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Offshore Kinetic Energy Potential of Peninsular Malaysia by Using Hybrid Site Selection Method


Nur Amira Nabilah Bt Mohd Saleh 18001056

Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the

Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) (Civil)


Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar

31750 Tronoh Perak Darul Ridzuan



Offshore Kinetic Energy Potential of Peninsular Malaysia by Using Hybrid Site Selection Method


Nur Amira Nabilah Bt Mohd Saleh 18001056

A project dissertation submitted to the Civil and Environmental Engineering Programme

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS In partial fulfilment of the requirement for the


Approved by,


(Ts Dr. Ng Cheng Yee)


September 2022



This is to certify that I am responsible for the work submitted in this project, that the original work is my own except as specified in the references and acknowledgements, and that the original work contained herein have not been undertaken or done by unspecified sources or persons.





The rapid growth of the global population and technological advancements have resulted in an exponential increase in energy demand. The usage of fossil fuels will lead to the production of greenhouse gases, which will cause changes in weather, significant health problems, sea-level rise, and changes in the ecosystem, all of which will jeopardise human’s life. According on this information, all nations have begun to undertake plans to at least prevent these situations, including examining their energy strategies and regulations and proposing various methods, one of which is the use of renewable energy resources. The continual negative repercussions were all caused by a single factor: the extensive usage of non-renewable energies. With that, renewable energies have become the interest of most research and the implementation of this clean energy is urgent to achieve sustainable development. Renewable energy includes wind energy, solar energy, hydro energy, biofuel energy, marine energy, and geothermal energy. Malaysia is located within South East Asia, and Peninsular Malaysia particularly is surrounded by Strait of Malacca and South China Sea. Thus, the source of hydrokinetic energy is plenty and convenient for the location of Peninsular Malaysia. As a result, these renewable energies have captured the attention of many researchers. Nonetheless, the deployment of this clean energy is critical to achieve sustainable development. Many coastal regions, particularly estuaries, can gain from hydrokinetic energy by diversifying and decarbonizing their energy mix. These are usually regions with high environmental value and high socioeconomic activity. The aim of this study is to give a complete approach for identifying the best places for hydrokinetic energy extraction within Peninsular Malaysia by taking into account all essential factors that influence decision-making.



I would like to take this opportunity in expressing my deepest gratitude to the Almighty for presenting me with the opportunity to be where I am today. I would also like to thank the one who has been guiding me in every step of my FYP, Ts Dr. Ng Cheng Yee, my supervisor for the continuous guidance and support that allows me to excel in my degree and to complete this dissertation. Dr Ng Cheng Yee has been an ideal guidance, mentor, and supervisor, offering advices and encouragement with a perfect blend of insight and humour. I’m proud of, and grateful for, my time working with her.

Last, but not least, my warm and heartfelt thanks go to my family and friends for their tremendous support and hope they had given to me.










1.1 Background of Study 1

1.2 Problem Statement 3

1.3 Objectives 4

1.4 Scope of Study and Purpose 4


2.1 Climate changes 5

2.2 Renewable and non-renewable energy 5

2.3 Hydrokinetic Energy 6

2.4 Location of the Strait of Malacca 7

2.5 Site Selection Method 9


3.1 Methodology 10

3.2 Current potential analysis 11

3.3 Offshore current hydrokinetic turbine site selection method 12

3.3.1 Territorial waters 12

3.3.2 Shipping routes 14

3.3.3 Pipeline and underground cables 14


CHAPTER 4 : RESULT AND DISCUSSION 15 4.1 Current speed analysis and site selection (Step 1) 15

