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Life from Headwaters to the Coast

Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

BAKO

Edited by

Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan Mohamad Kadim Suaidi Indraneil Das

Edited by Mohd-Azlan, Suaidi & Das

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BAKO

Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

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Life from Headwaters to the Coast

BAKO

Edited by

Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan Mohamad Kadim Suaidi

and Indraneil Das

Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

Published by UNIMAS Publisher Universiti Malaysia Sarawak 94300 Kota Samarahan Sarawak, Malaysia.

Website: www.unimas.my in association with

Natural History Publications (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd. (216807-X) A913, 9th Floor, Wisma Merdeka Phase 1

P.O. Box 15566, 88864 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Tel: 088-233098 Fax: 088-534502 Website: www.nhpborneo.com Life from Headwaters to the Coast:

Bako. Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

Edited by Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Mohamad Kadim Suaidi and Indraneil Das ISBN 978-967-0054-16-2

First published 2023.

Copyright © 2023 UNIMAS Publisher and Natural History Publications (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd.

Photographs copyright © 2023 with respective photographers.

Copy Editor: Genevieve V. A. Gee

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

Half-page: Sea Stack. Photo: Hans Hazebroek Front cover: Silvered Langur. Photo: Chien C. Lee

Frontispiece: Sandstone gate at Telok Tajor. Photo: Hans Hazebroek Printed in Taiwan

Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Life from Headwaters to the Coast : BAKO : Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea / Edited by Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Mohamad Kadim Suaidi and Indraneil Das. ISBN 978-967-0054-16-2 1. Biodiversity--Malaysia--Sarawak.

2. National parks and reserves --Malaysia--Sarawak.

3. Taman Negara Bako (Sarawak, Malaysia).

4. Government publications--Malaysia.

I. Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan. II. Mohamad Kadim Suaidi. III. Indraneil Das.

333.950959522

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea Foreword ... vii

by YB Dato Sri Haji Abdul Karim Rahman Hamzah

Preface ... ix Introduction ... 1 Introducti

General Section

Reminiscences of Bako ... 3 by Gathorne Cranbrook

Geology and Geomorphology ... 5 by Hans Hazebroek

Floral Accounts

The Vegetation ... 19 by Meekiong Kalu, Stephen Teo Ping, Mohd Effendi Wasli, Nursafinas Jelani, Mohd Akmal Mohd Raffi and Yazid Kalbi Two Endemic Herbs ... 25

by Wong Sin Yeng

Carnivorous Plants ... 29 by Chien C. Lee

Mushrooms ... 35 by Mohamad Hasnul Bolhassan, Mohd Haqim Mohd Haizar Nazry, Nur Atiqah Asiqin Sulaiman Khan, Mohamad Nurfazillah Mohamad Ramzie Faizal and Fatimah Daud

Faunal Accounts

Mosquitoes ... 37 by Wong Siew Fui, Ichiro Miyagi, Takako Toma and Takao Okazawa Dragonflies and Damselflies ... 41

by Rory Dow and Graham T. Reels Butterflies ... 47

by Pang Sing Tyan, Ratnawati Razali and Wan Nurainie Wan Ismail

Land Snail ... 53 by Mohd Zacaery Khalik and Mohammad Effendi Marzuki Crabs and Shrimps ... 57

by Jongkar Grinang

Inland Fishes ... 60 by Kelvin K. P. Lim

Amphibians ... 65 by Indraneil Das, Ramlah

Zainudin, Pui Yong Min, Elvy Quatrin Deka and Taha Wahab Reptiles ... 69

by Indraneil Das, Pui Yong Min, Sabariman Hassan and Taha Wahab Birds ... 77

by Mohamad Fizl Sidq Ramji, Nurul Ashikeen Ab Razak, Ivana Berlinda Bilang, Rahah Mohd.

