EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN EFL TEACHING AND LEARNING ENGLISH LANGUAGE
PROGRAMME AT DJIBOUTI UNIVERSITY: FROM STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVES
MOUSSA KHAIREH SOUBAGLEH
A dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education
Kulliyyah of Education
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the English Language Programme at Djibouti University from the perceptive of students. The study utilised the CIPP (context, input, process, and product), evaluation model developed by Stufflebeam (1971, 2003), which utilised 362 undergraduate students enrolled at the Djibouti University in the 2016-2017 academic year. In addition, 3 graduate students were interviewed in the programme and participated in the study. A mixed method approach employing the convergent parallel design method was used. The data were collected through a self-reported student questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The data related to the quantitative survey were analysed through descriptive and inferential statistics, while the qualitative data through content and thematic analysis. Multivariate Analysis of Variances (MANOVA) with Wilk’s Lambda Trace test was to investigate the effect of demographic factors on the students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of English language programme in terms of its effectiveness, objectives, content, process, and product, teaching methods, and materials of the dimensions of the evaluation. The study found that the gender and the education level of parents with MANOVA test analysis had no significant effect on the usefulness, objectives, content, process, product, methods, and materials.
Meanwhile results of the year of study and the faculty of study had significant effects on the students’ perception towards effectiveness of the programme, objectives, content, process, and product of the programme. Finally, the overall findings of the study indicated that students have moderate positive opinions about the different components of the programme. It also revealed that some improvements in the content, teaching methods and materials dimensions of the programme were required to make the programme more effective.
ABSTRACT IN ARABIC
و للاخ نم تيوبيج ةعماج في ةيزيلنجلإا ةغللا جمنارب ةيلاعف مييقت لىإ ةساردلا هذه فدته تاهج
مييقتلا جذونم مادختسا تم ،ةياغلا هذله اقيقتحو .ةبلطلا رظن CIPP
( ميبيلفوتس هعضو تيلا )جتنلماو ،ةيلمعو 1971
، 2003 ) عم نايبتسلاا مادختسا تم . 362
يساردلا ماعلا في تيوبيج ةعماج في لاجسم ايعماج ةبلاطو 2016
- 2017 كلذ لىإ ةفاضلإبا .
، ةلباقم تتم 3
رد بلاط قيبطتو طلتخلما جهنلما مادختسإ تم دقو .ةساردلا في اوكراش ايلع تاسا
باقمو ،تياذلا بلاطلا نايبتسا للاخ نم تناايبلا عجم تم .براقتلما يزاوتلما ميمصتلا ةقيرط تلا
تاءاصحلإا للاخ نم يمكلا حسلما تناايبب ةقلعتلما تناايبلا ليلتح تم ثيح .ةمظنم هبش سأ مادختسبإ ةيعونلا تناايبلا ءارجإ تم ينح في ،ةيللادتسلااو ةيفصولا تم .راكفلأبأ ليلحتلا بول
رابتخا ( افونام قورفلل تايرغتلما ددعتم ليلحتلا
كليو رابتخا عم
ادملا ( Wilk’s Lambda )
تاروصت ىلع ةيفارغويمدلا لماوعلا يرثتأ ناك اذإ ام ةفرعلم عبتتلل
عفل بلاطلا تنلماو ،ةيلمعلا ،هاوتمحو هفادهأو هتدئاف ثيح نم ةيزيلنجلإا ةغللا جمنارب ةيلا
لا جئاتن ترهظأو .مييقتلا داعبأ نم ميلعتلا لئاسو ، سيردتلا بيلاسلأاو ةساردلا ةنس نأ ةسارد
ىوتمح ،جمنابرلا فادهأ ،جمنابرلا ةدئاف روصت ىلع ةيئاصحإ ةللاد وذ يرثتأ اله ةيلكلاو نابرلا ينح في .جمنابرلا جاتنو ،جمنابرلا نم ،جم سنلجا يرغتم نأ
و ءبالآا نم ميلعتلا ىوتسم
ئاصحإ ةللاد وذ يرثتأ اله نكي لم افونام رابتخا ليلتح عم تاهملأاو .بلاطلا تاروصت ىلع ةي
