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DIFFERENCES IN SELF-REGULATION AND STUDENT ENGAGEMENT BETWEEN IIUM UNDERGRADUATES

TAKING TAHFIZ AND NON-TAHFIZ CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES

BY

EVI DESTIKASARI GINTING

A dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Education

Kulliyyah of Education

International Islamic University Malaysia

APRIL 2019

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ABSTRACT

The plight of aggressive behaviours such as bullying, and fighting among the undergraduate students are of great concern for educational institutions. Indeed the main factors of such aggressiveness are due to the lacking of self-regulation. Therefore, educators and researchers look forward to engage their undergraduate students in the university based co-curricular activities that may help them to work with a team of like minded students and learn how to maintain self-regulation. The main objective of the study is to analyse the differences in self-regulation of student engagement between the undergraduate students taking tahfiz program and the non-tahfiz co-curricular activities under the supervision of Centre for Credited Leadership and Virtues (CLAV), at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia. The study employs random sampling technique of quantitative research methods was adopted to choose a total of 382 undergraduate students from CLAV, IIUM. The overall results of this study has shown that there was no significant difference of levels of self-regulation and student engagement between students of the tahfiz program and non-tahfiz co-curricular activities. This study is significant for both students and teachers to be informed of the value of on campus co-curricular activities that enhance students’ self-regulation and engagement, and consequently inspire students to be more attentive to their studies. Thus, the teachers will be able to motivate their students to get engaged in such co-curricular activities to enjoy their study life to the fullest as well as curb their aggressive behaviours by maintaining self-regulation.

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iii

ثحبلا صخلم

،رمنتلا لثم ةيناودعلا تايكولسلا روهظ بلاطلا ينب ةرجاشلماو فنعلاو

ا ايربك اقلق يرثي ينيعمالج

تايكولسلا هذه لثلم ةيسيئرلا بابسلأا نأ عقاولاو .ةيميلعتلا تاسسؤملل في مهفعض لىإ عجرت

ا مبهلاط كارشإ لىإ نوثحابلاو نوملعلما علطتي ،كلذلو .تياذلا ميظنتلا ةطشنلأا في ينيعمالج

عاست دق تيلا ةعمالجبا ةيفصلالا عم ةعوملمجا في يعاملجا لمعلا ىلع مهد

امك ،ينبيطلا بلاطلا

يئرلا فدلهاو .تياذلا ميظنتلا ىلع ظافلحا ةيفيك ملعت ىلع مهعجشت انهأ وه ثحبلا اذه نم يس

ينكراشلما بلاطلا ىدل( تياذلا ميظنتلا في تافلاتخلاا دوجو ىلع فرعتلا )ةيفصلالا جمابرلا في

ب في ينكراشلما بلاطلا ينب شلما نيرخلآا بلاطلا ينبو نآرقلا ظفح جمنار

ىرخأ جمارب في ينكرا

زكرم فارشإ تتح اهلك ةيفصلالا جمابرلا هذهو ،)نآرقلا ظفح جمنارب يرغ(

قلاخلأاو ةدايقلا

( ( يازيلام ةيلماعلا ةيملاسلإا ةعمالجبا ) CLAV

ثيح نم ثحبلا اذهو .) IIUM

وهف هجهنم

ئاوشع ةقيرطب تناابتسلاا عيزوت للاخ نم تناايبلا عجم تم دقو ،يمك ثبح ينكراشلما بلاطلل ةي

مهددعو )ىرخأ جماربو نآرقلا ظفح جمنارب في( ةيفصلالا ةطشنلأا في اذه ءاج دقو .ابلاط 382

يظنتلا تياوتسم في يربك فلاتخا دجوي لا هنأ ةجيتنب ثحبلا ينب تياذلا م

في ينكراشلما بلاطلا

يرغ( ىرخأ جمارب في ينكراشلما نيرخلآا بلاطلا ينبو نآرقلا ظفح جمنارب .)نآرقلا ظفح جمنارب

كراشلما ةيهمبأ مهملاعإ متيل ينملعلماو بلاطلا نم لكل مهم ثحبلا اذهو ةيفصلالا جمابرلا في ة

