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Academic year: 2022




(1)SATISFACTION TOWARD HIPSTER COFFEE SHOP IN KELANTAN”. By. NUR MAISARAH BINTI KHAIRUDDIN (H18A0399) JESICCA A/P JULIAN (H18B0155) NUR FIZATIN NUR’AIN BINTI ABDUL RAHIM (H18A0382) NURUL HUSNA BINTI ZULKIFLI (H18A0492). A research proposal submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Entrepreneurship (Tourism Entrepreneurship). Faculty of Hospitality, Tourism & Wellness UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA KELANTAN. 2020. FYP FHPK. “ANTECEDENTS OF TRAVELLER.

(2) I hereby certify that the work embodied in this report is the result of the original research and has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution. OPEN ACCESS. I agree that my report is to be made immediately available as hardcopy or on-line open access (full text). CONFIDENTIAL. (Contains confidential information under the Official Secret Act 1972)*. RESTRICTED. (Contains restricted information as specified by the organization where research was done)*. I acknowledge that Universiti Malaysia Kelantan reserves the right as follow:. The report is the property of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan The library of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan has the right to make copies for the purpose of research only The library has the right to make copies of the report for academic exchange. Certified by. Signature. Signature of Supervisor. Group Representative: Nur Maisarah Khairuddin Name: Aikal Liyani Mohd Rasdi Date: 4 August 2021 Date: 20 Jun 2021 Note: *If the report is CONFIDENTIAL OR RESTRICTED, please attach the letter from the organization stating the period and reasons for confidentiality and restriction. ii. FYP FHPK. CANDIDATE DECLARATION.

(3) Saya dengan ini mengesahkan bahawa kerja yang terkandung dalam tesis ini adalah hasil penyelidikan yang asli dan tidak pernah dikemukakan untuk ijazah tinggi kepada manamana Universitit atau Institusi.. TERBUKA. Saya bersetuju bahawa tesis boleh didapati sebagai naskah keras atau akses terbuka dalam talian (teks penuh). SULIT. (Mengandungi maklumat sulit di bawah Akta Rahsia Rasmi 1972)*. TERHAD. (Mengandungi maklumat terhad yang ditetapkan oleh organisasi di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)*. Saya mengakui bahawa Universiti Malaysia Kelantan mempunyai hak berikut:. Tesis adalah hak milik Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Perpustakaan Universiti Malaysia Kelantan mempunyai hak untuk membuat Salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat Salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian. Disahkan oleh. Tandatangan. Tandatangan Penyelia. Wakil Kumpulan: Nur Maisarah Khairuddin Tarikh: 4 August 2021. Nama: Aikal Liyani Mohd Rasdi Tarikh: 20 Jun 2021. Note: *Sekiranya Tesis ini adalah SULIT atau TERHAD, sila kepilkan bersama surat dari organisasi dengan menyatakan tempoh dan sebab-sebab kerahsiaan dan sekatan. iii. FYP FHPK. PENGESAHAN TESIS.

(4) Million thanks and dedication to Universiti Malaysia Kelantan for giving us this opportunity to conduct our research. This research is conducted to fulfil a subject requirement of Bachelor of Entrepreneurship (Tourism). We learnt a lot of valuable knowledge from conducting this research. Besides that, we would like to express our deepest thanks to our supervisor Madam Aikal Liyani Binti Mohd Rasdi who has been our backbones throughout the whole research time. Without her, we could not complete this research on time as she has spent her precious time and guided us in our final year project with her dedication and intellectual support during our final year project. Her encouragements helped us a lot in completing this research. Furthermore, many thanks to our group members who have cooperated to accomplish this research. Contributions and help of each of the group members helped in making the completion of this research easier. Finally, sincere thanks to our family for being so understanding about our needs and wants. Their prayers and support are our main strengths in completing this research despite the difficulties that we have been through towards completing this research.. iv. FYP FHPK. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.

(5) Page TITLE PAGE. I. CANDIDATES DECLARATION. I1. PENGESAHAN TESIS. 1II. ACKNOWLEGMENT. IV. TABLE OF CONTENT. V-VIII. LIST OF TABLES. IX. LIST OF FIGURES. X. LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATION. XI. ABSTRACT. XII. ABSTRAK. XIII. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Introduction. 1. 1.2. Background of the Study. 1-4. 1.3. Problem Statement. 4-5. 1.4. Research Objective. 5-6. 1.5. Research Question. 6. 1.6. Significant of the Study. 1.7. Definition of Terms. 6-8. 1.7.1 Traveller. 8. 1.7.2 Hipster Coffee Shop 1.8. 8-9. Summary. 9. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Introduction. 10. 2.1. The Antecedents of Traveller Satisfactions on Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan (Literature Review) v. 10-13. FYP FHPK. TABLE OF CONTENTS.

(6) 13-14. 2.2.2 Theory behavioral intention. 15-16. 2.2.3 Theory Traveller Satisfaction. 16-18. 2.3 Antecedent of Traveller Satisfaction. 18. 2.3.1 Product Quality. 18-20. 2.3.2 Service Quality. 20-23. 2.3.3 Cafe Environment. 23-25. 2.4. Conceptual Framework. 25-26. 2.5. Hypotheses 2.5.1 The Research Relationship between Product Quality and Traveller Satisfaction towards Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan. 26-27. 2.5.1 The Research Relationship between Service Quality and Traveller Satisfaction towards Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan. 27-28. 2.5.1 The Research Relationship between Café Environment and Traveller Satisfaction towards Hipster Coffee Shop in. 28-29. Kelantan 2.6. Summary. 29-30. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1. Introduction. 31. 3.2. Research Design. 31-33. 3.3. Population. 33-34. 3.4. Sample Size. 34-35. 3.5. Sampling Method. 36-37. 3.3.1 Sampling Technique 3.6. 37. Research Instrument. 37-38. 3.6.1 Questionnaires Design. 38. 3.6.2 Question Used to Section B of the Questionnaires 3.6.3 Scale of Measurement. 42. 3.6.4 Pilot Test the Questionnaires 3.7. Data Collection Procedures. 3.8. Data Analysis. 39-41. 42-43 44 44-45. 3.8.1 Descriptive Statistics. 45. vi. FYP FHPK. 2.2.1 Traveller Satisfaction.

(7) 46. 3.8.3 Hypotheses Testing using Pearson Correlation 3.9. Summary. 46-47 47. CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Introduction. 48. 4.2. Demographic Profile. 48. 4.2.1 Gender. 49. 4.2.2 Age. 49-50. 4.2.3 Race. 50-51. 4.2.4 Occupation. 51. 4.2.5 Marital Status. 52. 4.2.6 Education. 52-53. 4.2.7 Income Level. 53-54. 4.2.8 State of Origin. 54-55. 4.2.9 Ranking of Hipster Coffee Shop in Kota Bharu. 55-56. 4.2.10 How often do you visit Hipster Coffee Shop in Kota Bharu. 56. 4.2.11 How much do you usually spend money in Hipster Coffee Shop per visit? 4.3. 57. Descriptive Analysis 4.3.1 Product Quality. 57-58. 4.3.2 Service Quality. 59-61. 4.3.3 Café Environment. 61-62. 4.3.4 Traveller Satisfaction. 63-64. 4.4. Pearson Correlation Analysis. 64-66. 4.5. Hypotheses. 66. 4.6. Chapter Summary. 67. CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 5.1. Introduction. 5.2. Recapitulation of the Findings. 68. vii. FYP FHPK. 3.8.2 Reliability Test.