4.1.1 Shipping routes 16

4.1.2 Pipeline and underground cable 20

4.1.3 Territorial waters and area 23

4.2 Sitting Analysis for selected regions 27





FIGURE 1.1 Malaysian states, federal territories and surrounding waters. 2

FIGURE 2.1 Location of Strait of Malacca. 8

FIGURE 3.1 Flow Chart of research methodology. 10

FIGURE 3.2 Malaysia – Indonesia Territorial sea boundary. 13

FIGURE 4.1 Location vs Maximum current speed. 15

FIGURE 4.2 Suitable installation locations for offshore kinetic energy system based

on current speed. 16

FIGURE 4.3 Shipping route near Tanjung Pelepas. 17

FIGURE 4.4 Shipping route near Pularek. 17

FIGURE 4.5 Shipping route near Belungkor. 18

FIGURE 4.6 Shipping route near Pulau Pintu Gedong. 18

FIGURE 4.7 Shipping route near South East Point. 19

FIGURE 4.8 Shipping route near Off PHN. 19

FIGURE 4.9 Submarine cable map of Malaysia. 21

FIGURE 4.10 Labelled region of submarine cable map. 22 FIGURE 4.11 The selected region of Tanjung Pelepas and the sitting of

hydrokinetic turbine. 23

FIGURE 4.12 The selected region of Belungkor and the sitting of

hydrokinetic turbine. 24

FIGURE 4.13 The selected region of Pularek and the sitting of

hydrokinetic turbine. 24

FIGURE 4.14 The selected region of South East Point and the sitting of

hydrokinetic turbine. 25

FIGURE 4.15 The selected region of Pintu Gedong and the sitting of

hydrokinetic turbine. 25

FIGURE 4.16 The selected region of Off PHN and the sitting of

hydrokinetic turbine. 26



TABLE 4.1 Shipping route of the selected regions. 17

TABLE 4.1 Shipping route of the selected regions (cont). 18 TABLE 4.1 Shipping route of the selected regions (cont). 18 TABLE 4.2. Analysis of suitable locations for offshore current hydrokinetic

turbine development based on site selection criteria. 27



1.1 Background of Study

Climate change is having a devastating effect on ecosystems, species, and civilization. The usage of fossil fuels will eventually contribute to the production of greenhouse gases, resulting in certain emission profiles and energy mixes, which will have an irreversible impact on global climate conditions. According to the US Energy Information Administration, as the world's population grows and the limited supply of fossil fuels depletes, there is a growing demand for renewable energy sources (USEIA). As a result, the energy source should be renewable and have minimal impact on the ecology and environment.

Various goals have been established to stimulate the progress of renewable energy technology in order to alleviate the threat of climate change. For example, the Paris Pact, a bold worldwide agreement aimed at mitigating global warming, will necessitate a large contribution from the renewable energy sector (Rogelj et al., 2016;

Teske, 2019). According to Teske (2019), the renewable energy sector is predicted to contribute around 9500 GW to total electricity generation by 2030 and 25,600 GW by 2050. Tidal energy has gained popularity among renewable energy sources because to its high energy density, dependability, and regularity (Pelc and Fujit, 2002; Widén et al., 2015; Melikoglu, 2018).

Hydrokinetic energy is a method of generating power by harnessing kinetic energy from streaming channels, and it has the potential to be a sustainable alternative to traditional large-scale hydropower. Hydrokinetic turbines (HKTs) could be constructed in any open water channel, including rivers, oceans, and narrow harbours because they operate on the same principle as wind turbines. The HKT installation, unlike dams and barrages, zero hydraulic head difference is required.


It is worth noting, however, that advances in hydrokinetic technology have largely been confined to western, or particularly industrialised, regions. Nonetheless, the growing interest in and expertise in this technology has prompted research institutes in a number of other nations, like Malaysia, to undertake decision analysis studies and anticipate new deployment sites for HKT.

Malaysia, which has a latitude of 4.21◦ N is situated just about the equator in Southeast Asia and is divided into Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia by the South China Sea (Fig. 1). The Peninsular region is made up of 11 states, whereas the Eastern region is made up of the two important states of Sabah and Sarawak. Peninsular Malaysia is bounded on the west by the Malacca Strait, among the world's longest and busiest marine routes, connecting the Indian Ocean in the north with the South China Sea in the south. The country sees two monsoon seasons throughout the year: the southwest monsoon, which lasts from May to September, and the northeast monsoon, which arrives from late October to March.