با ،بلاطلا ىدل تياذلا ميظنتلا ززعت تيلا ةعمالجبا شت انهأ لىإ ةفاضلإ

رثكلأا هابتنلاا ىلع مهعج

راشملل مبهلاط زيفتح ىلع ينملعلما دعاسي هنإ ،لياتلباو .مهتسارد ونح ةطشنلأا هذه لثم في ةك

تقولا سفن فيو ،روص لجمأ ىلع ةيساردلا متهايبح اوعتمتسي يكل ةيفصلالا

تايكولسلا داعبإ

يظنتلا ىلع ظافلحا للاخ نم مهنع ةيناودعلا

.تياذلا م

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APPROVAL PAGE

I certify that I have supervised and read this study and that in my opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Master of Education.

……….

Ssekamanya Siraje Abdallah Supervisor

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Master of Education.

……….

Norwati Mansor Examiner

This dissertation was submitted to the Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling and is accepted as a fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Education.

……….

Siti Kholijah Kassim

Head, Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling

This dissertation was submitted to the Kulliyyah of Education and is accepted as a fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Education.

……….

Ismail Sheikh Ahmad

Dean, Kulliyyah of Education

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this dissertation is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degrees at IIUM or other institutions.

Evi Destikasari Ginting

Signature... Date...

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INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA

DECLARATION OF COPYRIGHT AND AFFIRMATION OF FAIR USE OF UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH

DIFFERENCES IN SELF-REGULATION AND STUDENT ENGAGEMENT BETWEEN IIUM UNDERGRADUATES TAKING TAHFIZ AND NON-TAHFIZ CO-CURRICULAR

ACTIVITIES

I declare that the copyright holders of this research paper are jointly owned by the student and IIUM.

Copyright © 2019 Evi Destikasari Ginting and International Islamic University Malaysia. All rights reserved.

No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below

1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may only be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgement.

2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.

3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.

By signing this form, I acknowledged that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Right and Commercialization policy.

Affirmed by Evi Destikasari Ginting

……..……….. ………..

Signature Date

DEDICATION

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Dedicated to My beloved father, H. Mahmuddin Ginting and mother, Hj. Saniah Br.

Surbakti. My beloved mother in law, Siti Khadijah. My beloved husband, Dr. Achmad Yani, My Little Angel Tasneem Humaira and Dr. Hakimah. And to all big families;

Dewi Puspa Sari Ginting, Iskandar Muda Ginting, Muhammad Husni Thamrin Ginting, Mahendra Syahputra Ginting, Muhammad Habibie Ginting, teachers/lecturers, administrators and students who value life-long students’ educational experiences.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In the name of Allah, the al-Mighty, the Most Benevolence and the Most Merciful.

Alhamdulillah, finally I could reach at the final point of my studies in Master’s Degree.

First of all, I would like to extend an honorable gratitude to my supervisor, Assoc. Prof.

Dr. Ssekamanya Siraje Abdallah, who gave me his hand in doing my works. Thank you for your guidance and support that encouraged me to be a motivated and independent learner. Also, thanks to my examiner, Asst. Prof. Dr. Norwati Mansor for her careful reading of my thesis and suggestions.

My sincere appreciation goes to Prof. Dr. Rosnani Hashim, Assoc. Prof. Dr.

Joharry Othman, Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sahari Nordin, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Burhan Ibrahim, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yedullah Kazmi, Prof. Dr. Nik Ahmad Hisham Ismail, Assoc.

Prof. Dr. Ainol Madziah Zubairi, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Siti Rafiah Abd. Hamid, Assoc. Prof.

Dr. Nik Suryani Nik Abd. Rahman who shared their knowledge and ideas during my period of study. May Allah reward them for their good deeds. Last but not least, thanks to my beloved friends and other colleagues for their never-ending company, help and support.

I would like to express my highest gratitude to all students and administrators of IIUM for their help and assistance during my study. Thank you for your participation and cooperation.

