ab. Aziz Supervisor
Farid Sufian Shuaib Co-supervisor 1
Mohd. Akram Shair Mohamed Co-supervisor 2
Khairil Azmin Mokhtar Internal Examiner
Faridah Jalil External Examiner
Noor Mohammad Osmani Chairman
I hereby declare that this thesis is the result of my own investigation, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degree at IIUM or other institutions.
Sambo Oladapo Abdulfatai
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA
DECLARATION OF COPYRIGHT AND AFFIRMATION OF FAIR USE OF UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH
Copyright © 2013 by International Islamic University Malaysia. All rights reserved.
JUDICIAL REVIEW OF POLITICAL QUESTIONS IN NIGERIA AND MALAYSIA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
I hereby affirm the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) holds all rights in the copyright of this work and henceforth any reproduction or use in any form or by means whatsoever is prohibited without the written consent of IIUM.
No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder.
Affirmed by Sambo Oladapo Abdulfatai
This thesis is dedicated to my late parents, Mallam Abdul Rahaman J. Sambo and Hajia Ajarat Arinola Sambo for instilling in me the virtue of hard-work, commitment,
love and fear of God. Even though they did not live long to enjoy the fruits of their labour, I pray Allah (s.w.t.) to reward them with Al-janatul fridous.
All praises and adorations are due to Almighty Allah, the uncreated creator and incomparable majesty for seeing me through this programme. Even though the programme is tasking, He bestowed His mercies, protection and guidance on me throughout the programme.
My profound gratitude goes to my supervisor, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Shamrahayu A.
Aziz, for a display of versatility and erudition which she used in guiding me through.
Her persevering character, thoroughness, meticulousness and compassion facilitated the successful completion of this work. I put on record that I am forever indebted to her. She brilliantly grasped the aim of this research and gave me very useful and insightful comments, queries and suggestions. She took time, despite her busy schedule, to attend and listen to me whenever I so requested. ‗Thank you‘ is all I have.
It is only Allah (s.w.t.) that can reward you. May He reward you abundantly. I also appreciate my co-supervisor, Assoc. Prof. Dr Farid Sufian Shuaib who painstakingly scrutinised the research and encouraged me. This assisted me a lot in building the final drafting of this work. I am also grateful to my second co-supervisor Prof. Dr. Mohd Akram Shair Mohamed for his professional advice which assists me in this research.
My heartfelt appreciation also goes to the entire management and staff of AIKOLS, starting with the Dean, Prof. Dr. Hunud Abia Kadouf. I thank the Deputy Dean (Post graduate), Prof. Dr. Abdul Ghafur Hamid. I also thank the former Dean, Prof. Dr. Mohd Akram Shair Mohamed. Also, I am grateful to the former Deputy Dean (post graduate), Assoc. Prof. Dr. Khairil Azmin Mohktar who advised me and chaired my proposal defence. I thank all the staff of Post graduate unit for their useful information when requested and their cooperation.
I am also grateful to the following academic staff of the AIKOLS whom I so much used and benefitted from their wealth of knowledge. They include but not limited to: Prof. Dr. Abdul Aziz Bari, whose comparative constitutional law class assisted me in this research and broadened my knowledge of constitutional law; Prof.
Dr. Abdul Haseeb Ansari, Prof. Dr. Syed Khalid Rashid, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohsin Hingun.
My profound thanks go to my uncle, Senator M.S. Ajadi for supporting me financially and morally. I also thank my uncles, Akanni A. Saliman, Abdulrahaman Akanni, Solihu Akanni, Yunus Akanni, Ayuba Salahudeen and Dauda Mohammed for their moral support and prayers. Barr. Abubakar Abdulkadir (Bro. Taiye) deserves my special appreciation for his moral and financial supports. My brothers, Sambo Bolaji Yakub and Sambo Olaitan Muritala, deserve my deep appreciation. Apart from their moral supports given to me, their youngest brother in the family, they were in active charge of almost all my domestic affairs while away. To them I say thank you so much. I am also grateful to my amiable wife, Aminat Abiola Sambo. She is indeed an embodiment of good character which she used in supporting me morally for this programme.
I appreciate the management of the Supreme Court of Nigeria, Court of Appeal of Ilorin and Abuja divisions, and Kwara State High Court. I particularly appreciate the contributions of Hon. Justice Mohammad Tanko, and Hon. Justice, Rodhe Vivour, (Justices of the Supreme Court of Nigeria), Justice, Hon. Justice C. C.