(8) 68-69. 5.2.2 Service Quality. 69-70. 5.2.3 Café Environment. 70-71. 5.3. Limitations of the Study. 71-72. 5.4. Recommendations. 5.5. 5.4.1 Theoretical Recommendation for Future Research. 72-73. 5.4.2 Practical Recommendation. 73-74. 5.4.3 Methodology Recommendation for Future Research. 74-75. Summary. 75. REFERENCES. 76-79. APPENDICES. 80-92. viii. FYP FHPK. 5.2.1 Product Quality.

(9) Table. Title. Page. Table 3.1. Determining Sample Size from a Given Population. 35. Table 3.2. The Five point agree scale. 39. Table 3.3. Question Used in Section B of the Questionnaire- The Independent Variable. Table 3.4. 39-41. Question Used in Section B of the QuestionnaireTraveller Satisfaction (Dependent Variable). 41. Table 3.5. Result of reliability test for pilot test. 43. Table 3.6. The Pearson Correlation. 47. Table 4.1. The Gender of Respondents. 49. Table 4.2. The Age of Respondents. 50. Table 4.3. The Race of Respondents. 50-51. Table 4.4. The Occupation of Respondents. 51. Table 4.5. The Marital Status of Respondents. 52. Table 4.6. The Education of Respondents. 53. Table 4.7. The Income Level of Respondents. 53-54. Table 4.8. The State of Origin Respondents. 54-55. Table 4.9. The Ranking of Hipster Coffee Shop. 55-56. Table 4.10. How often do you visit Hipster Coffee Shop. 56. Table 4.11. How much do you spend money. 57. Table 4.12. Descriptive Statistics for Product Quality. 58-59. Table 4.13. Descriptive Statistics for Service Quality. 59-61. Table 4.14. Descriptive Statistics for Cafe Environment. 61-62. Table 4.15. Descriptive Statistics for Traveller Satisfaction. 63-64. Table 4.16. Shows the results of correlation analysis of Traveller. 64-65. Satisfaction toward Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan Table 4.17. Summary for Hypotheses Testing. ix. 66. FYP FHPK. LIST OF TABLES.

(10) Figure Figure 2.1. Title Shows the Service Quality Model (Five Dimension) that. Page 22-23. used in the research Figure 2.2. Shows the conceptual framework of this study. This study. 25-26. adapted product quality, service quality and café environment towards Traveller Satisfaction Figure 3.1. The diagram of Sampling Method. x. 36. FYP FHPK. LIST OF FIGURES.

(11) Symbols α. Alpha. ≥. Equal and More than. n. Frequency. <. Less than. (-). Negative. r. Pearson Correlation Coefficient. %. Percent. F. Percentage of variance. N. Population. xi. FYP FHPK. LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATION.

(12) The priorities and tastes that are constantly different from time to time in industry trends make marketing more drastic to be competitive. The emergence of coffee hipster growing throughout the state in Malaysia makes hipster coffee shop owners start taking precautions and start acting by trying to further expand their marketing from being oppressed by other competition. The aim for this research is to determine significant relationship between product quality, service quality and café environment towards traveller satisfaction. This study was using the online survey through google form in collecting the data. The total 322 data was collected, however only 214 had been visited in hipster coffee shop and can be used for data analysis procced. In order to complete this research, quantitative study was conducted. Descriptive analysis, reliability test and Pearson correlation also where be used to analyse the data. The higher of material quality and fast delivery on services will being a priority to traveller in select this hipster coffee shop in their list. Therefore, this study was carried out that traveller the independent variable (IV) product quality, service quality and café environment affect to the dependent variable (DV) which is Traveller satisfaction. These findings indicate that hipster coffee shop should mends their independent variable in enhance the loyalty of Traveller satisfaction. It can be concluded that product quality, service quality and café environment have significant positive impact towards traveller satisfaction. Keywords – cafe, hipster coffee shop, product quality, service quality, café environment, traveller satisfaction. xii. FYP FHPK. ABSTRACT.

(13) Keutamaan dan selera yang selalu berbeza dari semasa ke semasa dalam trend industri menjadikan pemasaran lebih drastik untuk menjadi kompetitif. Kemunculan kopi hipster yang tumbuh di seluruh negeri di Malaysia menjadikan pemilik kopi hipster mula mengambil langkah berjaga-jaga dan mula bertindak dengan berusaha untuk memperluas pemasaran mereka daripada ditindas oleh persaingan lain. Matlamat untuk penyelidikan ini untuk menentukan hunungan yang signifikan antara kualiti produk, kualiti perkhidmatan dan persekitaran kafe dengan kepuasan pelancong. Kajian ini menggunakan tinjauan dalam talian melalui borang google dalam mengumpulkan data. Jumlah 322 data dikumpulkan, namun hanya 214 yang dikunjungi di kedai kopi hipster dan dapat digunakan untuk analisis data yang diperoleh. Untuk menyelesaikan penyelidikan ini, kajian kuantitatif telah dilakukan. Analisis deskriptif, ujian kebolehpercayaan dan korelasi Pearson juga digunakan untuk menganalisis data. Semakin tinggi kualiti bahan dan penghantaran perkhidmatan yang cepat akan menjadi keutamaan kepada pelancong dalam memilih kafe ini dalam senarai mereka. Oleh itu, kajian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui kualiti produk pemboleh ubah bebas (IV), kualiti perkhidmatan dan persekitaran kafe mempengaruhi pemboleh ubah bersandar (DV) yang merupakan kepuasan pelancong. Penemuan ini menunjukkan bahawa kopi hipster harus memperbaiki pemboleh ubah bebasnya dalam meningkatkan kesetiaan kepuasan pelancong. Dapat disimpulkan bahawa kualiti produk, kualiti perkhidmatan dan persekitaran kafe mempuntai kesan positif yang signifikan terhadap kepuasan pelancong. Kata kunci - kopi, kafe hipster, kualiti produk, kualiti perkhidmatan, persekitaran kafe, kepuasan pelancong. xiii. FYP FHPK. ABSTRAK.

(14) INTRODUCTION. 1.1. INTRODUCTION. This chapter made up of eight sections which are the background of the study, problem statement, research objectives, research questions, significance of the study, definition of terms and summary.. 1.2. BACKGROUND OF STUDY. A hipster is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as an individual who tend to like trends or fashions that are out from the mainstream. The term hipster refer to an explanation of what is most important in the style, fashion, taste and way used to taste a drink like cafe. Hipster Coffee Shop can be intended as a uniqueness of the restaurant that is specialized in coffee making and offers with variety of food that differ with other coffee shop are variable. Previously, hipster coffe shop only popular for adult men who drink cafe while play games, read newspapers and other things. Today, the hipster coffee shop also providing the good environment for people in thinking with creativity ideas with a long time. Other than, offer a 1. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 1.

(15) foods on display in this hipster coffee shop is pasta, black velvet cake and other foods. They also provide a full set of the menu to give the option to their travellers in making a decisions. Nevertheless, hipster coffee shop owners provide internet that can be used by everyone in the hipster cafe shop and set up food sets to getting more the travellers as a place to meet, a place to study and so on. According to the statistic total coffee consumption in Malaysia, about 600 000 bags of cafe the researchers are used in 2018. This is because of the decreasing of premium cafe compared to the previous years. However, the popularity cafe premium among the younger consumers was increasing in Malaysia. Malaysian usually, drinking a warm baverages such as cafe and tea, that has been a part of their daily lives. Commonly, the young people are likely to drink the cafe at the local cafe. But, the people are lived in foreign country are be able to make the cafe cultural being famous with introduce the hipster coffee shop. According to Ignatov & Smith (2006) said that travelling for food and drink is an essential tool in getting more on experiences in sector tourism. Thus, the people are likely to travelling are not only because of the visited the place and the culture as their destination but also to trying a food and drink as their experiences. In this case, the hipster coffee shop in tourism industry as a primary attraction for cafe to linked with the tourism due to the the cafe was growing areas of the world. Nowadays, all of these hipster coffee shop in Malaysia, particularly in the state of Kelantan, use a hipster atmosphere such as a cafe not only to attract local people but also travellers. There are a lot of restaurants, cafes, or shops that are unique or try to be unique and draw travellers as well as travellers. Kota Bharu, one of the areas in Kelantan, is the destinations listed in the travel guides as places to visit. Thus, converting the hipster and its habitat into sights to be seen as a lifestyle or the atmosphere is an attraction. The best hipster coffee shop 2. FYP FHPK. relaxing place for friends, relative, and family to spend a time by (Desai, 2011). The list of.