Ultimately, I would like to dedicate an endless gratitude to my beloved family particularly my father, H. Mahmuddin Ginting and mother, Hj. Saniah Br. Surbakti, my husband, Dr. Achmad Yani and my daughter Tasneem Humaira for their genuine love, prayer, and trust.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ... ii

Abstract in Arabic ... iii

Approval Page ... iv

Declaration ... v

Copyright Page ... vi

Dedication ... vi

Acknowledgements ... viii

List of Tables ... xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ... 1

1.1 Background of the Study ... 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem ... 5

1.3 Research Objectives ... 9

1.4 Research Questions ... 10

1.5 Significance of the Study ... 10

1.6 Definitions of Terms ... 13

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ... 15

2.1 Introduction ... 15

2.2 Self Regulation ... 15

2.2.1 Definition of Self-Regulation ... 15

2.2.2 The Components of Self-Regulation ... 16

2.2.3 Causes or Factors Influencing Self-Regulation ... 18

2.2.4 Factors Influenced by Self-Regulation or Outcomes ... 19

2.2.5 Measuring of Self-Regulation (Instruments) ... 21

2.2.6 Improving Self-Regulation (Interventions) ... 22

2.3 Students Engagement ... 25

2.3.1 Definition of Student Engagement ... 25

2.3.2 The Components or Different Types of Student Engagement ... 27

2.3.3 Causes or Factors Influencing Student Engagement ... 28

2.3.4 Factors Influenced by Student Engagement or Outcomes ... 28

2.3.5 Measuring of Student Engagement (Instruments) ... 30

2.3.6 Improving Student Engagement ... 31

2.4 Relationship between Self-Regulation and Student Engagement ... 33

2.5 Religious Practices as a Means for Improving Self-Regulation ... 34

2.5.1 Tahfiz Programme and Self-Regulation ... 37

2.6 Religious Practices as a Means for Improving Student Engagement ... 38

2.6.1 Tahfiz Programme and Student Engagement ... 40

2.7 The Tahfiz Programme at the Centre for Credited Leadership and Virtues (CLAV) in IIUM ... 41

2.8 Related Study ... 42

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CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 45

3.1 Introduction ... 45

3.2 Research Design ... 45

3.3 Population and Sample ... 46

3.4 Sample of this Research ... 47

3.4.1 Participants of the Tahfiz Program ... 47

3.4.2 Participants of Non-Tahfiz Co-Curricular Activities ... 48

3.5 Sampling Procedure ... 49

3.6 Instruments ... 52

3.6.1 Validity and Reliability of Instrument ... 57

3.7 Pilot Test ... 57

3.8 Data Collection Procedures ... 60

3.9 Data Analysis ... 61

3.10 Summary ... 62

CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS ... 63

4.1 Introduction ... 63

4.2 Demographic Information of the Respondents ... 63

4.2.1 Gender ... 63

4.2.2 Co-Curricular Courses ... 64

4.3 The Results of the Study ... 66

4.3.1 The Level of Self-Regulation among the Selected IIUM Undergraduate Students (Research Question 1) ... 66

4.3.1.1 Receiving the Relevant Information ... 67

4.3.1.2 Evaluating and Comparing the Information ... 68

4.3.1.3 Triggering Change ... 69

4.3.1.4 Searching for Options... 71

4.3.1.5 Formulating a Plan ... 72

4.3.1.6 Implementing the Plan ... 73

4.3.1.7 Ancillary Findings ... 75

4.3.2 The Level of Student Engagement among the Selected IIUM Undergraduate Students (Research Question 2) ... 75

4.3.2.1 Cognitive Engagement ... 76

4.3.2.2 Behavioral Engagement (Effort and Persistence) ... 78

4.3.2.3 Affective Engagement (Liking for Learning) ... 80

4.3.2.4 Affective Engagement (Liking for Campus) ... 81

4.3.2.5 Behavioral Engagement (Extracurricular Activities) ... 82

4.3.2.6 Ancillary Findings ... 83

4.3.3 Are There Any Differences in Self-Regulation between Students Participating in the Tahfiz Program and Students Who are Following Non-Tahfiz Co-Curricular Activities? (Research Question 3) ... 84