Nweze PhD and Hon. Justice (Prof.) A. O. Owoade, (Justices of the Court of Appeal of Nigeria). They gave me adequate time to interview them which led to useful and insightful comments for the betterment of this research. I also appreciate the contribution of Prof. Dr. M.A.O. Alabi, H.O.D., Department of Political Science. I thank my principal, Demola Bakre Esq for his moral and financial support. I also appreciate Ibrahim Idrees Esq.
I would like to appreciate the management of university of Ilorin. In particular, I thank Prof. Dr. Olanrewaju Oleyede (the Vice Chancellor). I must specially thank my head of department, Dr. Yusuf Ibrahim Arowosaiye and Dr. M.M. Akanbi ( H.O.D business law department) for giving me full moral support to do my programme at IIUM. I also thank Dr. Wahab Egbewole (former Dean of Law). I thank my brothers and colleagues in the department: Ibrahim Imam, and Adebimpe Justice Razak. I thank Dr. A.T. Shehu. I appreciate the staff and management of Faculty of Law, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.
My friend, and colleague, Abdulkadir B. Abdulkadir deserves special appreciation. He is a friend indeed. I specially appreciate Dr. Kayode Adam, Dr. A.A.
Oba for their useful advice. Dr R.K. Salman also deserves my special gratitude. I thank Bro. Maruf Abdul Azeez for his assistance in Arabic translation.
To my cordial family, I appreciate you so much. I particularly thank my sisters: Mrs Funmilayo Abdulrazak, Mrs Afusat Nike Musa, Fatimoh Sambo and Biliqees Sambo. I am grateful to Hajia Halimah ( Iya Ruki), Hajia Zainab Sambo, Mrs Afusat Akanni (Iya Remi), Iya Mariam, and Mrs Aminat Salahudeen (Mama Abuja).
To my in laws, I specially thank Dr. Yusuf Lanre Badmas, Hajia SifauYusuf, Hajia Adama Yusuf, Hajia Wasilat Yusuf, Abdul Hameed Badmas Yusuf and other family members. I so much appreciate their supports, encouragement and prayers.
Lastly, I appreciate my beloved children, Ajarat Arinola Sambo for her prayers and endurance, while busy with research and Muhammad-Sambo O. Sambo. To God be the glory.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ... ii
Abstract in Arabic ... iii
Approval Page ... iv
Declaration Page ... v
Copyright Page ... vi
Dedication ... vii
Acknowledgements ... viii
List of Cases ... xiv
List of Statutes ... xxi
List of Abbreviations ... xxiii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ... 1
1.1 Background ... 1
1.2 Statement of Problem ... 10
1.3 Objectives of the Study ... 11
1.4 Hypothesis and Research Questions ... 12
1.5 Methodology of the Study ... 13
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study ... 15
1.7 Outline of Chapters ... 17
1.8 Literature Review ... 20
CHAPTER TWO: CONCEPT OF JUDICIAL REVIEW ... 34
2.1 Introduction ... 34
2.2 Doctrine of Separation of Powers ... 34
2.2.1 Application of the Theory of Separation of Powers ... 36
2.2.2 Checks and Balances ... 37
2.3 Meaning and Origin of Judicial Review ... 38
2.4 Theories in the Exercise of Judicial Power of Review ... 42
2.4.1 Faithful Agent Theory ... 43
2.4.2 Instrumental Interpretation Theory ... 44
2.4.3 Implication of the Theories on Judicial Power of Review ... 45
2.4.4 Application of Judicial Power ... 46
2.5 Concept of Judicial Activism ... 55
2.4.1 The Meaning, Development and Importance of Judicial Activism ... 56
2.6 Conclusion ... 59
CHAPTER THREE: THE DOCTRINE OF POLITICAL QUESTIONS ... 60
3.1 Introduction ... 60
3.2 Origin of Political Questions ... 60
3.3 Meaning and Scope of Political Questions ... 62
3.4 Theories on the Meaning and Scope of Political Questions ... 65
3.4.1 The Classical Theory ... 65
3.4.2 The Prudential Theory ... 66
22.214.171.124 The Opportunistic Theory ... 67
126.96.36.199 The Cognitive Theory ... 68
188.8.131.52 The Normative Theory ... 69
3.4.3 The Pragmatic Theory ... 71
3.5 Theoretical Evolution of Political Questions ... 73
3.5.1 Respect for Decisions of Political Branches: The Pure Theory .... 73
3.5.2 The Functional Theory ... 75
184.108.40.206 Difficulties of Access to Information ... 75