ةفلتخلما تناوكلما لوح ةلدتعم ةيبايجإ ءارآ مهيدل ةبلطلا نأ لىإ ةساردلا جئاتن تراشأ ،ايرخأو ،ىوتلمحاو ،جمنابرلا داعبأ ىلع تانيسحتلا ضعب لاخدإ ةرورض نع اضيأ تفشكو .جمنابرلل ميلعتلا لئاسو سيردتلا بيلاسأو ةيلاعف رثكأ جمنابرلا لعج لجأ نم ،
The dissertation of Moussa Khaireh Soubagleh has been approved by the following:
Faizah Idrus Supervisor
Ismail Sheikh Ahmad Internal Examiner
Arshad Abdul Samad External Examiner
Hamidah Yamat External Examiner
Abdi Omar Shuriye Chairman
I hereby declare that this dissertation is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degrees at IIUM or other institutions.
Moussa Khaireh Soubagleh
Signature ... Date ...
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA
DECLARATION OF COPYRIGHT AND AFFIRMATION OF FAIR USE OF UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN EFL TEACHING AND LEARNING ENGLISH LANGUAGE
PROGRAMME AT DJIBOUTI UNIVERSITY: FROM STUDENTS’
I declare that the copyright holders of this dissertation are jointly owned by the student and IIUM.
Copyright © 2019 Moussa Khaireh Soubagleh and International Islamic University Malaysia. All rights reserved.
No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below
1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may only be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgement.
2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.
3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.
By signing this form, I acknowledged that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Right and Commercialization policy.
Affirmed by Moussa Khaireh Soubagleh
TO MY INSPIRATIONS
It is my utmost pleasure to dedicate this work to:
My dear parents My beloved wife
My children My brothers and sisters
Thank you for your support and patience
First and foremost, Alhamdulillah, I thank Allah the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful for providing me the health and ability to bring this research to its completion. Without His Mercy, none of this would be possible. It is a great pleasure to thank the many people who made this dissertation possible. First of all, it is difficult to overstate my gratitude to my main supervisor, Asst. Prof. Dr. Faizah Idrus for her punctuality and motivation, invaluable guidance, patience and support throughout this study. Without her assistance and guidance, this dissertation would have never been completed. I also thank the members of the supervisory committee, Assoc. Prof. Dr.
Ainol Madziah Zubairi and Asst. Prof. Dr. Tahraoui Ramdane Murad for their advice, assistance, constructive suggestions, and wisdom in seeing this research to its completion.
Additionally, I would like to acknowledge Djibouti University for providing me the opportunity of pursuing this study and also thank Dr. Djama Mohamed Hassan, President of Djibouti University, Dr. Abdourahman Yacin Ahmed, Dean of Faculty of Arts, Languages and Human Sciences and Dr. Djama Said Ared Director of studies of FLLSH for their patience, and moral support throughout this study.
Appreciation is also extended especially to my great and knowledgeable lecturers in the Kulliyah of Education IIUM, namely, Prof. Dr. Rosnani Hashim, Prof.
Dr.Ismail Sheikh Ahmad, the Dean of Kulliyah of Education, Prof. Dr.Mohammad Sahari Nordin, Assoc.Prof.Dr. Mohd Burhan Ibrahim, the deputy Dean (Research &
Postgraduate), Prof. Dato’ Dr. Sidek Baba, Assoc.Prof. Dr. Nik Suryani Nik Abdul Rahman, Assoc.Prof. Dr.Sharifa Sariah, and the Late Assoc.Prof.Dr.Che Noraini, Assoc.Prof. Dr. Azam and Asst. Prof. Dr. Kamal Badrasawi.