(16) Arnold Cycling Cafe, Snow Town Cafe, Sweetheart Cafe Shop and so on had been a reason to attract traveller visiting Kelantan. The hipster café or trendy atmosphere would be the best place for tourism activities, as well as the addition of one of Kota Bharu's tourism products. Further, according to Hui et al., (2014) increased purchasing power and public interaction participation, cafehouses in the country showed a significant level of demand. However, most of the travellers are likely to visit the hipster coffee shop, not just because of the wonderful environment of the place. But also because of the services offered at the hipster coffee shop. For example, the changeable choice and taste in the quality of the product for the needs of travellers, the good delivery of services and the high quality would make the traveller choose this hipster coffee shop. Afterwards, it did not prohibit the independent variable in giving the enough of satisfaction on hipster coffee shop towards to traveller. Thus, the service quality in independent variable, it was included the tangible situation to give the good services in communication, treating and other things. This way can give the satisfaction to the traveller if they had a problem with hipster coffee shop. Mostly, the majority of traveller agreed with service quality aspect in Kelantan in show their intention and willingness to revisit again at hipster coffee shop after they get what the satisfying of services. For cafe environment, the traveller like to enjoy their drink without having the problem with having a very calm environment, charming and following the trends favoured by many travellers. According to Aslina, (2015) cafe which provided beautiful decorations in the form of containers, as certain can attract more traveller to come. For product quality, usually it tends to more with the drinks, foods, and any type of the product so either the researchers aware or not the product quality can give the satisfaction to the traveller through the quality of some product. Such as the unique of the flavour. 3. FYP FHPK. in Kota Bharu such as KB Brewster Cafe, Kopi Mesin Cafe, Tiny Elephant, The Bold Lab,.

(17) impact on maintaining the hipster coffee shop. Therefore, to elaborate on this emerging problem the relationship between titles to independent variable became the focus on this research.. 1.3. PROBLEM STATEMENT. Despite the increasing trend of hipster coffee shop in Malaysia, research about traveller satisfaction towards hipster coffee shop is still limited especially in Kelantan. Therefore, there is need for this study to be conducted. People today is more on focusing traveller service that was provided by the market. The company was success due to the they are like of the value and service quality that was provided by (Azim et al., 2014). But the Coffee Shop owners are finding it increasingly difficult to stay in the business due to the many of competition by (Muhammad & Lee, 2015). The general business problem is the small business that was slowly to starting due to unable to survive if lack of the knowledge and information in handling the business. The specific business problem is some of the coffee shop owners are lack of marketing strategy and the technology using in maintaining the business (Alford & Page, 2015; Lotfizadeh & Shamsi, 2015; Nguyen, Newby, & Macaulay, 2015). From previous study, all elements that are related to ambience plays important role in satisfying traveller (Ryu and Jang, 2007). However, the problem was appearing at here is this hipster coffee shop is stated in busy public roadside area so it will make traveller difficult and trouble to reach that place by facing traffic jams and surrounded 4. FYP FHPK. Finally, the element of traveller satisfaction on hipster coffee shop has given the big.

(18) vehicles sounds which make traveller annoying and disturbance. It can make them feel uninterested to go the shop and loss a good mood to have the hipster coffee as they satisfied before having these problem. So, to overcome it the researcher can do online services by providing it anytime in particular period. By the online services, they can give more attention towards traveller. Other than that, workers will straightforwardly influence organization reputation. Appearances of laborers particularly a barista show how expert are they in serving traveller and how they keep an exclusive expectation of food quality in working spot to stay with their organization image positive. These shows that the majority of the barista is all around prepared and they do not have enough training by preparing work. Some of them have poor language communication and less of knowledge on work background. These prompts barista taking wrong orders by do not comprehend what traveller needs. Traveller will get a negative feedback to the hipster coffee shop and lack of satisfied in enjoying the menu due to lack of preparation by barista and make the coffee shop was less in visiting by the travellers. Last and not least, in this research the researchers will examine, investigate and analysis the product quality, service quality and café environment in giving the satisfaction towards hipster coffee shop.. 1.4. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this research is to identify the satisfaction traveller/traveller on hipster coffee in Kelantan. The objective of this research: 5. FYP FHPK. people. This surrounding area also make traveller uncomfortable because of the unpleasant.

(19) shop. 2. To investigate the role of service quality towards traveller satisfaction in hipster coffee shop. 3. To analyse the relationship between environment and traveller satisfaction towards hipster coffee shop.. 1.5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS. Here are the research question in the study:. 1. What is the relationship between product quality towards traveller satisfaction? 2. What is the relationship between service quality towards traveller satisfaction? 3. What is the relationship between cafe environment towards traveller satisfaction?. 1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY. This research is conducted whether product quality, service quality and cafe environment will affect traveller satisfaction on Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan. Nowadays, travellers visit hipster coffee shop not for the nature of the refreshment or the need of foodstuff, 6. FYP FHPK. 1. To examine whether product quality affect traveller satisfaction towards hipster coffee.

(20) at this point different variables which is good environment, product quality and service quality likewise assume significant part in affecting traveller satisfaction. Subsequently, marketers will able to execute proper systems to market their hipster coffee shops. Besides, this permits the current hipster coffee shops constantly to enhance their satisfaction in way to invite traveller. Then, for new modifying hipster coffee shops, they can invest high energy in their service quality and a comfortable environment to items to traveller in the way to contend with existing hipster coffee shops.. (i) Significance Towards Industry. The tourism industry also gets the benefit from this research topic. From this, industry can improve their service in order to create new environment and qualities. Other than that, for new hipster coffee shop, the industry can play main role which is providing more effort in their service by selling excess products to tourists to compete with existing hipster coffee shops. The researchers know hipster coffee shops are social spots. Travellers may visit hipster coffee shops not exclusively to talk with companions they are making a trip with but also to interface with others around them. Hipster Coffee Shop is a unique spot where local people and travellers meet without getting in one another way. Particularly for individuals going all alone, they may see hipster coffee shop as sheltered spots where they can look for social cooperation with both different travellers.. 7. FYP FHPK. but mainly for self-personality. In the progress of developing in coffee industry, product is not,.

(21) information that they can get from the previous study. These has given the researchers the awareness, crucial of conduction research on Traveller Satisfaction on Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan . This is because, the Hipster Coffee Shop is very essential to operation and give the satisfaction through the hipster coffee shop.. 1.7. DEFINITION OF TERMS. 1.7.1 Traveller. The term "travel" refers to the activities of travellers. A traveller is someone who travels from one geographic region to another for any reason and for any length of time. All journeys from one location to another are considered travel. It involves all journeys made by persons who visit a country for pleasure, work, vacation, or study, or who simply pass by without stopping (Dilek, 2018).. 1.7.2 Hipster Coffee Shop. 8. FYP FHPK. Finally, the researchers can also get the benefits from this study because the data and.