220.127.116.11 The Need for Uniformity of Decision ... 76
18.104.22.168 The Difference to Wider Responsibilities of the Political Departments ... 78
22.214.171.124 Normative Limitations of Political Questions ... 79
3.6 The Legal Framework for Judicial Review of Political Questions ... 81
3.6 Conclusion ... 91
CHAPTER FOUR: JUDICIAL REVIEW OF LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS ... 93
4.1 Introduction ... 93
4.2 The Legal Framework on Legislative Actions ... 94
4.3 Internal Affairs of the Legislature ... 97
4.3.1 Suspension of Legislative Members ... 97
4.3.2 Removal of legislative Members from Committee or As Principal Members ... 101
4.3.3 Disqualification of Legislative Members ... 105
4.3.4 Injunction to Stop Proceedings of the Legislature ... 110
4.3.5 Legislative Confirmation of Appointments ... 113
4.4 Impeachment Proceedings ... 115
4.5 Expediency in the Exercise of Legislative Actions ... 127
4.6 Conclusion ... 133
CHAPTER FIVE: THE COURTS AND THE VALIDITY OF LEGISLATIONS ... 136
5.1 Introduction ... ...136
5.2 Legislations Affecting Constitutional Rights of a Person ... ...137
5.3 Inconsistency of the Federal and State Legislations ... 141
5.4 Legislations Affecting Courts‘ Supervisory Roles on the Legislature ... 143
5.5 Legislative Competence ... 146
5.6 Legislations Not Complying with the Legislative Procedure ... 151
5.7 Laws Contrary to Constitutional Provisions ... 153
5.8 Legislations Ousting the Court‘s Jurisdictions ... 155
5.8.1 Statutes Ousting the Courts‘ Jurisdiction ... 156
5.8.2 Constitutional Ouster Clauses ... 160
5.9 Conclusion ... 171
CHAPTER SIX: JUDICIAL REVIEW OF EXECUTIVE ACTIONS ... 173
6.1 Introduction ... 173
6.2 Legal Framework on Executive Actions ... 173
6.3 Executive Made Appointments ... 179
6.4 Emergency Proclamations and Executive Orders during Emergency ... 183
6.5 Sanction or Confirmation for Executive Actions ... 189
6.6 Requirements for Consultation or Advice from Certain Authorities ... 191
6.7 Expediency in Executive Actions ... 193
6.8 Policy Issues ... 195
6.9 Actions of Attorney General ... 200
6.10 Decisions on Population Census ... 203
6.11 Injunction Restraining the Executive ... 204
6.12 Abuse of Power by the Executive ... 206
6.13 Legality of Government ... 210
6.14 Conclusion ... 212
CHAPTER SEVEN: JUDICIAL REVIEW OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND POLITICAL DEFECTIONS ... 214
7.1 Introduction ... 214
7.2 Legal Framework on Internal Affairs of Political Parties ... 215
7.3 Injunction to Stop Activities of Political Parties ... 216
7.4 Selection and Nomination of Candidates for Elections ... 220
7.5 General Disputes within the Managements of Political Parties ... 230
7.6 Decisions/Resolutions of Political Parties ... 232
7.7 Political Defection ... 237
7.8 Conclusion ... 245
CHAPTER EIGHT: ANALYSIS OF JUDICIAL REVIEW OF POLITICAL QUESTIONS ... 248
8.1 Introduction ... 248
8.2 The Current Judicial Attitude to Political Questions ... 249
8.3 Merits and Risks of Judicialisation of Political Questions ... 258
8.4 Legal Implication of Judicial Review of Political Questions ... 262
8.4.1 Constitutional Sanctity and Justice ... 262
8.4.2 Prevention of Tyranny in Government and Promotion of Checks and Balances ... 263
8.4.3 Promotion of Obedience to Rule of Law, Due Process and Prevention of Anarchy ... 264
8.4.4 Development of the Law thereby leading to Development of the Nation ... 265
8.5 Political Implication of Judicial Review of Political Questions ... 267
8.5.1 Stability of Polity and Deepening of Democracy ... 267
8.5.2 Evolution of Opposition Parties ... 268
8.5.3 Reduction in Intra-Party and Legislative Internal Strife ... 269
8.5.4 Development of Federalism ... 272
8.6 Legal Impediments to Judicial Review of Political Questions ... 273
8.6.1 Nature of Judicial Power ... 274
8.6.2 Provisions for Judicial Review of Political Questions ... 275
8.6.3 Strict Adherence to Purposive Approach to Interpretation ... 276
8.6.4 Ouster Clauses ... 277