I am also indebted to my colleagues, Brothers and Sisters in Djibouti University and IIUM, particularly the Faculty of Education Toffezel, Miiro, Azlina Binti Mustaffa, Maman Azlina, Wildan Shohib, Adam, Ismail Husein Kulmiye, Ali Ahmed Ismail, Mouktar Ahmed Omar, Said Moussa, Nour Farah, Abdillahi Ismail, Moursal Farah, Yahye Aden, Harbi Barkhad, Bilan Mohmed, Mohamed salahadin who shared their invaluable time and experience during my study. My deep appreciation goes to Djibouti University students for their willingness to participate in this research.
Last but not least, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my parents, especially my late father and mother who had always prayed for my success, and my brothers and sisters and family for their moral support, and encouragement. My greatest thanks and deepest love go to my beloved wife, Rahma Mohamed Salah for her patience, continuous support, understanding, and endurance in different tasks during my absence. I am also grateful to my children Aboubaker, Asma, Abbas, Akram, Amal, and Afnane who provide me with continuous source of inspiration and pleasure. May Allah bless them all. Without their support and sacrifice, this study would not have been possible. Although this dissertation marks the end of this
journey, it is a certainly a beginning to a more noble voyage of knowledge-seeking and research.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ... ii
Abstract in Arabic ... iii
Approval Page ... iv
Declaration ... v
Copyright ... vi
Dedication ... vii
Acknowledgements ... viii
List of Tables ... xv
List of Figures ... xviii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ... 1
1.1 Background of the Study ... 1
1.2 Djibouti in Brief ... 6
1.3 Present Conditon of Teaching English Language in Djibouti University ... 9
1.4 Brief Background of Djibouti University ... 11
1.5 Statement Problem of the Study ... 14
1.6 Purpose of the Study ... 17
1.7 Research Question ... 18
1.8 Research Hypotheses ... 19
1.9 Significance of the Study ... 19
1.10 Conceptual Framework ... 21
1.10.1 Undergraduate English Language Programme at the Djibouti University ... 23
1.11 Limitation and Delimitations of the Study ... 25
1.12 Definition of the Terms ... 26
1.13 Organization of the Study ... 30
1.14 Summary of the Chapter ... 31
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ... 32
2.1 Introduction ... 32
2.2 English as an International Language ... 32
2.3 Definition of Curriculum, Syllabus and Teaching Programmeme... 38
2.3.1 Concept of Curriculum ... 39
2.3.2 Syllabus ... 41
2.3.3 Teaching Programmes ... 42
2.4 Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness ... 44
2.5 Definition of Evaluation ... 47
2.6 Purpose of Program Evaluation ... 51
2.7 The Function of Evaluation in Education ... 55
2.8 Approaches of Evaluation ... 55
2.8.1 Objectives-Oriented Approaches ... 56
2.8.2 Management-Oriented Approaches ... 56
2.8.3 Consumer-Oriented Approaches ... 57
2.8.4 Expertise-Oriented Approaches ... 58
2.8.5 Adversary-Oriented Approaches ... 58
2.8.6 Naturalistic and Participant-Oriented Approaches ... 58
2.9 Formative and Summative Evaluation ... 59
2.9.1 Internal Evaluation/ Formative Evaluation ... 62
2.9.2 External Evaluation/ Summative Evaluation ... 62
2.10 Major Theories of Evaluation Moedels ... 63
2.10.1 Positivistic Approach: Provus’s Discrepancy Evaluation Model (Dem) ... 65
2.10.2 Stake’s Congruence: Congruency Model ... 65
2.10.3 CIPP- A Decision-Making Model ... 66
2.11 How the Cipp Model Came Into Existence ... 66
2.11.1 CIPP Model’ Criteria for Judging Evaluation ... 67
2.11.2 Methodology of CIPP Model of Evaluation ... 68
2.11.3 An Overview of CIPP Categories ... 68