(22) coffee shop is known as a stereotypical, urban independent café serving high-end coffee drinks that are offbeat, minimalist, arty, and stylish.. 1.8. SUMMARY. In a nutshell, the researchers were finding that this chapter summarizes the overview of this study. The product quality, service quality and good environment are the deciding factors for travellers to own experience at hipster coffee shops. Other than that, hipster coffee shop operators should be improving their product quality, service quality and environment in the way traveller base. Moreover, the term hipster maintaining with the most recent trends which thought to be the cultural mainstream. Travellers also will find a hipster coffee shop which is ready to supply good quality of offerings and traveller’s satisfaction. Following chapter are going to be the literature review that associated with the research.. 9. FYP FHPK. According to Jacob Wohl, a controversial figure from the right (2018), the hipster.

(23) LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1. INTRODUCTION. The researcher is going to discuss the literature review on traveller satisfactions and the factors that lead to satisfaction on hipster coffee shop. The independent variables and dependent variable in this study will be clarified in this chapter. Then, this chapter highlight the research hypotheses prior to the development of conceptual framework. For summary, it concludes all the elements on this chapter.. 2.2. THE ANTECEDENTS OF TRAVELLER SATISFACTION TOWARD HIPSTER COFFEE SHOP IN KELANTAN (LITERATURE REVIEW). In nowadays, there is a fairly high demand among travellers from either domestically and overseas on viral and hipster foods. One of the foods that often get high demand from travellers is hipster coffee shop drinks. Continuous advertisements are often exhibited on social media such as television, radio, newspapers and so on about the latest food or beverages successfully attracting many travellers to try new things like drinks in hipster coffee shop. 10. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 2.

(24) their own drinks and menus provided by hipster coffee shops like Kelantan. Bessière (1998) claims that food and beverages are a big part of the culture we love to protect and that serves as a kind of identity marker. It includes certain characteristics of social groups and will also distinguish certain places from others through its uniqueness. The tradition of cooking in a particular place marks the character of society and mentality. Bessière (1998) considers that food and gastronomy as an element for tourism development at the local level and as a marker of the identity of a province. According to Kotler and Keller (2016), traveller satisfaction is the degree of a person’s emotions after comparing the performance or results he felt with his expectations. While according to Sofyan et al. (2013), traveller satisfaction is an evaluation of a complete purchase where the chosen alternative gives the same results or exceeds the buyer expectations. Dissatisfaction occurs if the results gained fail to meet traveller expectations. The size and direction of verification or inconsistencies between after purchase and after use will relate to traveller satisfaction. Assessment of product performance, services, and traveller evaluation before purchase will also affect the level of traveller satisfaction. (Kinasih & Albari, 2012). Traveller satisfaction encompasses the experience and services received by users. Traveller satisfaction also incorporates value consideration and comparison with early expectations of the quality of service. It is often compared based on the overall value that traveller see at a paid price (Rust & Zahorik, 1993). Traveller can achieve greater response to their needs by focusing on the organization of value traveller think out to outside travellers (Wooduff, 1997). Through the delivery of traveller value, they also need to meet traveller needs to increase traveller loyalty (Gronholdt, Martensen,2000). 11. FYP FHPK. Interesting hipster coffee shop drink photographs also attract many travellers to come and try.

(25) satisfaction of the products used will affect the sales level of a company's products. Based on the results of previous research by Kabu Khadka and Soniya Maharjan, (2017), there is a positive impact on shaping traveller loyalty toward traveller satisfaction. Traveller satisfaction is among the things that concern the company or an organization. Traveller usually move to another brand when losing faith in a brand that has been used and causing them to be dissatisfied. According to Schiffman and Karun (2004), based on individual perceptions of the performance of services or products related to their expectations have been defined as traveller satisfaction. However, traveller satisfaction is a new thing, researchers have defined traveller satisfaction from different angles and times. Although there are references that have a significant difference in determining the definition of traveller satisfaction, it still shares some of the same elements in all the definitions that have been stated. There are three components or general elements that have been identified:. (1) User satisfaction is a response that is in terms of emotion or cognitive (2) Responses related to specific focus that is expectations, products, and user experience (3) The reaction will occur at a certain time that is after use, after options, and based on accumulated experience. Therefore, researchers assume that traveller satisfaction will depend on a product, high service, and environment in the area. Traveller satisfaction levels will also be affected by their expectations of a product received. Traveller will be satisfied if the products received exceed 12. FYP FHPK. There are several things that include the brand image itself, the price, and traveller.

(26) their expectations. This research focus on the level of traveller satisfaction toward hipster coffee shop in Kelantan.. 2.2.1 Traveller Satisfaction. By comparing the performance of a product perceived or accepted to meet consumer expectations, it can be defined as traveller satisfaction. It is also an individual perception either satisfied or otherwise with the service or products received. Traveller satisfaction is a business philosophy that demonstrates capabilities and responsibilities for travellers' needs, managing and predicting their expectations and highlighting the importance of creating value for the traveller (Mendoza, Marius, Pérez, & Grimán, 2007). Decisions that have been made by travellers with comparing the performance of products received to meet their expectations can be defined as traveller satisfaction. It also affects and relies on individual feelings whether frustrated or likes the product received (Oliver, 1981; Brady and Robertson, 2001). Whereas according to Westbrook and Reilly (1983), Whereas according to Westbrook and Reilly (1983), they define traveller satisfaction as an emotional response to experiences offered by (or associated with) certain purchased products and services, retail stores, or molar behavior patterns, as well as throughout the market. Another Hunt writer (1977) defines traveller satisfaction as a process of assessment given that experience is at least as good as it should be. Tse and Wilton (1988) argued that traveller satisfaction is a non-responding process from consumers to the valuation differences seen between previous expectations and the real 13. FYP FHPK. their expectations, but will happen otherwise not satisfied if the products received are less than.

(27) Traveller satisfaction is a full-fledged response from travellers. Traveller satisfaction is the traveller’s fulfillment response. The definition of traveller satisfaction refers to two parties where the first approach has defined satisfaction as the final state or situation that exists rather than the user experience. While the second approach also emphasizes the process of settlement, assessment, and psychology that contributes to traveller satisfaction (Evangelos and Yannis,2010, 2). Helgesen and Nesset (2007) assume that satisfaction is the summary of psychological circumstances or subjective values fostered based on traveller experience compared to traveller expectations. Satisfaction is also an assessment of the product or service features received, whether the product or service successfully provides satisfaction and meets the expected level of pleasure or otherwise for the users. Traveller satisfaction should be associated with satisfaction. The service received by the traveller when it exceeds the expectations, they expected also affects traveller satisfaction. This situation looking like a global assessment referring to the service experience over time in marketing (Lim et al., 2006). Kotler and Keller, in Bela et al., (2016), satisfaction refers to the feeling of either feeling happy or disappointed with a product or service offered by a person and satisfaction will arise after comparing the performance of the product (or outcome) received to meet their expectations. In a service environment, traveller satisfaction has seen as a special traveller attitude. While according to Njei Zephan (2018), There is a difference between traveller expectations before they use the product or service and realized after its use also can understandable as traveller satisfaction.. 14. FYP FHPK. performance of the product as it felt after its use' as a definition of traveller satisfaction..

(28) Intention is solely defined as how hard individuals are willing to do and the way them plan to use towards performing a behaviour. According to Warshaw and Davis (1985, p.214), behavioral intentions is defined as ‘the degree to which someone has formulated conscious plans to perform or not perform some specified future behavior’. Next, if traveller have a lot of ideal behavioral intention, they are bound to express certain things, suggest company, stay faithful to the company, go through with the company and pay price premium (Zeithaml et al.,1996). Unexpectedly, traveller will in general express negative things, change to other agencies and do low business with company (Zeithaml et al.,1996). It shows the consumer trend to buy goods or services within the same store and share their experience with friends and family (Cronin,Brady & Hult,2000). Even when a traveller views the service quality to be great, if they are not satisfied, they might not pay the following visit too. According to Olorunniwo and Hsu (2006) found significant causal effect of both traveller satisfaction and service quality on behavioral intention; however, relationship between traveller satisfaction and behavioral intention was strengthened by service quality. Lee, Patrick and Crompton (2007) conducted a study on tourism and found that service quality and satisfaction both affect behavioral intentions whereas service quality does not increase traveller satisfaction. According to Iyer, Davari and Paswan (2016) studied the relationship between purchase intention and variables such as price, value, social awareness and environmental awareness of 15. FYP FHPK. 2.2.2 Theory of behavioural intention.