8.6.5 Locus Standi ... 279
8.6.6 Non-truly Independent Judiciary ... 279
126.96.36.199 Appointment of Judicial of Officers ... 280
188.8.131.52 Removal of Judicial Official ... 281
184.108.40.206 Funding of the Judiciary ... 282
220.127.116.11 Enforcement of Courts‘ Orders ... 284
8.7 Constitutional Usefulness of Judicial Review of Political Question ... 285
8.7.1 Separation of powers Concerns ... 286
8.7.2 Power of Internal Regulation ... 287
8.7.3 Judicial Incompetence ... 289
8.7.4 The Possibilities of Institutional Clashes Leading to Unimaginable Situations ... 291
8.7.5 Counter-majoritarianian Argument ... 292
8.8 Conclusion ... 293
CHAPTER NINE: JUDICIAL REVIEW OF POLITICAL QUESTIONS AND ISLAMIC LAW ... 296
9.1 Introduction ... 296
9.2 Historical perspective of Constitutional Government in the Shari„ah ... 297
9.3 Shura as Popular Participation in Government ... 300
9.4 Judicial Review of Acts of Sovereign ... 302
9.5 Act of Sovereignty in a State of Emergency/ Necessity ... 305
9.6 Mechanisms for Judicial Review ... 309
9.6.1 Independent Judiciary ... 310
9.6.2 Institution of Wali al- MaÐÉlim (Muslim Ombudsman) ... 314
9.7 Conclusion ... 317
CHAPTER TEN: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ... 319
10.1 Findings and Conclusion ... 319
10.2 Recommendations ... 326
BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 334
APPENDIX A ... 352
APPENDIX B ... 353
APPENDIX C ... 354
LIST OF CASES
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Abba Musa Rimi v Speaker, Kaduna State House of Assembly, (1982) 3 NCLR 467.
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Action Congress & Anor v Independent national Electoral Commission (2007) 12 NWLR p 259.
Adegbenro v Akintola (1963) AC 614.
Adegbenro v Akintola and anor (1962) WNLR 205.
Adegbenro v Attorney General of the Federation &2 others (1962) WNLR 156.
Adenrele v Colonel Mobolaji Johnson(1974) All NLR 26.
Adesanya v President, Federal Republic of Nigeria (1981) 5 SC 112 at 190-191.
Adewole v Jakande (1981) 1 NCLR 262.
Adewole v Jakande (1981) 1 NCLR 262.
Adeyeye v Adeboye (1987) NSCC 1084.
Adger v Alston, 82 U.S.(15 Wall.) 555 (1873).
AG Ogun v AGF (2002) 18 NWLR (Pt. 798) 232.
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Attorney General of Bendel State v Attorney General of Federation & 22 others (1982) 3 NCLR 1.
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Attorney General of Bendel State v Attorney General of the Federation (1981) 10 SC 1 at 286 -292.
Attorney General of Bendel State v Attorney General of the federation (1983) 1 SCNLR 239 at 251-252.
Attorney General of Eastern Nigeria v Attorney General of the Federation (1964) 1 All NLR 224.
Attorney General of Imo State v Attorney General of Rivers State (1983) NSCC 370.
Attorney General of Kano State v Attorney General of the Federation in suit no SC/26/2006 delivered on Friday, second day of March, 2007.
Attorney General of Lagos State v Attorney General of the Federation (2004) 18 NWLR (Pt 904) at 75 –76.
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Attorney General of Lagos State v Hon. Justice L.J. Dosumu (1989) All NLR 504.
Attorney General of Ogun state & ors v Attorney General of the Federation& ors (1982) 1-2 SC 13 at 72-73
Attorney General of Ogun State v Aberuagba (1985) 1NWLR (Pt.3) 395.
Attorney General of Ogun State v Attorney General of the Federation (2002) 18 NWLR (Pt. 798) 232.
Attorney General of Ogun State v Egenti (1987) LRC (Const.) 607.
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Attorney General of the Federation & ors v Abubakar & ors (2007) ALL FWLR (pt 375) 405.
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Attorney General of the Federation v Abubakar (2007) All FWLR (Pt. 375) 405.
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Attorney General of the Federation v Attorney general of Abia State (2001) 11 NWLR (Pt. 725) 689.
Audu Adamu v Attorney General of Bendel State (1982) 3 NCLR 676.
Baker v Carr 369 U.S. 186 (1962)
Balarabe Musa v Auta Hamza (1982) NSCC 219.