184.108.40.206 Context Evaluation ... 69
220.127.116.11 Input Evaluation ... 70
18.104.22.168 Process Evaluation ... 71
22.214.171.124 Product Evaluation ... 71
2.12 Rationale of Choosing Stufflebeam’s Cipp Model of Evaluation for this Study ... 72
2.13 Studies Related to Cipp Evaluation Model ... 74
2.14 A Related Literature Review of Evaluation Language Programme Form Students’ Point of Views. ... 78
2.15 A Related Literature Review of Evaluation Language Programme ... 80
2.16 Summary of the Literature Review ... 85
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 87
3.1 Introduction ... 87
3.2 Overview of the Research Method ... 87
3.3 Guiding Philosophical Paradigm of the Study ... 92
3.4 Setting for the Evaluation ... 95
3.5 Development of Instruments ... 96
3.6 Piloting the Study Population... 97
3.7 Sample and Sampling Techniques (Quantitative & Qualitative) ... 98
3.8 Data Collection Procedures ... 102
3.9 Stages of Quantitative Data Collection ... 105
3.10 Rationale for Quantitative Design ... 107
3.11 Rationale for Qualitative (Interview) ... 108
3.12 Documents Review ... 109
3.13 Rationale for Using Document Review ... 110
3.14 Data Analysis Procedures ... 111
3.14.1 Quantitative Data Analysis ... 111
3.14.2 Qualitative Data Analysis ... 113
3.15 Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument ... 115
3.16 Reliability in Quantitative Perspective ... 116
3.16.1 Output from the Factor Analysis, Reliability and Correlation. ... 117
3.16.2 Exploratory Factor Analysis and Loadings ... 118
3.16.3 Reliability... 122
3.16.4 Correlation among Variables ... 124
3.17 Trustworthiness of the Qualitative Study ... 126
3.17.1 Credibility ... 127
3.17.2 Transferability ... 127
3.17.3 Dependability ... 128
3.17.4 Confirmability ... 128
3.18 The Process of Interviwing, Transcription and Coding ... 129
3.19 Data Collection Matrix ... 131
3.20 Summary of the Chapter ... 133
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSES, RESULTS AND FINDINGS ... 134
4.1 Introduction ... 134
4.2 Section One: Demographic Description and Analysis ... 135
4.3 Profile of Respondents for the Research ... 136
4.3.1 Analysis of Respondents’ Demographic Information on Gender ... 136
4.3.2 Age of Respondents ... 137
4.3.3 Year of Study ... 137
4.3.4 Faculty of Study ... 138
4.3.5 Education Level of Parents ... 139
4.4 Section Two: Quantitative and Qualitative Data Analysis and Results ... 140
4.4.1 Findings of the Context Evaluation Dimension ... 140
126.96.36.199 Educational Setting of Djibouti University ... 142
188.8.131.52 Vision, Mission and values of the Djibouti University ... 144
184.108.40.206 National Policy of Djibouti Education Aims ... 146
220.127.116.11 Findings of the Effectiveness of the ELP through Questionnaire ... 147
18.104.22.168 The findings of the Effectiveness of Semi- Structured Interview Questions. ... 149
22.214.171.124 Findings of the Undergraduate Students’ Perception on the English Language Programme Goals ... 151
126.96.36.199 Findings of the Graduate Students’ Opinions about the Objectives of the English Programme ... 153
188.8.131.52 Summary of Findings for the Research Question One... 156
4.4.2 Input Evaluation Dimension ... 157
184.108.40.206 Findings of the Undergraduate Students’ Perceptions on the Quality Course Content of the English Language Programme ... 157
220.127.116.11 The Findings of the Graduate Students’ Perception of the Quality Course Content of the English Language Programme ... 159
18.104.22.168 Summary of Findings for Research Question Two ... 165
4.4.3 Process Evaluation ... 166
22.214.171.124 Findings of the Undergraduate Students’
Perceptions of Various Teaching Methods Used
(SPTME) Through Survey... 167