(29) definition and the components inside the behavioral intentions.. 2.2.3 Theory of Traveller Satisfaction. This section made a clear content review of the literature on satisfaction concepts and frameworks. The word satisfaction originated in English during thirteenth century. The word is lead from the Latin word Satis (“which means enough) and the Latin end faction (from the Latin facere- to do or make). Traveller satisfaction Theory or CSAT generally used main performance methods for measuring traveller satisfaction with the organization’s product and service. An overall psychological state that returns to the measurement of the relationship with travellers is the product quality, the service quality and the environment. According to Solomon (2011), “consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction” is the overall behavior of a person with a product after it has been purchased.” travellers always expect the probability of products and services, such as qualities, features and characteristics, will produce certain values based on previous emotional, behavioral and cognitive experiences. Expectations are always related to satisfaction. Based on the previous research related to the study, the focus was on product quality as a basic component to satisfy the travellers (Rozekhi et al., 2016). According to Shaharudin et al., (2011), the quality of product has become an important factor influencing travellers. This is report focus on the features, aesthetics and perceived quality. The Research has found that consumers are very aware with their food quality issues. According to Whitehall et al., (2006) 16. FYP FHPK. green products. The thought of the researchers is somewhat comparative regarding the.

(30) nutrition and quality. Similar findings researcher reported in numerous researcher that food quality can be attributed into food freshness, uniqueness, deliciousness and brand of food. The researchers will explain that these factors significantly influence the food appeal and appetite of the traveller, Longart (2015). Fresh-looking food will make the traveller feel that the quality of food is really good. It has shown that appearance of food is very vital factor in the quality of food. The second element to be discussed in this analysis is the service of quality. Service quality has been one of the most essential aspects for restaurant start in recent years, and there are many researches that have been conducted and the findings have shown that there is a relationship between quality of service and traveller satisfaction (Lim, 2010). The key determinants for level of restaurant service needs to be established (Tripathi and Dave, 2016). Other researcher found that it is particularly vital to associate these variables with segments such as youth travellers (Boo, 2017). This is because of the heavy rivalry in the food service sector, restaurant staff who are willing to provide their travellers with the highest quality services will have a great advantage over their rivals to maintaining travellers and achieving survival and growth (Ryu and Han, 2010). Therefore, tangible is an essential dimension to be evaluated. It is also necessary to calculate the reliability, as reported in Tang and Bougoure (2006) this dimension is the most essential aspect of service quality in the Malaysian food service industry, as well as the responsiveness dimension in hipster coffee shop which emphasizes the speed of service (Jangga et al., 2012). The third element to be tested when researching traveller satisfaction toward hipster coffee shops is cafe environment. Two elements of the restaurant atmosphere that are the subject of this analysis are cleanliness and ambient fragrance. Next, the essential aspect that 17. FYP FHPK. fresh food is a relatively current phenomenon in line with a growing consumer awareness of.

(31) the dirty (Sienny and Serli, 2010). Travellers are always looking the best food hygiene climate. In addition, healthy food would allow people to remain free from food poisoning. Studies further added that, Duberg found that if a restaurant with lack of hygiene concern the researchers to give travellers a bad experience of dining also ruining the appetite of its travellers. Furthermore, ambient smell of the restaurant is another significant concern that must be consider. Spangenberg et al., (1996) argued that there was an impact of ambient smell on the purchasing intention. In the study of Madzharov et al., (2015), recent studies have shown that ambient smell affect traveller perceptions of space in retail environments, which in turn influence consumers’ perceptions of power and thus of product choice and buying behaviour. Therefore, it’s necessary for the restaurant to have a greater information, wisdom and expertise of what the travellers need in order to provide travellers with a pleasant experience while they enjoy their food.. 2.3. ANTECEDENTS OF TRAVELLER SATISFACTION. Identify the dependent variable (DV) is the variable measured in a given protocols by (Micoulaud-Franchi, Quiles, Fond, Cermolacce, & Vion-Dury, 2014). Thus, this research is to study of the antecedents of traveller satisfaction toward hipster coffee shop in Kelantan that dependent variable is influenced the independent variable to describing this research.. 18. FYP FHPK. affects the decision of the traveller is that the dining area of the restaurant must be perfect from.

(32) There are many definitions and dimensions of different products and have been obtained in academic literature. Product is a one product that produces offer to own such as llike purchase, use to fulfil the traveller needs and want by Putro et al., (2014). Quality can be defined into four categories of types of excellence, value for money, meeting the needs of travellers, and being able to meet the needs of consumers (reeves & bednar, 1994). There are eight factors which be able to used and developed by the researchers to conduct this research on product quality (black & porter, 1996), (rao et al., 1999), (saraph et al., 1989, flynet al., 1994) and (zeitz et al.,1997). Product quality refers to the ability of a product itself to perform a specific function, can consist of durability, accurate results, provide improvements and convenience to consumers, and have a valuable nature compared to other products holistically (amanah, 2010). (etemat-sajadi & rizzuto (2013) also share the opinion that the quality of the product has a positive impact on traveller satisfaction. Quality is also a complex concept and has many aspects. In a simpler sense to understand, product quality is the capability in which the product can meet and exceed traveller expectations (waters & waters, 2008). Product quality is life support for the quality of a product or service. It will ensure that consumers can buy and use quality products and services and have reliability over a long period (feigenbaum, 1945; feigenbaum & feigenbaum, 2003, 2009). Nowadays competitive environment, the key to success and long-term survival for an organization to operate over a long time is the quality of products or services offered by them. The emphasis on quality interest is increasing and has relatively intense global competition.. 19. FYP FHPK. 2.3.1 Product Quality.

(33) company to compete better. (giffi et al., 1990). For the traveller satisfaction, traveller satisfaction will exceed the experience of services travellers have received. It has incorporated value considerations and comparisons with preliminary expectations about the quality of services that should be obtained. Often it is a comparison of the whole quality that travelers receive as well as the amount of price they pay. (rust & zahorik, 1993). Next, aesthetics, Aesthetics is how the product looks, feels, sounds, tastes, or smells that will be a personal consideration and give a priority correction to traveller or travellers. In fact, a marketing concept is an ideal eye combination of product characteristics that correspond to certain priorities to the user. Originally it was used to give dimension to that quality. Lastly, Perceived quality, aesthetic assessment can be used as a subjective perception of quality. Users will depend on indirect measures when they compared brands because they do not have complete information about product attributes.. 2.3.2 Service Quality. Service quality generally refers to a traveller’s opinion of the relative dominance or inferiority of the service provider and its facilities (Bitner and Hubbert et al., 1994) and is also perceived to be the overall attitude of the traveller towards the business (Parasuraman et al. 1988, Zeithaml 1988, Bitner 1990). Quality service can be defined in a variety of ways. Service quality is commonly defined as the extent to which a service meets the desires or expectations 20. FYP FHPK. The high quality products no longer differentiate competitors, but lead to the uniqueness of the.