Balarabe Musa v Kaduna State House of Assembly (1982) 3 NCLR 463.
Balarabe Musa v Kaduna state House of Assembly (1984) 5 NCLR 241.
Balarabe Musa v Peoples‟ Redemption Party (1981) 2 NCLR 763.
Balarabe Musa v Speaker, Kaduna State House of Assembly (1982) 3 NCLR 450.
Barckeys Bank of Nigeria v Central Bank of Nigeria (1976) NSCC 291.
Bribery Commissioners v Ranasinghe ( 1965) AC 172.
Chief Adejumo v Colonel Mobolaji Johnson, Military Governor of Lagos State (1972) All NLR 164.
Chief Enyi Abaribe v The Speaker, Abia State House of Assembly and Ors, (2002) 14 NWLR (Pt. 738) 466.
Chief Utuedor Uti and Six Others v Jacob Umurhurtu Onoyivwe and five others (1991) 1 SCNJ 25.
Cotecna Int‟l Ltd v Churchgate (ng.) Ltd. (2011) 18 WRN 1.
Daboh v National Party of Nigeria (1985) 5 NCLR 528.
Dalhatu v Turaki (2003) 15 NWLR 334.
Dokun Ajayi Labiyi and Others v Mustapha Moberuagba Anretiola (1992) 10 SCNJ 1.
Ehimare v Governor of Lagos State (1981) 1 NCLR 166 Ekpenyong v Umana (2010) All FWLR (Pt. 520) 1387.
Elelu –Habeeb v National Judicial Council and ors (2010) All FWLR (Pt.536).
Enwezor v Onyejekwe (1964) NSCC 9.
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Fawehinmi v President Federal Republic of Nigeria, & Ors (2007) 14 NWLR (Pt.
F.R.A Williams v M.A. Majekodunmi (No.2) (1962) All NLR 32.
F.S. Uwaifor v Attorney General, Bendel State and others (1982) NSCC 221.
Fajinmi v Speaker, Western House of Assembly (2011) 5 WRN 1.
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Hassan Isiah v President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Ors FHC/ABJ/CS/760/2011.
Hon. Bala Kaoye & Ors v President, Federal Republic of Nigeria Suit No.FHC/ABJ/CS/2003.
Hon. Dino Melaye & ors v The Speaker, House of Representatives & ors Suit no.
Hon. Dino Melaye & ors v The Speaker, House of Representatives & ors Suit no.
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Ilori v State (1983)1 SCNLR 94.
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INEC v Balarabe Musa (2003) 1 SC (Pt 1).
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Nafiu Rabiu v Kano State (1980) 8-11 SC 130.
National Conscience Party of Nigeria v INEC (2005) All FWLR (Pt 281) 325.
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Ogunsan v Oshunride (1986) 6 NCLR 611.
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Okoli v Mbadiwe (1985) 6 NCLR, 724.
Okoya v Santilli (1990) 2 NWLR (Pt. 131) 172.
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Olaniyi v Aroyehun and others (1991) 7 SCNJ 40.
Oni v Fayemi (2008) 8NWLR (PT.1089) 400.
Onuoha v Federal Electoral Commission and Anor Suit No HOW/217/83 of 17/6/83.
Onuoha v Okafor (1983) 2 SCNLR 244.
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Abdul Aziz Bin Jamal Mohammad & Ors v Maniam Kvs @ Mkayveas  5 MLJ 794.
Abdul Ghani Bin Ali @ Ahmad & Ors v Public Prosecutor  3 MLJ 561.
Abdul Karim Bin Abdul Ghani v Legislative Assembly of Sabah  1 MLJ 171.
Abdul Shaik bin Md. Ibrahim v Hussein bin Ibrahim  5 MLJ 618.
Ah Thian v Govt. of Malaysia  2 MLJ 112.
Anwar bin Ibrahim v Public Prosecutor  3 MLJ 517.
Cheah Soon Hoong v PP  2 MLJ 170.
Chee Pok Choy v Scotch Leasing Sdn. Bhd.  4 MLJ 346.
Chiow Thiam Guan v Superintendent of Pudu Prison & the Government of Malaysia  2 MLJ 119.
Contra Filotek Trading Sdn. Bhd. v Buildcon-Cimaco Concrete Sdn. Bhd  4 MLJ 268.
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Dato Menteri Othman bin Baginda & Anor v Dato Ombi Syed Alwi bin Syed Idrus  1MLJ 29.