126.96.36.199 Findings of the graduate Students’ Perception of Various Teaching Methods through Interview (SPTME) ... 168
188.8.131.52 Findings of the Undergraduate Students’ Perceptions of Teaching Materials (SPTMA) ... 171
184.108.40.206 Findings of the Graduate Students’ Perceptions of the Teaching Materials through Interview... 172
4.4.4 Summary of Findings for the Research Question Three (Teaching Method and Materials)... 176
4.5 The Effect of Various Demographic Profile in the Students’ Perceptions on the Effectivness of the English Language Programme Evaluation Dimensions. ... 176
4.5.1 Results of Alternative Hypotheses Testing Manova... 176
4.5.2 Differences Among Students Regarding their Perceived Language Performance in Five Dimensions of Evaluation with Respect to Gender. ... 178
4.5.3 Differences Among Students Regarding their Perceived Language Performance in Five Dimensions of Evaluation Across the Year of Study. ... 183
4.5.4 Differences Among Students Regarding their Perceived Language Performance in Five Dimensions of Evaluation Across the Faculty of Study. ... 188
4.5.5 Differences Among Students Regarding their Perceived Language Performance in Five Dimensions of Evaluation Across the Education Level of Parents. ... 194
4.5.6 Summary of findings for Research Question Four ... 198
4.6 Decision Making About the Worth and Suggestions for Improvement of the English Language Teaching Programme At Djibouti University ... 200
4.6.1 Findings of the Graduate Students’ Judgments of the Worth of the English Language Programme of the Djibouti University... 200
4.6.2 Suggestions for Improvements of the English Language Programme ... 202
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 206
5.1 Introduction ... 206
5.2 Discussions of the Results & Findings of the Study ... 206
5.2.1 Context Evaluation ... 207
5.2.2 Review University Documents ... 207
5.2.3 Overall Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the English Language Programme ... 208
5.2.4 Students’ Perceptions on the Programme Objectives ... 209
5.3 Input Evaluation ... 211
5.3.1 Content of the English Language Programme ... 211
5.4 Process Evaluation ... 212
5.4.1 Teaching Methods... 213
5.4.2 Perception on the Material Resources ... 214
5.5 Product Evaluation ... 215
5.6 Decision Making and Suggestions About the Current Programme ... 220
5.7 Summary of the Chapter ... 221
5.8 Implications for Practice of the Study ... 225
5.9 Contribution the Study ... 227
5.10 Implications for Further Research ... 228
5.11 Conclusion... 229
REFERENCES ... 232
APPENDIX A: SURVEY COVER LETTER ... 253
APPENDIX B: INSTRUMENTS OF QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY ... 254
APPENDIX C: CONSENT FORM FOR PARTICIPATION ... 259
APPENDIX D: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR SEMI-STRUCTURED QUESTIONS ... 260
APPENDIX E: SAMPLE SIZE FOR GIVEN POPULATION ... 262
APPENDIX F: EVOLUTION OF STUDENTS PER YEAR (2001-2017) ... 263
APPENDIX G: SAMPLE FOR INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION FOR (PGS1) ... 264
APPENDIX H: SAMPLE OF CODING TECHNIQUE ... 266
APPENDIX I: A SAMPLE TEMPLATE IN GENERATING THEMES ... 267
APPENDIX J: DJBIBOUTI UNIVERSITY STATUS AND ITS COMPONENTS ... 280
APPENDIX K: SAMPLES OF ENGLISH SYLLABUS OF DJIBOUTI UNIVERSITY ... 281
APPENDIX L: SAMPLE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT PROGRAMME ... 287
APPENDIX M: NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS FOR INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTION ... 290
APPENDIX N: AUDIT TRAIL ... 291
APPENDIX O: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION APPROACHES ... 292
LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Page No.