(34) Wisniewski and Donnelly, 1996). The difference between traveller service criteria and perceived service can also be defined as service quality. When expectations exceed performance, it means the perceived output is low, and as a result, consumer dissatisfaction exists (Parasuraman et al., 1985; Lewis and Mitchell, 1990). The researchers have attempted to conceptualize and measure the efficiency of the service and describe its relationship to the overall consumer loyalty of hipster coffee shop in Kelantan. Academics has contributed to the concept of service quality. Otherwise, with more than two decades of research, conceptual analysis on service quality can better be defined as different. Parasuraman et al. (1988) introduced the Service Quality Model as a multi-item scale designed to determine the quality of service defined as the degree and direction of the difference bathe researchers’ consumer expectations of service and the perception of service. Service Quality Model requires respondents to address questions regarding their expectation and perceptions. Initially in 1985, the researchers suggested a ten dimension metric of service quality, but it has then been modified to a five Service Quality dimensions measurement tool that containing 22 item statements (Parasuraman et al., 1988). This research was designed to empirically equate the distance model with the performance-only model in every service field (Parasuraman et al., 1988). As a result, the researcher has selected three dimensions that are tangible, reliability, and responsiveness in this study.. 21. FYP FHPK. of travellers (Lewis and Mitchell, 1990; Dotchin and Oakland, 1994a; Asubonteng et al., 1996;.

(35) Responsiveness Reliability. Figure 2.1 Shows the Service Quality Model (Five Dimension) that used in the research.. According to the previous research, these three service quality dimensions are used to measure the difference between travellers’ expectations for excellence and their understanding of the real service provided. The service quality instrument, when implemented over time, will help to clarify both consumer expectations, perceptions of specific services, and areas of need for change in quality.. Tangible. Tangible is a component of the Service Quality Model created by Parasuraman et al. (1988). It is refer as the establishment of physical facilities, equipment and appearance of staff (Parasuraman et al., 1988). Suitable and desirable physical infrastructure and organizational equipment will draw buyers, as travellers will feel so appropriate to being at that place.. Reliability. Reliability has been defined as one of the dimensions of the Service Quality Model developed by Parasuraman et al. (1988). It is characterized as the capacity of the organizations’ 22. FYP FHPK. Tangible.

(36) The core principle behind reliability involves dependability and accuracy of the service provided. As promised by the staff, the service must be provided in order to fulfil the requirement of the travellers.. Responsiveness. Responsiveness is one of the measurements. Responsiveness is described as the desire of service providers to support travellers and provide timely service (Parasuraman et al., 1988). According to Witkowska et al. (2014) described responsiveness has been defined as how employees respond to the travellers’ need or their willingness to support and able to deliver services effectively and on time.. In the Service Quality instrument, it is important to remember that without sufficient details on both the quality of services expected and the interpretation of services received then feedback from traveller surveys can be highly misleading. The researchers use the Service Quality Model to determine the happiness of the hipster coffee shop branch in Kelantan.. 2.3.2 Café Environment. 23. FYP FHPK. to deliver the promised service in a reliable and accurate manner (Parasuraman et al., 1988)..

(37) drinks, food and beverages quality but also including different components such as service quality to attract more traveller by serving them better thus retain them (Reuland, Choundry & Fagel,1985). Some traveller may feel awkward because of the hipster coffee shop or cafes seats design led to insufficient space to move exists. According to Baker et al. (1992) discovered that traveller use components of the store environment as an important cue to infer quality and considered quality perception in the connection between store environment and store image. They are eager to invest more time to the physical environments which can attract positively in post-purchase intentions. Hence, service scape is an important component in dealing with these shops because of the traveller’s enthusiastic reactions to identify with their again visiting intention. Besides that, music is a viable device to limit the negative consequences of waiting in any service operation (Hui, Dube & Chebat,1997). This contention proposes that the presence of music will result in traveller having more favourable evaluations of a shop’s environment compared with a hipster coffee shop environment without music. Furthermore, services cape is also important to decide the achievement of hipster coffee shop. A magnificent services cape provided by hipster coffee shop empower them to remain serious. If the specific hipster coffee shop not in better and comfortable environment, traveller will be miserable and tend change to other hipster coffee shop that can attract to the good environment for travellers to gather or appreciate. So, if the hipster coffee shops give a comfortable environment that traveller will be fulfilled and will consistently need to visit a similar hipster coffee shop once again. Other than that, shop atmosphere has huge impact on traveller’s perception toward overall quality of the hipster coffee shop which will directly influence traveller satisfaction 24. FYP FHPK. The traveller requesting for superior good environment, shops should not only focus on.

(38) choose which hipster coffee shop, they want to have it. One of the most element of hipster coffee shop environment is cleanliness in this research. As a result, they additionally referenced that the traveller may genuinely and mentally uncomfortable if they sit excessively next to other travellers.. 2.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK. (Independent Variable) PRODUCT QUALITY. SERVICE. (Dependent variable). QUALITY. TRAVELLER SATISFACTION. CAFÉ ENVIRONMENT cafe Figure 2.2 shows the conceptual framework of this study. This study adapted product quality, service quality and café environment towards Traveller Satisfaction. 25. FYP FHPK. (Ryu & Jang,2008). Traveller give more consideration to the environment problem when they.

(39) quality, service quality and café environment that affect the antecedents of traveller satisfaction toward hipster coffee shop in Kelantan. The result shows that all attributes have significant positive relationship toward traveller satisfaction. The more the traveller satisfaction, the more the independent variables that traveller will come back and visit the hipster coffee shop. This study help they will improve on the factors that will have the highest impact toward traveller satisfaction in order to compete in intensive market.. 2.5. HYPOTHESES. 2.5.1 The Research Relationship between Product Quality and Traveller Satisfaction Towards Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan. Product quality intended as a combining the features that can meet the needs (desires) of consumers and provide traveller satisfaction by improving the product (goods) and making it free from shortcomings or deficiencies. In some research it has been observed that the quality of product and services substantially influence traveller loyalty (Haghighi et al., 2012; Polyorat and Sophonsiri, 2012; Tit, 2015; Kanta and Srivarli, 2014). The uniqueness of some product will affect the traveller satisfaction. From the emotion aspect and their taste also. If it accordingly seemly traveller taste, they will pay more on usual or will visiting again because of the infinity satisfaction toward the product quality of hipster coffee shop. All the product 26. FYP FHPK. This conceptual framework shows the importance of hipster coffee shop which product.

(40) their needs by t al., (Putro et al., 2014). In the previous study, that express there are indication for coffee quality. For example, if the taste of the coffee is delicious with enticing smell and aroma of coffee by (Lee et al., 2018). All these elements had given a big impact towards the traveller satisfaction whether they had made a good decision in visited and given the supported toward the hipster coffee shop or instead of. Conscious unconscious the brand also plays their role in retaining the quality toward the traveller loyalty. The researchers can develop hypothesis as below:. H1: There is a significant relationship between Product Quality and Traveller Satisfaction Towards Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan. 2.5.2 The Research Relationship between Service Quality and Traveller Satisfaction Towards Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan. Service quality is a crucial thing in allow a company to stand apart (Ladhari, 2008). According to Chumpitaz & Paparoidamis (2004) marketing efficiency is positively influenced by the quality of the operation. No matter how outstanding the organization markets is goods, if the service is not devent, profits will slip or even fall. This is the reason why service quality has to be carefully monitored all the time. Besides, that service efficiency has a significant effect on the cultivation of company success and is connected to the growth of market share 27. FYP FHPK. was providing the producer, pay concentration, purchase, use or eaten by travellers to meet.