Dato Seri Anwar Bin Ibrahim v Perdana Menteri, Malaysia & Anor  5 MLJ 193.
Dato Yap Peng v Public Prosecutor  2 MLJ 155.
Dato‟ Seri Anwar Bin Ibrahim v Public Prosecutor  3 MLJ 193.
Dato‟ Seri Anwar Ibrahim v Public Prosecutor  2 CLJ 570.
Datuk (Datu) Amir Kahar bin Tun Datu Haji Mustapha v Tun Mohd Said bin Keruak Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Sabah & Ors  1 MLJ 169;  1 CLJ 184.
Datuk Haji Harun Bin Haji Idris v Public Prosecutor  2 MLJ 155.
Datuk Ong Kee Hui v Sinyium Anak Mutit  1 MLJ 36.
Dewan Undangan Negeri Kelantan & Anor v Nordin Bin Salleh & Anor  1 MLJ 697.
Eric Chia Eng Hock v. Public Prosecutor (No. 1)  2 MLJ 101.
Fan Yew Teng v Government of Malaysia  2 MLJ 262.
Government of Malaysia v Lim Kit Sing  2 MLJ 12.
Haji Ismail bn Chik v State Commissioner, Penang  1 MLJ 271.
Indah Desa Saujana Corp Sdn. Bhd. v James Foong Cheng Yuen  1 MLJ 464.
Juraimi Bin Husin v Lemmbaga, Negeri Pahang & Ors  3 MLJ 458.
Karam Singh v Menteri Hal Ehwal Dalam Negeri Malaysia  2 MLJ 139.
Kerajaan Negeri Kelantan & Anor v Wong Meng Yit & Ors Rayuan Sivil NO. W- 01(IM)-171-04/2012 decided on 27 June 2012.
Ketua Pengarah Jabatan Alam Sekitar v Kajing Tubek  3 MLJ 23.
Kok Wah Kuan v Pengarah Penjara Kajang  5 MLJ 193.
Law Liat Long v Pardons Board, Johore  2 MLJ 249.
Lee Gee Lam v Timbalan Menteri Hal Ehwal Dalam Negeri  3 MLJ 265.
Lim Cho Hock v Speaker, Perak State Legislative Assembly  2 MLJ 85.
Lim Woon Chong & Anor v Public Prosecutor  2 MLJ 264.
Lim kit Siang v Dato‟ seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad  1 CLJ 40.
Loh Kooi Choon v Government of Malaysia  2 MLJ 187.
Long bin Samat & Ors v PP  2 MLJ 152.
Madhavan Nair v Government of Malaysia  2 MLJ 286.
Mamat bin Daud & Ors v Govt. of Malaysia  1 MLJ 119.
Meow Loong Onn v Public Prosecutor  2 MLJ 612.
Merdeka University Berhad v Government of Malaysia  2 MLJ 356.
Mohd Noor Bin Othman & Ors v Mohd Yusof Jaafar & Ors 2 MLJ 129 CHC.
Mohd. Yusof bin Mohamad v Kerajaan Malaysia  5 MLJ 286.
Muhammad Hilman Bin Idham & Ors v Kerajaan Malaysia & Ors Civil Appeal No.
Mustapha bin Harun v Legislative Assembly of Sabah  2 MLJ 388.
N Madhavan Nair v Government of Malaysia  2 MLJ 286.
Nordin Bin Salleh & Anor v Dewan Undangan Negeri Kelantan & Ors  1 MLJ 343.
Palm Oil Research and Development Board v. Premium Vegetable Oils Sdn. Bhd.
 3 MLJ 97.
Param Cumaraswamy v MBf Capital Bhd  3 MLJ 824.
Pendaftar Pertubuhan Malaysia v PV Das (Bagi Pihak People‟s Progressive Party of Malaysia (PPP)  3 MLJ 449.
Pengarah Tanah dan Galian, Wilayah Persekutuan v Sri Lempah Enterprise Sdn Bhd  2 MLJ 135.
Phang Chin Hock v Public Prosecutor  1 MLJ 70.
xix PP v Kok Wah Kuan  6 CLJ 34.
PP v Rajamah  2 MLJ 280.
Prosecutor v Kok Wah Kuan  1 MLJ 1.
Public Prosecutor v Anwar Ibrahim  2 MLJ 730.
Public Prosecutor v Ottavio Quattrocchi  3 MLJ 149.
PV Das v Maniam KVS Kayveas Civil No 22-72-96.