2.1 Comparison of formative and summative evaluation 61
2.2 Advantages on Internal and External Evaluators 63
2.3 Some Studies used Stufflebeam’s CIPP Model of Evaluation
during the last decades 75
3.1 Philosophical Assumptions and their related Paradigms 94
3.2 Demographics of the Participants of Pilot Study 98
3.3 Population of the study 99
3.4 Demographic profile of the respondents 100
3.5 Measure of Sampling Adequacy 118
3.6 Descriptive statistics for the multidimensional Evaluation of
English Programme performance. 120
3.7 Means, SD, and Cronbach’s Alpha for the variables Pilot Data 123
3.8 Distribution of factors to their correlation 124
3.9 Results of the rotated factor analysis and loadings 125
3.10 Data collection matrix 132
4.1 Demographic Data on Gender 136
4.2 Distribution students by age 137
4.3 Demographic Information on Year of Study 138
4.4 Distribution of Students by Faculty of Study at the University 138
4.5 Distribution of Education Level of Parents 139
4.6 Students’ Perceptions of Evaluation Dimensions of the ELP 141 4.7 Mean Scores of the Students’ Views of Usefulness of the ELP 148 4.8 Mean Scores of the Students’ Perceptions 0n the Goals of the
4.9 Mean Scores of Students’ Opinions of Content of the Programme 158 4.10 Results of Frequencies and Percentages of Students’ Perceptions
of Various Teaching Methods Used 168
4.11 Results of Frequencies and Percentages of Students’ Perceptions
of Teaching Materials 172
4.12 Means scores and standard deviation students’ scores in five
language performances 179
4.13 Multivariate test between male and female undergraduate students’ perceptions of the language performance of English
4.14 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects 181
4.15 Descriptive Statistics of Mean, Standard Deviation in perceived
five language performance evaluation dimension of ELP 184
4.16 Multivariate Tests 184
4.17 Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances 185
4.18 Tukey HSD Multiple Comparisons 187
4.19 Descriptive Statistics of Mean Scores and Standard Deviation
Between the faculties of Study 189
4.20 The results of MANOVA for the Effect of Type of Faculties and
Institutions on students’ perceived the Effectiveness of ELP 190 4.21 Follow-up Test Results for the Effect of Type of Faculties and
Institutions on the Students’ perceived the ELP effectiveness. 191 4.22 Results of (Tukey HSD) Multiple Comparisons Across Faculties
and Institutions of Study. 192
4.23 Results of Mean and Standard Deviation of the Students’
Perception of the English language effectiveness by Educational
Level of Father. 196
4.24 Results of Mean and Standard Deviation of the Students’
Perception on the English Language Effectiveness by Educational
Level of Mother 196
4.25 The Results of MANONA for the Effect of Education Level of
Parents on Students’ Perceived in language performance 197 4.26 Summary of Analysis and Findings of the Five Research
4.27 Summary of Analysis and Findings of the Five Research
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No. Page No.
1.1 Location of Republic Djibouti on the World Map 7
1.2 Basic components of the CIPP Evaluation Model 22
1.3 Conceptual framework of the study 23
2.1 The correlation between a teaching programme, a syllabus, and
2.2 Major Evaluation Models Adopted from Fitzpatrick 64
3.1 Research Design & Analysis Procedures Plan 89
3.2 Summary of the Convergent Parallel Model 91
3.3 Steps in the Analysis of the Research 114
3.4 The Process of Interviewing, Transcribing, and Coding 130
3.6 Summary of Stages in Qualitative Data Analysis 131
5.1 Findings of the Effectiveness of English Language Programme 224
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
The present chapter provides an overview of the study. It includes a background of the study, brief details about Djibouti, statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, the research questions, and the significance of the study, its limitations, and discussion on the definitions of the terms. In addition to this, the organization and summary of the chapter are outlined.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the world of education, evaluating student learning and academic programs is rapidly taking center stage as the principal gauge of higher education’s effectiveness (Banta, Griffin, Flateby, & Kahn, 2009). The initiative of the students’ evaluation on the effectiveness of a teaching programme is not a new perspective. In fact, research on students’ evaluation of teaching effectiveness dates back to the 1920s with the work of Remmers (1915, 1930).