Malaysia has an abundance of water resources due to its geographical location, topographical features, and equatorial climate. Malaysia governs an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 334,671 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘2 and a coastline of 4675 km. The exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is the area of sea or coastline over which a country has com rights for various economic activities such as oil and gas development, trade and commerce, fishing, and so on. This zone can also be used to harvest energy from wind and water movements that occur inside the designated limits of the EEZ. The country has 200 rivers, 150 of which are in the Peninsular region and the remaining 50 in the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.

FIGURE 1.1 : Malaysian states, federal territories and surrounding waters.


1.2 Problem statement

Malaysia intends to elevate the share of renewables in installed power production capacity to 20% by 2025. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to make consistent progress in identifying potential long-term solutions. The hydrokinetic sector has progressed past its early testing phase, with full-scale projects being presented, built, and tested around the world. However, there are no sufficient research or initiatives on the offshore current energy potential and its appraisal. This research will establish the Hybrid Site Selection Method (HSSM) to identify appropriate coastal regions for the deployment of hydrokinetic turbines.

The methodology proposed in this study can be utilised to achieve a regional decision-making process for offshore current kinetic energy planning, as well as the study findings can also be used to build renewable energy source policies. Since Malaysians' interest in hydrokinetic energy began, this study will focus on determining the best locations throughout the country for deploying hydrokinetic turbines (HKTs).

The authors use this work to provide coherence between those research and to create a comprehensive picture of the available literature background on hydrokinetic resources in Malaysia.


1.3 Objectives

This paper will investigate the offshore kinetic energy potential of Peninsular Malaysia by using hybrid site selection method. The purpose of this investigation is to establish and use a thorough technique that will lead to the determination of the best area for hydrokinetic energy utilisation in a coastal zone.

The objectives of this paper are as follow:

1. To identify the available hydrokinetic energy resources in Malaysia by desk study.

2. To investigate the potential of hydrokinetic turbine deployment fore

renewable energy in Malaysia by using Hybrid Site selection (HSS) method.

1.4 Scope of study

1. The area of study is limited to only Peninsular Malaysia.

2. The focus of study is limited to only offshore current flow.

3. The parameters expected to be collected are the current flow, regions for the turbine installation and the turbine placements.




2.1 Climate changes

Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country divided into two regions: Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. The country has a total geographic area of 330,803km2 and a population of 32 million people in 2017. (Ab Rahman et al., 2013).

The country has an equatorial climate, which means it is hot and humid all year. The Southwest and Northeast Monsoons have a significant influence on annual climate variability. The Southwest Monsoon lasts from April to September, while the Northeast Monsoon lasts from October to March. The Southwest Monsoon has drier weather and less rainfall than the Northeast Monsoon, which has greater precipitation (Kwan et al., 2013). Malaysia has witnessed significant warming and rainfall anomalies, notably in the previous two decades, attracting considerable interest in the study of climate trends and their implications.

2.2 Renewable and non-renewable energy

According to International Energy Agency, (IEA, 2019b) the world total primary energy supply (TPES) has drastically increased approximately 1.6 times from 8765 Mtoe in the year of 1990 to 13972 Mtoe in the year of 2017. Renewable and non- renewable energy consumption-climate scenarios are influenced by socioeconomic factors, energy technology, and policy design, resulting in specific emission profiles and energy mixes with irreversible effects on global climate conditions. In recent decades, one of the primary concerns of politicians and academics has been environmental damage caused by global warming. Climate change has a negative impact on ecosystems, species, and humanity because of the fast-paced industrialized world's current consumption and production patterns.


Conventional forms of energy, which are natural gas, coal, and oil, have been found to be extremely efficient for energy demands but simultaneously having detrimental effects on human health and the environment. As conventional energy sources deplete, the globe is transitioning to renewable energy options to meet its energy needs. According to the US Energy Information Administration, worldwide energy consumption will rise by 56% between 2010 and 2040, and as the world population grows and the finite supply of fossil fuels runs out, there will be a greater demand to utilize renewable energy sources. Administration of Information (USEIA).