Rajendra Singh Rana and Ors. v Swami Prasad Maurya and Ors. (2007) 4 SCC 270.
Rama Chandran v The Industrial Court of Malaysia  1 MLJ 145.
Salleh bin Jafaruddin v Celestine Ujang  2 MLJ 412.
Samy Vellu v Nadarajah  4 MLJ 696.
Senator Lau Keng Siong & Anor v Ng Cheng Kiat  3 MLJ 417.
SI Rajah & Anor v Dato Mak Hon Kam & Ors (No 2)  1 CLJ 215.
Sim KieChon v Superintendent of Prisons & Ors  2 MLJ 385.
Sivakumar a/l Varatharaju Naidu v Ganesan a/l Retanam  7 MLJ 355.
Stephen Kalong Ningkon v Tun Abang Haji Openg and Tawi Sli  2 MLJ 187.
Stephen Nigkan v Government of Malaysia (1968) 1 MLJ 119
Sugumar Balakrishnan v Pengarah Imigresen Negeri Sabah dan Pihak Berkuasa Negeri  3 MLJ 289.
Sugumar Balakrishnan v Pengarah Imigresen Negeri Sabah  3 MLJ 289.
Sunkyong International Inc. v Malaysian Rubber Development Corporation Bhd.
 2 MLJ 146.
Teh Cheng Poh v PP  1 MLJ 50.
Tengku Haji Jaafar v Government of Pehang  2 MLJ 105.
The City Council of George Town & Anor v The Government of the State of Penang &
Anor  1 MLJ 169.
Tun Datu Haji Mustapha Bin Datu Harun v Legislative Assembly of State of Sabah &
Ors  2 MLJ 388.
Tun Datuk Haji Mohamed Adnan Robert v Tun Datu Haji Mustapha Bin Datu Harun;
Datuk Joseph Pairin Kitingan v Tun Datu Haji Mustapha Bin Datu Harun  1 MLJ 471.
Uthayakumar v Public Prosecutor  5 MLJ 433.
Wasli bin Mohd Said v Public Prosecutor  5 MLJ 172.
YAB Dato' Dr Zambry bin Abd Kadir & Ors v YB Sivakumar a/l Varatharaju Naidu (Attorney General Malaysia, intervener)  4 MLJ 24.
Dr. Kashinath G Jhalmi v Speaker, Goa Legislative Assembly (1993) 2 SCC 703.
Kihota Hollohon v Zachilhu and Others (1993) AIR 412.
Mian Bashir Ahmad & Ors v State of Jammu & Kashmir & Ors (1982) J & k Section 26.
Ravi S Naik v Union of India (1994) AIR 1558.
Bush v Gore 121 S. Ct. 525 (2000).
Coleman v Miller 307 U.S. 433 (1939).
xx Flint v Stone Tracy Co., 220 U.S. 107 (1911).
Larbi-Odam and Others v MEC for Education (North West Province) and Anor 1997 (12) BCLR 1655.
Lyons v Woods, 153 U.S. 649 (1894).
Marbury v Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803).
Missouri Pac. Ry v Kansas, 248 U.S. 276 (1919).
Moyer v Peabody, 212, U.S. 78 (1909).
Rainey v United States, 323 U.S. 310 (1914).
Twin City Bank v Nebeker, 167 U.S. 196 (1897).
United States v Ballin, 144 U.S. 1 (1892).
Williams v Suffolk Ins. Co., 38 U.S. (13 Pet) 415, 420 (1839).
LIST OF STATUTES
Certain Political, Public and Judicial Office Holders (Salaries and Allowances, etc.) Act No. 6 of 2002.
Constitution (Modification and Suspension) Decree 1984.
Court of Appeal (Amendment) Act No. 65 of 1993.
Court of Appeal of Rules, 2011.
Decree No. 45 of 1968.
Eastern Nigeria Detention of Persons Edict No 11of 1966.
Electoral Act 2010 as amended.
Emergency Powers (Restriction Orders) Regulations, 1962.
Emergency Powers Act, 1961.
Federal High Court (Civil Procedure) Rules 2000 (as amended).
Fire arms (Increases Penalties) (Amendment) Act, 1974.
Independent Corrupt Practices (and other related offences) Act, 2000.
Local Government Law of Kwara State, 1999.
Public Officers Special Provision Decree 1976.
Sales Tax Law of Ogun State, 1982.
Standing Order of the House of Representatives.
The 1960 Constitution.
The Authentication Act of 1961.
The Chiefs (Appointment an Deposition) Law of the Northern Nigeria.