In recent years, many researchers have paid increased attention to the evaluation of academic programmes at Higher Education Institutions for the rapid changes in knowledge and society, notably in this technological and globalized era.
Stakeholders in higher education such as educators, teachers, students, employers, and parents have demanded that the graduates of universities and higher institutions should have a higher level of knowledge, competencies and communication skills (Chan, Brown, & Ludlow, 2014 and Okebukola, 2014). This is due to the need to communicate in a foreign language. Indeed, one needs to communicate in at least one foreign or in multiple languages that are learned in schools, in formal education
settings (Topkaya & Küçük, 2010).This requirement has driven higher institutions of learning to involve the evaluation of the teaching and learning process to include what and how much students are learning and to use this data to improve educational experiences presented. Looking at from this perspective, teaching programmes should be updated and revised constantly in order to respond to individual needs, global world demands and multi-language skilled workers.
However, in the literature of the field of education, there exists numerous studies indicated the importance of an evaluation of the teaching and learning programme. Thus, most universities and higher institutions in the world utilize students to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching (Grotelueschen, 1980; Seldin, 1984;
Abrami, 1989; Wgenaar, 1995; Chen, Y. and Hoshower, 2003; Yidiz, 2004; Yanik, 2007; Güllü, 2007; Ferda Tunc, 2010; Clinton Golding & Lee Adam, 2016).
Indeed, evaluation is an essential part of the educational process. Therefore, the evaluation of teaching programmes has different aspects such as an evaluation of the objectives and philosophy of a programme, the programme implementation procedures and processes, intentional and non-intentional results and outcomes of a program, stakeholders’ experiences, level of satisfactions and efficiency of teaching and learning, the use of appropriate teaching methods and materials for accountability and the improvement of quality (Kiely and Rea-Dickins, 2005 and Kelly, M. 2012).
Furthermore, the evaluation of the teaching programme may provide information concerning the usefulness, strengths, and weaknesses of an educational programme to improve and provide feedback for its stakeholders (Alderson & Beretta, 1992 and Küçük, Ö .2008). Regardless of the variety of evaluation purposes or reasons, most programmes share a common goal to improve quality and could be used for planning
and policy purposes, to provide information for decision-making on improvements, expansions or the elimination of a particular programme in education.
Hence, an evaluation of teaching is important for stakeholders who are decision makers such as policy makers, curriculum and materials designers and teachers.
Therefore, there is a responsibility for an education authority to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of an educational programme that is already being implemented in order to keep up and improve the quality of teaching and learning (Stein et al., 2013 and Benton & Cashin 2014).
Indeed, students are usually regarded as partners in teaching and learning endeavours. It is important that this partnership is extended to all areas of an academic arena, especially if students and faculties are thought to be the beneficiaries of these activities. Educational administrators need information that will aid them in decision- making. Hence, an evaluation can provide such information. Furthermore, students’
opinions can have effect on improving the quality of educational programmes. It was shown that students are conscientious and generally honest in giving their opinions and that their judgments are consistent with external evidence (Pace, 1985). Similarly, Kauffman et, al. (1984) believed that students’ views and perceptions were equitable and a valuable source. Furthermore, McAlduff, (1975) noted that “students are frank and sincere in their assessment. They give praise where praise is due” (p.
29).Therefore, student evaluation of teaching effectiveness has been commonly used to provide: (1) formative feedback to faculties to improve teaching, course content and structure; (2) a summary measure of teaching effectiveness for promotion and tenure decisions; (3) information to students for the selection of courses and teachers (Marsh
& Roche, 1993, p.6).