As a result, the energy source should be renewable and have minimal impact on the ecology and environment (Kaygusuz,2008).

2.3 Hydrokinetic energy

There are two primary methods for harnessing water energy, which are the hydrostatic and hydrokinetic approaches. The hydrostatic technique, which employs potential head to generate energy, is the most common alternative to collect energy from water. This strategy necessitates the creation of grandiose structures as well as the construction of dams or reservoirs for power generation, storage, and transfer.

Furthermore, traditional micro hydro has high level of initial capital expenditures but low operating costs (S. Ashok, 2007). Hydrokinetic systems, on the other hand, utilize the kinetic energy of water to power a rotor. It necessitates little or no civil work. The working concept of hydrokinetic turbines is the same as that of wind turbines.

Hydrokinetic systems are known as type of "zero-head" hydropower in which energy is derived from the kinetic energy of flowing water rather than the potential energy of falling water, similar to wind turbines. These systems are suitable for use in free- flowing rivers or streams (Kusakana K. et al, 2013). By utilising this type of energy, hydrokinetic energy production avoids many of the obstacles associated with more traditional forms of hydropower, such as large civil works expenditures and the requirement for a sufficient and exploitable potential energy head.


Hydrokinetic turbines are relatively basic designs that do not require a reservoir or a spillway. Initial testing has shown that the environmental repercussions is modest, and the devices' simplicity allows for low-cost installation and maintenance. Because of their simplicity, these systems may be useful in rural or distant places (Kusakana K.

et al, 2013). Because HK technology can be used in rivers, tidal and ocean currents can be installed in places where other technologies cannot. The turbine category used is distinguished by its rotating axis orientation with relation to the direction of water stream.

2.4 Location of the Strait of Malacca

Malaysia is a coastal country, with a long coastline in Peninsular Malaysia connecting the Strait of Malacca in the west and the South China Sea to the East. The Strait of Malacca is a well-known waterway allowing the continuous supply of oil by tankers from the Middle East to the Far East, such as China, Japan and Korea (Ahmad.

et al, 2013). The Strait of Malacca is also a strategic location for the harnessing of the tidal stream energy due to its strong tidal current resources. The abundant tidal resource in the Strait of Malacca is a focus of research. However, none of the local researchers have investigated the site selection in the Strait of Malacca to propose the installation of a tidal turbine in detail.

The Strait of Malacca is the longest international navigational route through a strait, which connects the Indian Ocean via the Andaman Sea to the north with the South China Sea to the south via the Strait of Singapore (Chua. et al, 2000) as shown in Figure 2. The strait also provides the shortest route for ships to sail between East Asia and Europe. With an average width of between 11 to 200 nautical miles, the seaway in this strait is not always wide as at certain other parts of the strait, with the navigable route being less than 1 nautical mile, and certain part of its navigable area are less than 30 m deep (Ahmad. et al, 2013). At a particular point along the strait the maximum draught recommended by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for passing ships is 19.8 m3.


FIGURE 2.1 : Location of the Strait of Malacca.


2.4 Site Selection Method

In this study, a complete approach for determining the ideal location for hydrokinetic energy extraction in a coastal region, regardless of conversion technology, is established, greatly improving on existing procedures by taking into account the important elements impacting decision-making. The use of this technique to a coastal site reduces uncertainty during the planning stages of a hydrokinetic turbine installation. Following the adjustments, a new HSSM was proposed in this study to address the deficiencies in the reference study. This study presents a multistage scheme for finding the most suitable offshore current farm locations in Malaysia among the 11 coastal regions, including their technical capacities. A multi- criteria site selection (MCSS) analysis is performed by considering technical (e.g., current speed, territorial waters, shipping and pipeline routes). Based on available ocean current speed data, the most applicable offshore sites are first determined. Then, a site selection analysis is performed by assessing each predetermined site according to the restrictions pertaining to the studied area (Mehmet. et al, 2019).