The Chiefs Law, Cap 37, Laws of Bendel State of Nigeria, 1976.
The Chieftaincy Matters (Exclusion of Jurisdiction of Courts) Edict No. 3 of 1985 Oyo State.
The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1979.
The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999, as altered.
The Constitution of the Northern Nigeria,1963.
The Constitution of the Western Region of Nigeria.
The Electoral Act of Nigeria, 2006.
The Evidence Act.
The Federal High Court Act.
The Republican Constitution of 1963.
The Supreme Court of Nigeria Act, 1960 as amended.
The Supreme Court of Rules.
The Supreme Court (Additional Original Jurisdiction) Act No.3, 2002.
Urban and Regional Planning Act of 1992.
The Federal Constitution of Malaysia.
The Constitution of the State of Johore.
The Constitution of the State of Kedah.
xxii The Constitution of the State of Kelantan.
The Constitution of the State of Malacca.
The Constitution of the State of Negeri Sembilan.
The Constitution of the State of Pehang.
The Constitution of the State of Penang.
The Constitution of the State of Perak.
The Constitution of the State of Perlis.
The Constitution of the State of Sabah.
The Constitution of the State of Sarawak.
The Constitution of the State of Selangor.
The Constitution of the State of Trengganu.
The Court of Judicature Act, 1964.
The Emergency (Essential Powers) Ordinance No 1 of 1969.
The Essential (Community Self-Reliance) Regulations 1975.
Essential (Security Cases) Regulations 1975.
Emergency (Essential Powers) Act, 1979.
Criminal Procedure Code.
The Universities and University Colleges Act, 1971.
Terengganu Administration of Islamic Law Enactment 1955.
The Constitution (Amendment) Enactment No. 3 of 1986.
The Government Proceedings Act, 1956 Act 359.
Specific Reliefs Act 1950, Act 137.
Rules of High Courts of Malaysia.
Societies Act of Malaysia, 1966.
The Standing Orders of the State Assembly of Perak.
Rules of the High Court 1980.
Selangor Criminal Trial No. 4 of 1974.
Sedition Act (Revised 1969).
The Singaporean Constitution.
The South African Constitution.
The Bangladesh Constitution.
The Kanya Constitution.
Indian Anti-defection law, 1985.
The United States Constitution.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
A.C. Appeal Court/ Appeal Case.
A.G. Attorney General.
AIR All Indian Reports
All FWLR All Federation Weekly Law Reports.
All NLR All Nigerian Weekly Law Reports.
ANPP All Nigerian Peoples‘ Party.
BN Barisan Nasional.
C.J.N. Chief Justice of Nigeria.
CFRN Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
CLJ Current Law Journal.
DAP Democratic Action Party Malaysia.
DYMM Duli Yang Maha Mulia.
ESCAR Essential (Securities cases) regulations.
e.t.c. (et cetera): and so forth.
F.C. Federal Court.
FEDECO Federal Electoral Commission.
FHC Federal High Court.
FWLR Federation Weekly Law Reports.
GNPP Great Nigeria Peoples Party.
H.C. High Court.
INEC Independent national Electoral Commission.
ING Interim National Government.
J.C.A. Justice of the Court of Appeal.
J.S.C. Justice of the Supreme Court.
MB Menteri Besar.
MJSC Monthly Judgements of the Supreme Court.
MLJ Malayan Law Journal.
MLJA Malayan Law Journal Articles.
N.C.L.R Nigerian Constitutional Law Reports.
NEC National Electoral Commission.
NSCC Nigerian Supreme Court Cases.
NWLR Nigeria Weekly Law Reports.
P.C.A. President of the Court of Appeal.
P.P.P. People‘s Progressive Party.
PPP People‘s Progressive Party of Malaysia.
PBB Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa.
PBDS Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak.
PSLA Perak State Legislative Assembly.
PKR Parti Keadilan Rakyat.
PAS Parti Islam Sa Malaya.
S.W.T. Subh nahu Wa Ta „alla.
SAW Salla Allah „Alyhi wa- sallam (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).
SC Supreme Court.
SCC Supreme Court Cases.
SCNJ Supreme Court of Nigeria Judgement.
SCNLR Supreme Court of Nigeria Law Reports.
SNAP Sarawak National Party.
SPD Social Democratic Party.
SUPP Sarawak United Peoples‟ Party.
UPN Unity Party of Nigeria.
WACA West African Court of Appeal.
WNLR Western Nigeria Law Reports.
WRN Weekly Reports of Nigeria.