4.3.3.1 Differences in Self-Regulation between Students Participating in the Tahfiz Program and Non-Tahfiz Co- Curricular Activities ... 84

4.3.4 Are There Any Differences in Student Engagement between Students Participating in the Tahfiz Program and Students Who are Following Non-Tahfiz Co-Curricular Activities? (Research Question 4) ... 88

4.4 Summary ... 91

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CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND

CONCLUSIONS ... 94

5.1 Introduction ... 94

5.2 Discussion on Findings ... 94

5.3 The Level of Self-Regulation among the Selected IIUM Undergraduate Students ... 95

5.4 The Level of Student Engagement among the Selected IIUM Undergraduate Students ... 100

5.5 Differences in Self-Regulation between Students Participating in the Tahfiz Program and Students Who are Following Non-Tahfiz Co- Curricular Activities ... 104

5.6 Differences in Student Engagement between Students Participating in the Tahfiz Program and Students Who are Following Non-Tahfiz Co- Curricular Activities ... 105

5.7 Conclusions ... 107

5.8 Recommendations ... 107

5.8.1 Recommendations for the Department of the Centre Credited Leadership and Virtues (CLAV) In International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) ... 109

5.9 Implications ... 111

REFERENCES ... 113

APPENDIX A: THE QUESTIONNAIRE ... 125

APPENDIX B: PROOFREADING THESIS LETTER FROM DEPARTMENT KULLIYYAH OF LANGUAGES AND MANAGEMENT ... 129

APPENDIX C: PROOFREADING ABSTRACT IN ARABIC LETTER FROM DEPARTMENT KULLIYYAH OF LANGUAGES AND MANAGEMENT ... 130

APPENDIX D: APPROVAL LETTER FOR TOPIC AND SUPERVISOR ... 131

APPENDIX E: APPROVAL LETTER FOR RESEARCH PROPOSAL ... 132

APPENDIX F: PERMISSION LETTER TO COLLECT DATA FROM KULLIYYAH OF EDUCATION TO THE CENTRE FOR CREDITED LEADERSHIP AND VIRTUES (CLAV) ... 133

APPENDIX G: PERMISSION LETTER TO COLLECT DATA FROM THE CENTRE FOR CREDITED LEADERSHIP AND VIRTUES (CLAV) ... 134

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Number of Total of Students in the Tahfiz and Non-Tahfiz Co-

Curricular Activities Programs 50

Table 3.2 Number of Total Participants Including the Students of Tahfiz

Program and Non-Tahfiz Co-Curricular Activities Programs 52 Table 3.3 The Construct of Items for Measuring Self-Regulation 56 Table 3.4 The Construct of Items for Measuring Student Engagement 57 Table 3.5 The First Pilot Study Results of Self-Regulation and Student

Engagement between Students of Tahfiz and Students of Non-

Tahfiz Co-Curricular Activities 59

Table 3.6 The Second Pilot Study on Self-Regulation and Student Engagement among Students of Tahfiz Program and Students of

Non-Tahfiz Co-Curricular Activities 60

Table 3.7 The Description of Data Analysis 62

Table 4.1 Frequency Distribution of Gender (Students’ Tahfiz Program and

Students’ Non-Tahfiz Co-Curricular Activities) 65

Table 4.2 Frequency Distribution of Course Levels of the Tahfiz Program 66 Table 4.3 Frequency Distribution of Co-Curricular Courses Levels of Non-

Tahfiz Co-Curricular Activities 67

Table 4.4 Descriptive Data for Receiving Relevant Information Statements 69 Table 4.5 Descriptive Data for Evaluating and Comparing Information

Statements 70

Table 4.6 Descriptive Data for Triggering Change Statements 71 Table 4.7 Descriptive Data of Searching for Options Statements 72

Table 4.8 Descriptive Data Formulating Plan Statements 73

Table 4.9 Descriptive Data of Implementing the Plan Statements 75 Table 4.10 Descriptive Data Cognitive Engagement Statements 78 Table 4.11 Descriptive Data Behavioral Engagement (Effort and Persistence)

Statements 80

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Table 4.12 Descriptive Data Affective Engagement (Liking for Learning)