Yakup, Isa Sait and Badiozaman Sulaiman

CONTENTS

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

Bats ... 91 by Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan, Muhd Amsyari Morni, Julius William-Dee, Norfarhana Mazlan, Wan Nur Syafinaz Wan Azman, Emy Ritta Jinggong, Nur Afiqah Aqilah Azhar, Roberta Chaya Tawie Tingga, Mohd Ridwan Abd Rahman and Isham Azhar

Non-volant Small Mammals ... 95 by Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan, Julius William-Dee, Muhd Amsyari Morni, Nor Al-Shuhadah Sabarudin, Muhammad Amin Iman Azmi, Syamzuraini Zolkapley, Roberta Chaya Tawie Tingga, Mohd Ridwan Abd Rahman and Isham Azhar

Large Mammals ... 99 by Mohd-Azlan Jayasilan and Sally Soo Kaicheen

Species Highlights

Saltwater Crocodile ... 106 by Engkamat Lading and Indraneil Das

Bornean Green Pit-viper ...111 by Veronica Martin and Indraneil Das

Proboscis Monkey ... 114 by Bolhan Budeng, Joan

Bentrupperbäumer and David Gillieson

Silvered Langur ... 117 by Bolhan Budeng, Joan

Bentrupperbäumer and David Gillieson

Sunda Colugo ... 120 by Dzulhelmi Nasir and

Nursyereen Mohd Nasir

Bearded Pig ... 123 by Mohd-Azlan Jayasilan and Sally Soo Kaicheen

Human Dimensions

Ecotourism ... 125 by Arianti Atong, Abang Norizan Abang Median, Jalani Kelat and Suhaili Mokhtar

Contributor Affiliations ... 131

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

FOREWORD

S

arawak retains some of the richest biodiversity in the world. It is home to many endemics and species of conservation importance. Some of the best examples can be found in the State’s extensive network of protected areas. Many of us here in the Ministry continuously explore the exquisiteness of biodiversity in the hopes of harnessing and sharing of information with the general public, to appreciate such elements present in our protected areas.

This book represents but a sample of the work done by academics in the realm of biodiversity from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak and experts from various other agencies. I would like to commend

the efforts by these researchers who supported us in collecting information on the biodiversity in such species-rich areas as Bako, which forms the material for the book.

The work is also expected to be important for local communities, to enhance their understanding, appreciation and perhaps eventually, guide their use of such resources sustainably, acting as an interpretation tool to guide ecotourists and naturalists.

As will be evident to the readership, a variety of approaches have been taken by the authors of the volume. Sections, starting with reminiscences from the early days by the Earl of Cranbrook, and on geology and geomorphology, are divided along taxonomic and thematic lines. These include a general account of the tree flora and selected herbaceous flora, a review of carnivorous plants and one on the mushrooms. The faunal accounts include both invertebrates and vertebrates, ranging from mosquitoes to monkeys. A section highlights the biology of Bako’s charismatic species, that attract so many tourists to the Park. Finally, the section on human dimensions round up the volume, with a chapter on ecotourism in Bako National Park.

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

It is my hope that this book will contribute in a signifi cant way by encouraging more people to appreciate nature, explore our biodiversity and win more supporters. I anticipate that this volume will be useful to stakeholders to whom we remain connected through our common views on biodiversity conservation for the future generation.

Yang Berhormat Dato Sri Haji Abdul Karim Rahman Hamzah Minister of Tourism, Creative Industry, Performing Arts;

Minister of Youth, Sports & Entrepreneur Development Sarawak FOREWORD

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

REPTILES

Indraneil Das, Pui Yong Min, Sabariman Hassan and Taha Wahab

T

he Bako Peninsula and its famous National Park, despite its proximity to Kuching, had received scant attention from herpetologists in the first few decades of its establishment. Starting in 1992, inventories of the reptile fauna have led to a growing list of species. The current checklist shows 62 species, as of 25 August 2022, comprising a crocodilian, four turtles, 26 lizards and 31 snakes. A total of six reptile species on Bako (five lizards and a snake) are Bornean endemics.

In general, the reptile fauna is typical of lowland forests of Borneo, with a few edge elements, such as the Common Sun Skink, Eutropis multifasciata, and the Asian House Gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, that may have invaded the region along with humans and construction material. Species typical of mangroves include the Mangrove Skink, Emoia atrocostata and the Horned Flying Lizard, Draco cornutus. The former species has been observed being stalked, overpowered and consumed by the Water Monitor, Varanus salvator, which is sympatric in its mangrove and beach habitat in Bako. A recent study on the latter species of ‘flying lizard’ demonstrated mimicry of falling leaves by these lizards.