(41) satisfaction of traveller in the hipster coffee shop. In addition, quality also regarded to be a strategic weapon (Parasuraman, Berry & Zeithaml, 1985). In the study, the researchers has measuring service quality by using three-dimensional service quality as a primary determinant of consumer satisfaction. The service quality instrument was the supportive instructional used to measure traveller expectations of service quality. The three dimensions which used in Service Quality model is tangible, reliability, and responsiveness. Some of previous lecture stated that, if the service quality is great, travellers appear to have a favourable behavioural goal. Anyhow, the quality of the service can have an effect on the intention of returning travellers. The researchers can develop hypothesis as below:. H2: There is a significant relationship between Service Quality and Traveller Satisfaction Towards Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan. 2.5.3 The Research Relationship between Café Environment and Traveller Satisfaction Towards Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan. The place where full of stylistic environment would have a significant effect on loyalty, either the client will come back, suggest their contacts, given a positive feedback on social media, or be able to spend more on it and staying there longer. Therefore, in order to gain traveller satisfaction, businesses need to explore a new approach to distinguish their coffee on 28. FYP FHPK. (Teck-Hong and Yong-Kean, 2012). As a result, the standard of service is essential to the.

(42) favouritism against companies (Pareigis, Edvardsson and Enquist, 2011). As an illustration, the design setting, colour, interior design, space and lighting are among the elements of the atmosphere that will certainly affect the actions of travellers, the satisfaction level and the intention to stay in the future (Baker, Grewal and Parasuraman, 1994; Han and Ryu, 2009; Lin and Liang, 2011; Bitner, 1992; Jang, Liu and Namkung , 2011; Martin, O'Neill, Hubbard and Palmer, 2008; Mehrabian and Russell, 1974; Wakefield and Blodgett, 1996). Moreover, previous studies have been demonstrated that services cape impacts travellers both cognitively and emotionally (Burns and Niesner, 2006; Kim, Kim and Lennon, 2009; Bitner, 1992; Ladhari, 2009; Pareigis et al., 2011). In short, the researchers had determined that hipster coffee shop experiences has an important role to play in shaping consumer emotions and that they also have a major effect on traveller behavior responses. It demonstrates, on the basis of the above evidence, that the world has influenced the degree of traveller satisfaction. Based on the facts above, it shows that the environment has affected traveller satisfaction level. The researchers can develop hypothesis as below:. H3: There is a significant relationship between Café Environment and Traveller Satisfaction Toward Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan. 2.6. SUMMARY. 29. FYP FHPK. the global market, as it has led to attracting traveller experience and thereby generating.

(43) review of literature review for independent variable that give the impact to antecedents of the traveller satisfaction on hipster coffee shop in Kelantan it is clarifying the conceptual and the hypotheses on this research.. 30. FYP FHPK. This chapter describe the methods used to perform the study. After discovering the.

(44) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. 3.1. INTRODUCTION. This chapter discusses and determines the way in collecting, processing and analyzing data to answer the hypotheses in a more systematic and organized way. This study also describes how and where the questionnaires been developed. In this study it was carried out in term of research design, target population, sample size, sampling method, data collection methods, research instrument, data analysis and summary. However, the objective for this chapter is to ascertain appropriate research procedures are followed in order to give the reader to have a better understanding and evaluating about outomes of the research. This study also describe how and where the questionnaires been developed.. 3.2. RESEARCH DESIGN. According to Cooper & Schindler (2014) research design can serves as an overall strategy or plan that is going to be applied in the study that can aid in achieving the objective of the study. There was exisiting with two method that can be used on the research which is the quanitative and the qualitative data. Moreover, in this research, the researchers a more 31. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 3.

(45) be prefer as a typically to be more on sienctific approach in doing a some research. This study was used quantitative research using cross-sectional survey. Quantitative research is aimed at discovering how many people think, feel, or act in a specific way. This type of research design maximizes the objectivity by using data, control, and statistics. The researcher choose the quantitative instead the qualitative data is because of the over structured, which is the researcher are uses tools such as the questionnaires or equipment to collect the data. Next, easy to focus the study was determined before it was initiated and the research was used to test the theory and ultimately support or reject it. According to Williams (2007) the researcher can collect the data with easy through using quantitative research in this study to accomplish the research objectives. This research is existing with three categories of business, which is descriptive research, causal research and exploratory research. The researchers tend in using the descriptive research to investigate the antecedents of traveller satisfaction toward hipster coffee shop in Kelantan and examine whether the independent variable give the effect to the dependent variable. Cross-sectional survey is a data that was taken only once to answering the research question and to able to attain the research objectives. This data can also be collected for more than one day. Usually this method also used in descriptive and exploratory research. The researchers used this method because easy to be conducted compared to other methods.. 1) Primary data. 32. FYP FHPK. inclined in using quantitative data. According to Tewksbury (2009) the quantitative data can.

(46) to direct data or undistributed data was be taken by the researcher from individual delegate samples to get the accurate research. The questionnaires, interviews, focus group interviews, observations, and other methods can be collected by using the primary data. In this research, the researche used primary data through questionnaire method only.. 3.3. POPULATION. A population is defined as a group of people who live and have a settlement where they are known as residents of a particular area. Individuals or residents in the area often rely on the same resources to use in carrying out daily activities. These resources are environmentally and they also rely on other members to continue living in the future. Scientists or scientists have conducted a study of the population by examining how individuals in a population relate or communicate with each other. They also studied how the entire population relates to their surroundings. It is also one of the tools to objectively study the population, population ecology depends on a series of statistical measures, known as demographic parameters, to illustrate that it is a population (Lebreton et al. 1992) The population research in this study was selected among the traveller who had visited Kelantan. Indeed, many travellerss and travellers have visited the hipster coffee shop in Kelantan. To get the information and data required in this study, The researcher use the residents who are among the traveller who had visited in Kelantan. Based on statistic, the total. 33. FYP FHPK. According to Hox and Boeije, 2005; Sekaran and Bougie, (2009) that primary intended.

(47) Arnberger, 2018). 3.4. SAMPLE SIZE. Sample is a group of individuals or participants selected from among the larger populations aimed at completing a study (Salant & Dillman, 2004). A group of people selected in a smaller number of the population for purpose of investigation can define as a sample. In order, to minimize the cost of sampling errors, the optimal sample is very important so that it is necessary to choose the appropriate sample size. Additionally, the selection of suitable samples is indispensable in doing any research because small sample sizes will have risks and will indirectly affect the results of the results obtained in the study (Salkind, 2010). According to Sekaran (2013), the size of a sample that is too small can lead to the offense of type I, which is the wrong probability of where it rejects certain findings when completely accepted. Furthermore, also according to Sekaran (2013) think that the size of the sample that is too large is not suitable for use as it may cause errors and will cause problems. According to (Becker 1998), when the sample selection process is to be used in studies, it needs to represent the population from which it is taken in a meaningful way and which we can correcting relation to answering our inquiry questions as well as meeting the objectives. Also, a pre-testing and/or pilot study demands a smaller sample size than a main study. The results of the pre-test or pilot study refer to the sample size used is smaller than the main study. Guidelines on sample size for both pre-testing studies and pilots were discussed briefly in 34. FYP FHPK. number of travellers arrive at Kelantan in 2018 was 5,321,957 (Wynveen, Schneider, &.

(48) table, the sample for this study was 381 (population 5,321,957) . The travellers who had visited Kelantan were randomly selected to represent travellers or travellers who had visit the hipster coffee shop. The use of samples is very important because it can assist researchers in facilitating the process of data collection in this study.. Table 3.1: Determining Sample Size from a Given Population. Source: Krejcei & Morgan (1970). 35. FYP FHPK. Memon et al. (2017); we may revisit this matter in the near future. Based on krejcie and morgan.

(49) SAMPLING METHOD. Based on below diagram that was showed the population, target population and sample used in this research.. Population. Target population. Sample. Figure 3.1: The diagram of Sampling Method. Sampling is the technique of using a specific number of items or parts of a larger population to conclude the whole population (Zikmund, 2003). It will very difficult to make use of the whole population, because it needs to spend high costs with too much time. Therefore, in this study, the researchers had apply a sample to require some part of the population to organize this research. Sampling design that allows the researcher to consider how many respondents are needed to achieve correct findings in a more effective manner. 36. FYP FHPK. 3.5.