Statements 81

Table 4.13 Descriptive Data Affective Engagement (Liking for Campus)

Statements 83

Table 4.14 Descriptive Data Behavioral Engagement (Extracurricular

Activities) Statements 84

Table 4.15 The Descriptive Data of t-test 86

Table 4.16 Summary Data of t-test in Differences of Self-Regulation Students participating in the Tahfiz Program and Non-Tahfiz Co-Curricular

Activities 88

Table 4.17 The Descriptive Data of t-test 89

Table 4.18 Summary data of t-test in Differences of Student Engagement which are following Tahfiz Program and Non-Tahfiz Co-

Curricular Activities 91

Table 4.19 Summaries of the Results 94

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Today, in Indonesia and other parts of the Muslim world, there is a growing concern about students having aggressive behaviours, which can be attributed to lack of self-regulation.

Students who cannot exercise self-regulation are likely to be involved in aggressive activities such as bullying, victimization, proactive aggression, reactive aggression, power-related aggression and affiliation-related aggression (Antara, 2013). These issues are not only restricted to immature individuals, but it can also happen among undergraduate students in private and public universities (Ayele & Mengistu, 2004).

Students are supposed to have good behaviours that such as respect for each other, care, mutual affection, giving attention, and showing concern. However, the fact is these issues can be seen from several cases happening recently in learning institutions, which includes student violence, aggressive behaviours, and bullying. For instance, in Indonesia, security officials recently found guns, five kilograms of dried marijuana, and alcohol at the State University of Makassar (UNM). In another incident, students were caught throwing stones and sharp weapons in the middle of Diponegoro district, Jakarta, during a clash between students of Indonesia Christian University (UKI) and Persada Indonesia University (UPI) (Setiawan, 2012).

The above incidents are examples of failure in maintaining the students’ self- regulation, which could be related to student engagement. Undergraduate students are expected to be successful in academic, non-academic and co-curricular, graduate as soon as possible, and have a good career in the future. Therefore, students supposed to engaged and become active in campus activities, as well as obtaining a high CGPA (Cumulative

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Grade Point Average). When students engage with different programmes as part their study’s graduation prerequisites, it will enhance their skills development and help maintain self-regulation through their thoughts and emotions. But, the reality is the majority of the undergraduate students are not bothered to join co-curricular activities on campus. This is because they fail to maintain self-regulation. For instance, they do not concentrate in studies because they are involved in several clubs or organisations. At the same time, they are socializing with friends by going to clubs, outings, movies, karaoke, dating and also by chatting on Facebook, WhatsApp, Line, BlackBerry Messenger, Yahoo Messenger and so forth. In addition, they also take on a part-time job. They do not have enough time to study properly as well because they are wasting time using gadgets and being online. Thus, it is possible these actions have an influence on their CGPA, their ability to get better grades than their counterparts as well as not being interested in getting involved in campus activities (Ault, Janosz, Morizot & Pagani, 2009).

The aims of the student engagement in co-curricular activities are to develop their characteristics and personality, as well as to enhance their skills in terms of persistence, achievement, retention and successfully adapting to the campus environment (Nelson, Quinn, Marrington & Clarke, 2012). Student engagement also helps undergraduate students face many social problems on campus including feeling rejected, lonely and isolated, difficulty finding few classmates to socialise with during free time, difficulty in finding a partner for collaborative activities, being chosen last for team activities, being bullied, committing vandalism, smoking, coupling and so on. University undergraduate students may also face challenges regarding their health, both physical and psychological, which may have long-term effects (Shore, 2015).

Furthermore, student engagement in co-curricular sports activities such as tennis, football, swimming and volleyball helps the undergraduate students maintain their

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physical health. However, based on the evidence from a study presented at the 15th World Conference on Tobacco or Health, students appear to care very little about their health.

This particular study was carried out in three Indonesian universities, i.e. Universitas Gajah Mada (UGM), Universitas Islam Indonesia (UII) and Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta (UMY), and involved 2192 medical students as the sample. It found that 25 percent of medical student were active smokers. At one of the universities, the number reached as high as 35 percent, most of whom are male students. The study also revealed that health awareness among Indonesian students, in particular, is still far below expectation, even among prospective doctors who are supposed to be treating smoking- related illnesses in the future (Pramudiarja, 2012).