FIGURE 3.1 : Flow chart of research methodology.

3.1 Methodology

Peninsular Malaysia, Semenanjung Malaysia, also called West Malaysia or Malaysian Malaysia Barat, region of the 13-state federation of Malaysia. It occupies the southern half of the Malay Peninsula and is separated from East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo by the South China Sea. Formerly the Federation of Malaya, it contains the bulk of Malaysia’s population and has the capital city of Kuala Lumpur and the administrative centre of Putrajaya.


The methodology for site selection of offshore kinetic energy and capacity includes mainly two steps, some of which are studied manually by paying detail attention. The historical current data is used and analysed to find the most suitable locations. Extensive and thorough study was performed in estimating the maximum possible current output. The first step was the current speed analysis. Since there is limited offshore current speed to the researches, the data was collected from the online current speed website by the nearby onshore meteorological stations.

The current speeds in possible offshore locations are estimated based on the available offshore data. The second step mainly includes the filtering of the locations with substantial current speed by combining several selection criteria and the sitting analysis of the hydrokinetic turbine that are going to explained in detail in the next section. The offshore area meeting all the criterion after filtering is proceeded as the potential hydrokinetic turbine installation. The second step also consist of the hydrokinetic farm analysis (micro-sitting) where the number of turbines, their exact locations, and configuration are identified. The flow chart in Figure 3.1 shows the proposed scheme in detail and explanations of each step are given in the following subsections. This study has been largely limited by the data used. As such, there is no specific offshore specific measurements available. It is assumed that the collected data at nearby onshore meteorological stations are accurate, and the oceanography data are up to date and precise.

3.2 Current potential analysis (Step 1)

To have current energy systems technically and economically viable, hydrokinetic turbine are installed on higher current speed potential areas. Accurate and reliable current data is essential for potential current energy assessment of the selected site. Data on the marine current flow, and the depth at which the current velocity was measured and collected along the Strait of Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia. The data collected is needed to perform analysis to support the study of deployment Marine Current Energy Device (MCED) at Peninsular Malaysia, particularly Strait of Malacca.


The data collection was targeted on a few government departments and agencies.

• Ministry of Energy, Science, Technology, Environment, Climate Change (MESTECC)

• Ministry of Defence

• Marine Department of Malaysia (Jabatan Laut Malaysia)

• National Hydrographic Centre (Pusat Hydrografi Nasional)

• Centre for Coastal and Marine Department (CMER)

3.3 Offshore current hydrokinetic turbine site selection and sitting analysis method (Step 2)

Site Selection Method

Site selection is key to the success of offshore current projects both economically and technically. Primary investigation of restricted area are required.

Depending on the area properties, the perspectives may include underwater cables, shipping navigations, territorial waters and other relevant characteristics. Considering the conditions of seas in Malaysia, an offshore site must be primarily suitable in terms of current speed, territorial water, shipping routes and underground cables.

3.3.1 Territorial waters

According to international law, territorial waters is defined as the area of the sea immediately adjacent to the shores of a state and they are subjected to the territorial jurisdiction of that state [10]. The current width of territorial waters protected in Territorial Sea Act 2012, subject to the provisions of this Act, the breadth of the territorial sea of Malaysia shall for all purposes be 12 nautical miles (~ 22km). Both Malaysia and Indonesia, its neighbour country claim a 12-nautical-mile territorial sea.

The territorial sea boundary (TSB) establishes a boundary in a narrow section of the Strait of Malacca extending from 02º51.6'N., 101º00.2'E,; to 01º15.0'N., 103º22.8'E.

The respective TSB's claimed by each state differ in length because of the small area of high seas that remains in the Strait of Malacca. The Indonesia TSB is 174 and the Malaysian TSB 173 nautical miles in length.


FIGURE 3.2 : Malaysia – Indonesia Territorial sea boundary


3.3.2 Shipping routes

The waters of the Strait of Malacca have a length of 550 nautical miles. This is a very busy narrow lane with about 90 thousand ships per year or about nearly 200 ships every day passes through this strait. This makes the Malacca Strait area a very congested, narrow, and shallow international sea traffic so that it has a high risk of accidents at sea. Due to the high volume of sea traffic, a proper analysation where hydrokinetic turbine will be installed needs to be done.