The Water Monitor can be frequently viewed from the comforts of the verandah of the chalets or the dining area, as it scavenges around the tourism facility, and presumably also preying on small vertebrates- birds and rodents, that frequent the area. These are some of the world’s largest lizards, reaching

Fig. 1. Heosemys spinosa. Fig. 2. Dogania subplana.

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

REPTILES

a length of about 1.5 m, and although habituated to humans in Bako, can be formidable predators, and certainly dangerous to humans who approach too close. Another species often sighted is the Bornean Green Keeled Pit Viper, Tropidolaemus subannulatus, most frequently encountered on low shrubby vegetation around the tourism complex, particularly the jetty area. It is venomous, but with no records of human mortality. Also, look out for the other venomous snakes, including a coral snake and two cobras, including the King Cobra, Ophiophagus hannah. Those visiting the rocky islets or swimming off the coast also need to be mindful of the presence of the Yellow- lipped Sea Krait, Laticauda colubrina. The venom of all of these species show neurotoxic properties, necessitating an immediate visit to the Kuching’s General Hospital for treatment.

Fig. 6. Gerarda prevostiana.

Fig. 5. Coelognathus flavolineatus.

Fig. 4. Varanus salvator.

Fig. 3. Gekko cf. albofasciatus.

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea REPTILES

Several of the species listed for Bako are in the Sarawak Wild Life Protection Ordinance 1998: Crocodylus porosus, Dogania subplana, Varanus rudicollis, V. salvator, Malayopython reticulatus, Naja sumatrana and Ophiophagus hannah.

From the vast area and habitats represented in Bako that remain unsurveyed, additional species may be expected. For instance, visiting researchers have spotted sea turtles, either the Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas or the Hawksbill Sea Turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, off the Bako coast and, a Park Guide, in 1998, rescued a Hawksbill Sea Turtle entangled in a fishing net off the Bako coast. One can also add the Painted Terrapin, Batagur borneoensis, which is known to breed in nearby coastal areas, such as Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, and may eventually occur in the Bako area. A number of lizards and snakes are known from Bako’s hinterland, and further field inventories will no doubt add to the list of reptiles known from Bako. As we say in the tropics, there is much to be done.

Fig. 7. Aplopeltura boa.

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

REPTILES

Checklist

Reptiles recorded at Bako National Park. Current: 26 August 2022.

Bornean endemics indicated with an asterisk.

Species Common Name IUCN Habitat Remarks CROCODYLIDAE

Crocodylus porosus

Schneider, 1801 Saltwater

Crocodile LC Mangrove

swamps, river mouths and coasts CHELONIIDAE

Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766)

Hawksbill

Sea Turtle CE Coastal waters and perhaps beaches GEOEMYDIDAE

Cyclemys dentata

(Gray, 1831) Common

Leaf Turtle NT Lowland dipterocarp forests

Species complex includes 2 species on Borneo Heosemys spinosa

(Gray, 1831) Spiny Hill Turtle E Lowland dipterocarp forests; Kerangas

Species complex with at least 2 species TRIONYCHIDAE

Dogania subplana (Geoffroy Saint- Hillaire, 1809)

Malayan

Softshell Turtle LC Rocky streams AGAMIDAE

Aphaniotis fusca

(Peters, 1864) Brown Shrub

Lizard LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Bronchocela

cristatella (Kuhl, 1820)

Crested Green

Lizard LC Forest edges Species complex

Draco cornutus

Günther, 1864* Horned Flying

Lizard LC Mangrove forests

Draco sumatranus

Schlegel, 1844 Common

Flying Lizard LC Forest edges Gonocephalus

liogaster (Günther, 1872)