Self-regulation and student engagement could affect psychological health outcomes of students. The activities such as community services, tennis, archery, basic counselling, khat, sepak takraw, mosque management, tahfiz programme, and so forth are psychological spaces provided by the campus for the students to develop self-regulation skills. For instance, the finding results of a previous study suggest that tahfiz programme could affect the psychological processes of the Indonesian students including emotion control (Ayub, 2014).

The worrying condition of the students has become a concern among a few organisations. For example, Grutardo and Crudo (2012) mentioned that the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) organised a national survey of university students, focusing on mental health conditions, in order to learn about student engagement on campus. NAMI designed the survey to hear directly the students’ issues in areas such as social, academic, family (which can impact their academic performance), co-curricular and so on. The organisation collected data using the survey about whether or not universities are meeting their needs and what improvements are needed to support their

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student engagement. This survey was essential in order to improve students’ self- regulation as well as student engagement which involves activities on campus and having spiritual, physical and psychological health. Thus, they could concentrate in their study, graduate with a good academic achievement, and conduct themselves through good behaviours.

In religion, self-regulation can affect on undergraduate students’ religiosity. All aspects of our livesare governed by religion. Hence, self-regulation can have a significant impact on student engagement in their religious practices on campus, which could make them interested in following religious co-curricular activities including the tahfiz programme. Self-regulation may lead students to engage in religious programmes in the universities, to improve religious belief and practices of religion, forming character behaviours, how they feel towards others and relationships to one’s self and closeness to God. Self-regulation through religiosity can affect students’ belief to the point that they are following practices of other religions by their own free will. For instance, in Semarang, Indonesia, 12 Muslim students from the Department of Comparative Religion IAIN Walisongo participated in the Christmas Mass. The reason given was that they wanted to follow this ceremony from beginning to end, but instead, they were found to be solemnly involved in Christian rituals (Sunnis, 2012).

Thus, the researcher became interested to investigate students’ self-regulation and student engagement of undergraduate students because they are the future of the nation and the state. Therefore, at this age, they should maintain self-regulation in order to develop a good character. A good character includes morals, good behaviours, attitudes, manners and involvement in programmes that can develop skills and character, such as religious co-curricular activities on campus.

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5 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Ideally, undergraduate students obtaining higher education should possess self-regulation behaviours through their words, the tone of voice, reactions, actions, mannerisms, facial expressions and body language (Malek & Jdaitawi, 2015). It can be revealed in every aspect of students’ behaviours and thinking. If undergraduate students can detect poor self-regulation in their own self, they can make judgments about themselves, and have the potential for success when they are actively involved in the co-curricular activities on campus. In addition, the undergraduates’ ability to can maintain self-regulation can be seen through their behaviours, which can tell other people about who they are, what they do and what others can expect from them. Furthermore, when an undergraduate student is perceived as having a great demeanour, other students will naturally incline towards the person and be more willing to offer help when the person requires it. However, undergraduate students today appear to lack self-regulation, which causes them problems in many areas of their life including academic, social, health and religion. Moreover, poor self-regulation can lead to the undergraduate students being lackadaisical in their ibadat, going clubbing at nightclubs, dating without restriction, watching harmful movies, smoking, taking drugs, consuming alcohol, having problems with friends, isolating themselves from others, loneliness, inability to focus on their studies and so forth (Ayele

& Mengistu, 2004). In one example, students were caught throwing stones and sharp weapons in the middle district of Diponegoro, Jakarta, where students of Indonesia Christian University (UKI) clashed with their counterparts from Persada Indonesia University (UPI) (Setiawan, 2012). Bidwell (2014) also reported that school crime and violence have been rising recently.