3.3.3 Pipeline and underground cables

Submarine pipelines are used for the transportation of three main substances:

gas, oil and water. It is aimed to ensure that the pipelines are not subjected to any damage from the installation of hydrokinetic turbine in the short and long run.

Moreover, mariners are to be cautious of the dredging and anchorage activities which is severely dangerous and forbidden up to 500m to the pipelines.

Sitting Analysis

After filtering the potential site location and its borders through the above mentioned criteria, the next step is micro-sitting configuration of current turbines fitted carefully into the proposed area. The total number of turbines, and the total power capacity, depends on how efficient the turbines are sited. The distances between the turbines play a critical role on the efficiency and power output of a current hydrokinetic turbine since the current speed cannot be efficiently used as some of its energy is extracted by the current turbine blades. According to G. M. Masters in Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems, the rules-of-thumb for tower spacing for a rectangular area is 3–5 rotor diameter (D) spacing between towers within a row and 5D-9D between rows. The turbines used in this study have a rotor diameter of 1m. The designed offshore current turbines consists of 5D (5m) tower spacing in a row, while 9-10D spacing between rows is selected depending on the availability of the specified site. This micro-siting configuration is selected to fit maximum available installed capacity within the proposed project aerial.




The current data obtained were from various location across straits of Malacca, Malaysia. These data and locations proposed were obtained from a previous research paper as a continuation of the research in achieving the same goal for this paper.

FIGURE 4.1 : Location vs Maximum Current Speed (m/s)

4.1 Current speed analysis and site selection (Step 1)

As the first step, the current speed of locations proposed were analyzed.

Selection of an installation site may be a difficult task when site parameters are sufficient however optimal velocities are not available. Hydrokinetic turbines usually require a velocity of around 1-1.5 m/s, based on optimised hydrokinetic turbines operation. When selecting sites, several issues such as high damming, that will increase flood risks due to blockage caused or interruption of the infrastructure operation, before installation may occur, as hydrodynamic effects may be exaggerated by the added blockage in sensitive sections. Therefore, selection of a site with a higher available velocity along a uniform section where a smaller fraction of the cross section is used for the hydrokinetic installation remains the best installation option. The current speed for the studied region is provided in Figure 4.1.


As shown in the figure above, considering the maximum current speed higher than 1 m/s, only 6 regions, which are marked in orange in Figure 4.1, are considerable for the hydrokinetic turbine installation. These 6 regions are shown on the map of Malaysia in Figure 4.2. From the chart in Figure 4.1, Pularek, Johor has the highest maximum current speed of a value of 1.59 m/s. At extreme weather, the 6 locations having maximum current speed exceeding 1 m/s while 11 locations having maximum current speed ranging between 0.5 m/s – 1 m/s and only 2 locations with maximum current speed less than 0.5 m/s. This explained that at extreme weather, more than 61%

of the locations across strait of Malacca had maximum current speed exceeding 0.5 m/s but less than 1 m/s.

FIGURE 4.2 : Suitable installation locations for offshore current energy system based on current speed.

4.1.1 Shipping routes

First, the suitability of the six regions for offshore current development in terms of shipping route were analyzed. Due to the increased demand for offshore current energy, shipping routes have become the main issue especially in most of the developed countries. The Strait of Malacca has a high vessel traffic density, making it a bustling region with a significant risk of accidents.


The safety of navigation will be jeopardised as trading and the number of vessels passing through the chokepoint increase. Thus, a detailed analysis must be made before selecting the site of the offshore current in terms of the shipping route.

The shipping routes of the six selected regions is studied from the Marine Traffic Application. Table 1 below shows the condition of the shipping routes near the six regions.

TABLE 4.1 : Shipping route of the selected regions.