(50) coffee shop in Kelantan before to get more accurate and reliable results.. 3.5.1 Sampling Techniques. Sampling is the technique of collecting enough elements from the population so that the analysis of the sample and the knowledge of its properties or characteristics will made it possible for us to generalize certain characteristics to the population elements. Sampling techniques are classified into two primary categories which are probability sampling and non-probability methods. However, the survey was taken by using nonprobability sampling in which the units were selected based on personal opinion or convenience (Zikmund, 2003). Under this research, the sampling procedure was used to collect a sample as convenience sampling. Convenience sampling refers to the way of obtaining people who were most conveniently available (Zikmund, 2003). By using this sampling method, the research could be completed quickly and with a polite manner attitude.. 3.6 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT. According to Salkind (2010) that instrument intended the items, or something can investigate to measure of variables in collection of the data. In the research, the researchers is 37. FYP FHPK. (Geneva, 2003). Thus, the population in this study had targeted the traveller who visit hipster.

(51) target population.. 3.6.1 Questionnaires Design. Questionnaires design is very essential to develop for the respondent understand and clarification about the question was adopted. A questionnaire should meet the objectives of the respondent to complete and accurate the information. The layout of the questionnaires is existing with the three section, which is section A, section B and Section C. In section A, it more on demographic information question. It usually used for questionnaires to measure respondent such as gender, age, race, occupation, marital status, income level as a report detail. Thus, this research is to get the information from respondent. Next, section B questionnaires is a linked between independent variable and dependent variable which is to construct measurement the independent variable to dependent variable. In this section, the method scale is required to used is the 5- Likert Scale to obtaining the data. Lastly, section C, it is general question are provided. Which is each question the respondent is required to choose one only. For instance, “Which Hipster coffee shop do you prefer in Kelantan? Choose ONE only” the answer was available is “Cafe machine, KB Brewster, JIWA Cafe, and Volt Cafe”. This question is multiple choice. In giving the option to respondent in selecting the answer.. 38. FYP FHPK. likely in prepare the questionnaires question in collecting the data to get the primary data from.

(52) To evaluate the traveller satisfaction on Hipster Coffee Shop in Kelantan, each item was developed with 5 items in Section B. First question the Respondent need to circle up their agreement level on 5 point agree scale from one (1) “strongly disagree” to five “strongly agree” in this section. Table 3.2 described the items for this section.. Table 3.2: The Five point agree scale Strongly disagree. Disagree. Neither Disagree. Agree. Strongly Agree. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Table 3.3: Questions Used in Section B of the Questionnaire- The Independent Variable Construct Product Quality. Items •. Source. The hipster coffee shop that I visited• serve a good quality cafe. •. Ryu, Lee & Kim (2012) Ha & Jang (2012). The hipster coffee shop that I visited offered delicious food. •. The hipster coffee shop that I visited offered a variety of menu. •. The food presentation in the hipster coffee shop that I visited is visually attractive. •. The food portion in the hipster coffee shop that I visited was enough to satisfy my hunger. Service Quality. Tangible. Rao (2014) Abdullah,. 39. FYP FHPK. 3.6.2 Questions Used in Section B of the Questionnaires.

(53) The employees (baristas) in the. Abdurahman & Hamali. hipster coffee shop that I visited are. (2013). well dressed and appear neat •. The employees of the hipster coffee shop that I visited give good travellers services.. •. The attitude of the employees of hipster coffee shop that I visited apply high confidence infornt of travellers. Reliability •. The employees (baristas) in the hipster coffee shop that I visited serves my drink/food exactly as I ordered. •. The employees (baristas) in the hipster coffee shop that I visited provides and accurate billing. •. The transaction in the hipster coffee shop that I visited went smoothly and make me feel comfortable.. Responsiveness •. The employees (baristas) in the hipster coffee shop that I visited are wiling to help me as per my request. •. The employees (baristas) in the hipster coffee shop that I visited provide prompt service.. •. The employees (baristas) in the hipster coffee shop that I visited have patience when taking my order.. Café Environment. •. Muhammad & Lee (2015). The wall decoration in the hipster•. Abdullah, Abdurahman &. coffee shop that I visited is visually. Hamali (2013). Interior Design •. attractive. •. The colors in the hipster coffee shop that I visited give me a warm. 40. FYP FHPK. •.

(54) FYP FHPK. atmosphere. •. The paintings or pictures in the hipster coffee shop that I visited are attractive.. Ambience •. The background music in the hipster coffee shop that I visited is pleasing. •. The cafe aroma in the hipster coffee shop that I visited is enticing (desirable). •. The environment in the hipster coffee shop that I visited is clean and tidy.. Table 3.4: Questions Used in Section B of the Questionnaire- Travellers Satisfaction (Dependent variable) Construct Travellers. Items •. Satisfaction. Source. Services provide by the hipster•. Ryu, Lee & Kim (2012). coffee shop that I visited exceeds. Ha & Jang (2012). my expectations •. I beieve I made the right decision after I dine in the hipster coffee shop that I visited.. •. Overall, I am satisfied with the hipster coffe shop that I visited. •. My experience in the hipster coffee shop that I visited has been positive in general. •. Overall, the services provided the hipster coffee shop that I visited are satisfying.. 41.

(55) According to Sekaran & Bougie (2016) that the scale of measurement has divide with four type which is ordinary, interval, ratio scale and nominal. For this study, the nominal scale was used in section A and the interval scale was used in section B. Likert scale measurement which is from 1 to 5 (1= strongly disagree to 4 = strongly agree). For section C, the scale to measurement are also use ordinal measurement scale. The main feature of the ordinal scale indicates the type of categories having a relevant or manageable relationship. However, this section is multiple choice form that can select by respondent.. 3.6.4 Pilot Test the Questionnaires. According to Singh, 2007, A pilot study is a must step to do, whenever the questionnaire are involved in the study. This is because, with the help of the pilot study, the error of the questionnaire gets to deducted. Through a pilot study, reliability and validity of the questionnaire get to improve (Czaja,1998). Pilot testing is very important in conducting a study as it can help in many ways such as detail and procedures used in the study carried out. The questionnaire for this study will be checked for peer review and expert review and then pilot study will be conducted with 30 respondents to increase the reliability and validity of the questionnaire.. 42. FYP FHPK. 3.6.3 Scale of Measurement.

(56) 30 sets of complete questionnaires. Reliability test was conducted to obtain the validity of the variables. In this research, the researcher selected 30 respondents from the population of study, which is the traveller had visited in Kelantan. Thus, the result of pilot test shows in table 3.5.. Table 3.5: Result of reliability test for pilot test Pilot Variable. Cronbach’s Alpha. Number of Item. Result. Product Quality. 0.875. 5. Very good. Service Quality. 0.951. 5. Excellent. Café Environment. 0.886. 5. Very Good. Traveller Satisfaction. 0.921. 5. Excellent. The result of the pilot test shown by Table 3.5 based on the score of Cronbach’s Alpha. According to the result of the pilot test, the reliability for independent variable service quality as well as dependent variable of study, traveller satisfaction records an excellent result. This is due to these variables recording a Cronbach’s Alpha score with more than 0.9. Meanwhile, for independent variable product quality café environment obtained a very good result on the reliability test, which is in the range between 0.8 and 0.9. Based on the result, it can be concluded that the entire question that is asked in the questionnaires is reliable. This means that the research could continue the distribution of questionnaire to target sample of study, which is the traveller who had visited in Kelantan.. 43. FYP FHPK. Before conducting the actual data collection, a pilot test was carried out by distributing.



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