The National Center for Education Statistics released its annual “Indicators of School Crime and Safety” report, finding that during the 2010-11 school years – the most

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recent data available – there were 31 violent deaths – such as homicides and suicides involving students, staff members, and others – on school campuses. That’s a decrease from a nearly 20-year high of 63 during the 2006-07 school year. But nonfatal incidents at school – such as theft and assault – appear to be on the rise, after several years of steady decline. In 2012, students between the ages of 12 and 18 experienced more than 1.3 million nonfatal victimisations, according to the report.

These incidents happened because there were undergraduate students who lack self-regulation. Sometimes when they face challenges involving other students, they may have problems controlling their own behaviours. They also have difficulties recognising internal skills, external skills and controlling behaviours, and how to react to conditions and situational factors around them. This may also include problems with directing, sustaining attention, and concentration (Taylor, 1997).

Students’ self-regulation can be improved through involvement in co-curricular activities such as tahfiz programme, automotive club, community services, gamelan, photography, cooking, first aid, recreation, swimming, tennis and so forth. Student engagement in these programmes can have an effect on students’ long-term positive relationship with dependable people who communicate the value of self-regulation. Self- regulation can be developed through challenges that are carefully selected to be within the student’s skill range, exposing many positive role models especially other students who demonstrate good self-regulation and deliberate practices coupled with rewards for their effort. Undergraduate students can use role play and simulations that require the deployment of self-regulation to develop a personal vocabulary in relation to self- regulation, thus promoting a sense of ownership (Jones, 2001; Lott, 2013 & Maroney, 2010).

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Engaged students who are actively involved in co-curricular activities are more likely to be recognised by people on campus. Students choose to join their particular co- curricular programmes because they may want to build their character and personality and develop leadership skills in order to be of service to their friends, parents, lecturers, and people around the university. Furthermore, Indonesian students who want to be more successful often choose to engage in different co-curricular programmes. For instance, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah (UIN SYAHIDA) students join tahfiz programme because for them memorising Al-Qur’an helps with good self-regulation as well as a way of maintaining behaviours that are proper according to the teaching of Islam (Ayub, 2014).

Allah says, “Those to whom we have sent the Book, study it as it should be studied: They are the ones that believe therein, those who reject faith therein, the loss is their own” [Al-Baqarah: 121]. In addition, Uthmaan, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet Mohammad, peace be upon him, said, “the best one of you who study the Al-Qur’an and teach it [Al-Bukhari]”. No one can deny the great value of the Holy Al- Qur’an in the lives of Muslim. It serves as a guide for managing our attitudes. We not only can get a lot of benefits from Al-Qur’an by reading and memorising it, but also gives to us advantages in terms of our health. Al-Qur’an memorisation programme helps the students’ brain to memorise the whole Al-Qur’an in an easy and smooth way (A Committee of Scholars, 2007; Alaro, 2007). It can be assumed that students who have good self-regulation and they are frequently more aggressive in study engagement, may gain success in academic and non-academic such as being number one in the class and wanting to be a better leader. They want to achieve those goals by joining many programmes including co-curricular activities on campus.

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On the other hand, undergraduate students who feel unmotivated to engage in co- curricular activities could become anti-social, become isolated from people, as well as suffer from deficiencies in interpersonal skills. Therefore, students should be encouraged to become actively engaged in co-curricular activities in order to help them to improve self-regulation. They can learn to engage in cooperative learning teams in a safe, intimate atmosphere where social skills are modelled by other group members and practice new skills. University undergraduate students with self-regulation problems can benefit from learning to work in teams. The benefits of learning self-regulation by working with other students include decreased peer pressure, having a supportive means for mastering skills, develop interpersonal and small group skills, encourages individual accountability and creates an environment in which they can learn and practice the social skills acquired (Baumeister, Vohs & Tice, 2007).

Based on the literature, there appears to be low self-regulation and student engagement among undergraduate students at universities today, and it the concern of many researchers. Previous studies have shown the results related to both variables and most of the study found were done by Western scholars.

Self-regulation (behaviour, interest, motivational and self-efficacy) in learning was found to correlate significantly with three types of student engagement (behavioural, emotional and cognitive) at Schools of Gerontology and Engineering at university in the south-western USA (Sun & Rueda, 2012). Another research from Indonesia also found that self-regulation in terms has an effect on young children’s engagement (academic achievement, on cognitive, on motivation and metacognitive strategy application) and learning during training programmes (Dignath, Buettner & Langfeldt, 2008).