No. Location Shipping route


Tanjung Pelepas, Johor

Figure 4.3 : Shipping route near Tanjung Pelepas.


Pularek, Johor

Figure 4.4 : Shipping route near Pularek, Johor.



Belungkor, Pengerang

Figure 4.5 : Shipping route near Belungkor, Johor.


Pulau Pintu Gedong,


Figure 4.6 : Shipping route near Pulau Pintu Gedong, Klang.

TABLE 4.1 : Shipping route of the selected regions (cont)



South East Point

Figure 4.7 : Shipping route near South East Point.



Figure 4.8 : Shipping route near Off PHN.

TABLE 4.1 : Shipping route of the selected regions (cont)


Each of the regions’ shipping route was identified and studied from the Marine Shipping application. In Figure 4.3, the shipping route near Tanjung Pelepas are very closed to the proposed coastal regions. It can be observed from the Figure 4.3 above that there are a few ships docked nearby the seashore. However, the shipping routes are far from and each other and are not congested. Thus, it has not become a major concern for the placement of the hydrokinetic turbine in the Tanjung Pelepas area, making it a partially suitable for the placement of hydrokinetic turbine. On the other hand, Pularek and Belungkor shares the same shipping route where the route has a heavy maritime traffic due to the presence of oil tankers as seen in Figure 4.4 and 4.5.

Hence, it is not suitable for offshore current hydrokinetic construction. In addition, South East Point has a heavy maritime traffic as well due to the presence or cargo ships, tug and fishing activities. Meanwhile, Pulau Pintu Gedong has a low volume of shipping routes due to the very narrow bay in the region. The presence of neighboring ships is not affected by the area of the implementation of hydrokinetic turbine around Pulau Pintu Gedong as well.

4.1.2 Pipeline and underground cable.

Pipelines and underground cables should not be exposed to any damages occurring from hydrokinetic turbine in the short or long run. Mariners should avoid anchoring, dredging, or trawling in 500m of submarine cables and natural gas pipeline since it is dangerous and prohibited. Most of the natural gas and petroleum pipelines in Malaysia are going through the deep sea and not too many on the coastline. There is not any pipeline and underground cable nearby the proposed coastal regions except Tanjung Pelepas, Johor and Belungkor, Johor.


FIGURE 4.9 : Submarine Cable Map of Malaysia.



Pintu Gedong

South East

Point Belungkor

Pularek FIGURE 4.10 : Labelled regions of submarine cables.


4.1.3 Territorial waters and area.

The suitability of the six selected regions in terms of territorial waters was analyzed. Regions of all the selected locations do not have territorial issues since the width of the territorial waters is high with neighbouring countries. Therefore, in terms of territorial waters, all the proposed regions can be considered for the offshore wind development. The territorial waters were analyzed by obtaining the coordinate of each of the regions from the Marine Regions website in desk study. The boundary regions were then plotted in Google Earth Pro and the size of the regions is observed for each region. Based on the detailed analysis of these six regions, it is found that there are relatively less area for offshore hydrokinetic turbine installation at Belungkor and Tanjung Pelepas due to the limited and close proximity to the neighboring country, Singapore. However, Belungkor and Tanjung Pelepas are still considered suitable for the installation of the hydrokinetic turbine but will result in a lesser area for the installation thus producing lesser power.

FIGURE 4.11 : The selected region (Tanjung Pelepas) and the sitting of hydrokinetic turbine.


FIGURE 4.12 : The selected region (Belungkor) and the sitting of hydrokinetic turbine.

FIGURE 4.13 : The selected region (Pularek) and the sitting of hydrokinetic turbine.


FIGURE 4.14 : The selected region (South East Point) and the sitting of hydrokinetic turbine.

FIGURE 4.15 : The selected region (Pintu Gedong) and the sitting of hydrokinetic turbine.


FIGURE 4.16 : The selected region (Off PHN) and the sitting of hydrokinetic turbine.


4.2 Sitting Analysis for selected regions.

Table 4.2 : Analysis of suitable locations for offshore current hydrokinetic turbine development based on site selection criteria.