Given the fact that students are thought to be beneficiaries of education, the literature has shown that they should be allowed to make contributions at each stage of an educational programme’s development and should participate in the evaluation of the results. Students can also make important contributions to improve a programme’s quality. Kauffman (1984) stated that: “serious efforts at surveying students perceptions and experiences and feeding that data back to faculty and staff are key indicators of an attempt to improve programme quality” (p.33).
The outcome of students’ evaluation of teaching effectiveness has been seen as an important tool to measure the effectiveness of teaching quality. It has been used to reflect on qualities associated with good teaching such as lectures’ knowledge, clarity, classroom management and course organization. In addition to being a measurement tool for teaching effectiveness, the feedbacks obtained from the evaluation can help lecturers to grow and develop professionally through a self-reflection on their practices. Teachers can use feedbacks from student evaluations to improve their teaching (Marsh, 1987; Marsh and Roche, 1993; Dresel and Rindermann, 2011; Stein et al., 2013).
From the perspective of a learning institution, the results of the evaluation are beneficial to managing directors to identify specific areas to improve the performance of their lecturers (Yeoh, Ho, and Chan, 2012). Thus, it can be said that a regular and permanent evaluation is a must while shaping future plans. According to Brown, J. D.
(1989), constant evaluation means that there should always be reviewed of all of the components of a curriculum plan. He argued the significance of evaluation and stated that:
… the ongoing programme evaluation is the glue that connects and holds all of the elements together. Without evaluation, there is no cohesion among the elements and if left in isolation, any of them may become pointless. In short, the heart of the systematic approach to language curriculum design is evaluation on the part of the model that includes, connects and gives meaning to all the other elements. (p.235).
In fact, an evaluation is seen as a systematic application of scientific methods to evaluate the plan, application, development, or products of a programme (Jenkins &
The main purpose of this study was to gather information about the effectiveness and value of the English programme at the Djibouti University and then to provide these facts to decision-makers in order to sustain, modify or terminate the teaching and learning English programme based on the outcomes of the data results and findings.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the current English language programme and to improve decision- making by providing information to the programme managers that will aid them to enhance the quality of teaching and learning of the English language programme.
Consequently, in order to obtain the real facts about the English language programme, it was vital to appraise the views of the students in order to glean a full picture of the process of learning and teaching English within the Djibouti University. There is a paucity of empirical studies in the Djibouti University concerning the issue of programme evaluations or in broad sense, the curriculum evaluation domain.
Academics and program administrators have little information on the performance of university academic programs to rely on in pursuing this agenda. For this reason, this study, through the program evaluation of The English Language Program at Djibouti University will seek to add to the body of knowledge available on the area of teaching
Programme Evaluation. Nevertheless, there are abundant studies cited in literature worldwide regarding English programme evaluation issues. There are many studies that explored the evaluation of the English language programmes all over the world.
Some of these studies for further details on the literature review were provided in chapter two.
1.2 DJIBOUTI IN BRIEF
The Republic of Djibouti is a tiny country located in the eastern part of Africa commonly known as the Horn of Africa. With an area of 23,200 square km2, it shares borders with Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south-west, Somalia in the south-east and the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea in the East.
Djibouti has always been at the crossroads of many different civilizations and is actually considered as the bolt between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, one of the busiest sea routes in the world. The sea traffic in the Red Sea and Arab Gulf are the only sea route which are more importance than in any other sea routes in the world.
In fact, its exceptional geographic location at the crossroads of the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea gives Djibouti a privileged position in the exchanges of the world. It is this very geographical location which took France to colonize Djibouti for more than 115 years (Andre, Loudouze, 1982). The country consists of five administrative districts: Djibouti City (the capital), Obock, Tadjourah, Dikhil, Ali- Sabieh, and Arta. (See figure 1.1).