Furthermore, a previous research involving 319 Israeli 4th and 5th -grade students found

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that academic engagement relates to self-regulation (how to control emotion, anxiety and anger) (Assor, Kaplan, Kanat-Maymon & Roth, 2005).

However, most of these studies have been done by the scholars from the Western perspective and in the Western setting. Therefore, by learning from the Western perspective of self-regulation and student engagement, the present study examined the two variables in Islamic perspective by studying Muslim undergraduate students in International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) who were in the process of memorising Al-Qur’an through the tahfiz programme. These participant students were involved other co-curricular activities such as the automotive club, community services, tennis, khat, mosque management, netball, volleyball, sepak takraw and so forth. Similarly, this study also sought to follow of Islamic perspectives in order to understand the level of self- regulation and student engagement based on Al-Qur’an and Hadith, the Six Articles of Iman (Set of Beliefs) and the Five Pillars of Islam (Acts of Worship) and on-campus social norms. The findings of this study can benefit students, parents, educators, education and universities (Esposito & John, 2002).

1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study are as follows;

1. To examine the level of self-regulation among the selected IIUM undergraduate students.

2. To examine the level of student engagement among the selected IIUM undergraduate students.

3. To find out if there are differences in self-regulation between students participating in the tahfiz programme and students who are participating in non-tahfiz co-curricular activities.

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4. To find out if there are differences in student engagement among students participating in the tahfiz programme and students who are participating in non-tahfiz co-curricular activities.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This study was guided by following research questions.

1. What is the level of self-regulation among the selected IIUM undergraduate students?

2. What is the level of student engagement among the selected IIUM undergraduate students?

3. Are there any differences in self-regulation between students participating in the tahfiz programme and students who participatein non-tahfiz co-curricular activities?

4. Are there any differences in student engagement among students participating in the tahfiz programme and students who are participating in non-tahfiz co- curricular activities?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Firstly, this study reviewed previous studies on self-regulation and student engagement, which were done from the Western perspective. The significant difference between this study and the previous studies is the researcher explored the variables through the Islamic perspective. In the Islamic perspective, important religious practices including the creed (syahadat), prayer (sholat), charity (zakat) and pilgrimage (haji) can enhance student engagement and self-regulation by following tahfiz and non-tahfiz co-curricular activities.

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Secondly, memorising, reciting and teaching Al-Qur’an is also one of the religious practices that can increase both self-regulation and student engagement in tahfiz programme and non-tahfiz co-curricular activities. For example, through fasting, students could improve their immune system while learning the principle of sincerity and love towards Allah, develop a sense of hope and an optimistic outlook on life, establish in themselves genuine virtues of effective devotion, honest dedication, and closeness to Allah. When students fast in Ramadhan, they feel hungry at the time. But they could suppress the hunger, not eat and drink until the time to break fast. They would still be involved in the tahfiz programme and non-tahfiz co-Curricular activities on campus. In other words, fasting improves student engagement and self-regulation which are apparent through their good behaviours and the ability to refrain from hunger while fasting sincerely before Allah (Rofiq & Kusnawi, 2012).

Western scholars also found that religious practices can influence self-regulation and student engagement. Students’ religious practices have been shown in several different models to increase both of self-regulation and student engagement in co- curricular activities, particularly in terms of behavioural and emotional. Moreover, the Christian students’ religious practices outcomes were influenced by the self-regulation, through attendance in the Church, doing meditation, building internal energy or life force, developing compassion, love, patience, generosity and forgiveness, having a clear mind and consciousness, and being more health conscious by reducing high blood pressure, and avoiding depression and anxiety. Student engagement also involves daily meditation programmes to train their awareness. Prayer beads or other ritual objects are commonly used during meditation in order to remind the practitioner about some aspects of that training. It is followed by emotion regulation which affects the spirituality of the individuals through feelings of closeness to God as a form of self-transcendence (Aldwin,

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