The six suitable locations indicated in Table 4.2 are considered for the sitting analysis. The selected areas are further filtered by the site selection criteria and will then be undergoing the sitting analysis method. In the sitting analysis method, the distances between the turbines and the available surface area are decided to be (5D) where 5m × 5m and that gives a 25m2 apart from each turbine, with the turbine being 4m2 large each. It can be observed that the greatest number of turbines that will be placed in a region is at South East Point, Johor with a total number of 109 turbine to be placed where the region has the most areas that do not interfere with the territorial water which allows it to have the highest volume of installation of hydrokinetic turbine.

However, due to the large area that allows the placement of the hydrokinetic turbine, the shipping route analyzed before has raise a problem whereby the shipping route nearby the area is congested and not suitable enough for the installation of the hydrokinetic turbine. The total number of turbines for Off PHN, which is located in Sepang is calculated as 82 that can be located within the selected area with a maximum power of 26404W. However, like the previous location that holds the maximum number of turbines producing the highest power, Off PHN is also having difficulties in implementing the hydrokinetic turbine as the area is merely suitable when shipping route is taken into consideration. Pintu Gedong, Selangor however is suitable for the installation of the turbine as it passes all the site criteria and produces a maximum amount of 27840W of power with 80 hydrokinetic turbines.




In this paper, offshore current site location of Malaysia has been explored through current energy potential assessment of 11 regions. First, suitability of regions with average current speed of over 1 m/s is assessed. Second, the site selection method has been used to find the best suitable locations. Finally, statistical analysis of current speed for the locations meeting the site selection criteria is conducted using Google Earth Pro. In addition, micro-sitting configuration of current turbine is determined considering the territorial water, and area of the regions selected.

Although Malaysia is surrounded by sea, out of 11 regions proposed, only 6 regions including South East Point, Off PHN, Pintu Gedong, Belungkor, Pularek and Tanjung Pelepas are considerable for the offshore hydrokinetic turbine installation as the mean wind speed at selected sites are higher than 1 m/s. In addition, some sites with high current speed ratio are still not eligible for installations due to the restrictions resulting from their geographical strategic location such as shipping route, and pipeline cables.

In conclusion, the criteria analysis for the selected six locations is summarized in Table 2. The current speed values are obtained from previous study of the Offshore Kinetic Potential of Peninsular Malaysia. Sites that do not meet offshore current hydrokinetic site selection criteria are Belungkor, Pularek and Tanjung Pelepas as these regions cannot be considered for offshore current systems due to the restricted shipping route and underground cable, also the less occupancy of the hydrokinetic turbine installation. As seen in Table 2, Tanjung Pelepas, Johor cannot be considered for offshore current hydrokinetic turbine due to the limited area for the installation of hydrokinetic turbine thus limiting the total power output. Moreover, Tanjung Pelepas, Johor is restricted by the pipeline route and the close territorial area. South East Point, however has the highest total output power of 29212W with 109 turbine that can be placed in the area.


Nonetheless, South East Point has the heaviest sea traffic volume which prohibit the area to be suitable for the installation of hydrokinetic turbine. Off PHN and Pulau Pintu Gedong however has an area large enough for the installation of the turbines that will produce a total power output nearly as much as South Ease Point.

Even so, Pintu Gedong, Selangor has the best fit for the placements of the turbine as the region meets all the requirements in ensuring the implementation of the hydrokinetic turbine from the ocean current is safe and efficient.

This study used the current data collected at the coastal regions. It is very clear that the offshore meteorology station installations are needed to better access the offshore current potential. Hence, it is recommended that the policy makers shall organize offshore specific. Measurement data awareness in increasing the liability of future offshore related studies. Some of the selected locations in this study are the islands which may have not be close substantial at the coastal side. Therefore, possible substation installation on the coastal side should be taken into consideration both technical and economical analysis. As a more precise site selection analysis, more accurate offshore current data can be collected for the offshore locations, and attentive sea depth and soil analyses can be performed.



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