Blue-eyed Angle-headed

Lizard LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Pelturagonia

nigrilabris (Peters, 1864)*

Black-lipped

Shrub Lizard LC Lowland dipterocarp forests

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea REPTILES

Species Common Name IUCN Habitat Remarks GEKKONIDAE

Cnemaspis kendallii

(Gray, 1845)* Kendall’s

Day Gecko LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests

Species complex with multiple species Cyrtodactylus

consobrinus (Peters, 1871)

Peters’ Bent-

toed Gecko LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests

Species complex with at least 3 species Cyrtodactylus

pubisulcus Inger, 1957

Grooved Bent-

toed Gecko LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Gehyra mutilata

(Wiegmann, 1834) Four-clawed

Gecko LC Human

commensal Gekko kuhli

(Stejneger, 1902) Kuhl’s

Parachute Gecko LC Lowland dipterocarp forests

Species complex with multiple species Gekko monarchus

(Duméril &

Bibron, 1836)

Warty House

Gecko LC Human

commensal Gekko cf.

albofasciatus (Günther, 1867) (as Gekko smithii)

White-banded

Giant Gecko LC Lowland dipterocarp forests

Bornean population await a name Hemidactylus

craspedotus (Mocquard, 1890)

Frilly Forest

Gecko LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Hemidactylus

frenatus Duméril

& Bibron, 1836

Asian House

Gecko LC Human

commensal

Hemiphyllodactylus

typus Bleeker, 1860 Common

Worm Gecko LC

Lowland dipterocarp forests and mangrove forests SCINCIDAE

Dasia grisea

(Gray, 1845) Grey Tree Skink LC Lowland dipterocarp forests Dasia olivacea

Gray, 1839 Olive Tree Skink LC Lowland dipterocarp forests Dasia vittata

(Edeling, 1864) Striped Bornean

Tree Skink LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Emoia atrocostata

(Lesson, 1830) Mangrove Skink LC Mangrove forests

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

REPTILES

Species Common Name IUCN Habitat Remarks Eutropis

multifasciata (Kuhl, 1820)

Common

Sun Skink LC

Lowland dipterocarp forests; forest edges Eutropis rudis

(Boulenger, 1887) Black-banded

Ground Skink LC Lowland dipterocarp forests Eutropis rugifera

(Stoliczka, 1870) Red-throated

Skink LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Tropidophorus

brookei (Gray, 1845)*

Brooke’s

Water Skink LC Lowland dipterocarp forests VARANIDAE

Varanus rudicollis

Gray, 1845 Rough-necked

Monitor Lizard DD Lowland dipterocarp forests Varanus salvator

(Laurenti, 1768) Water Monitor LC Mangrove forests and disturbed areas PYTHONIDAE

Malayopython reticulatus (Schneider, 1801)

Reticulated

Python LC

Secondary forests and other open areas; rarely in forests COLUBRIDAE

Ahaetulla prasina

(Boie, 1827) Oriental Vine

Snake LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Boiga melanota

(Boulenger, 1896) Mangrove

Cat Snake NE Mangrove forests and lowland dipterocarp forests

Formerly allocated to Boiga dendrophila Calamaria

borneensis Bleeker, 1860*

Bornean

Reed Snake LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Chrysopelea

paradisi Boie, 1827 Garden Flying

Snake LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Chrysopelea pelias

(Linnaeus, 1758) Twin-barred

Flying Snake LC Lowland dipterocarp forests Coelognathus

flavolineatus (Schlegel, 1837)

Yellow-striped

Rat Snake LC Secondary and edge forests Dendrelaphis

caudolineatus Stripe-tailed

Bronzeback LC Lowland dipterocarp forests

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea REPTILES

Species Common Name IUCN Habitat Remarks Dendrelaphis

formosus (Boie, 1827)

Beautiful Bronzeback

Tree Snake LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Dendrelaphis pictus

(Gmelin, 1789)

Painted Bronzeback

Tree Snake LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests and edge habitats Gonyosoma

oxycephalum

(Boie, 1827) Red-tailed Racer LC Lowland dipterocarp forests Lycodon tristrigatus

(Günther, 1858) Three-banded

Wolf Snake LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Oligodon

octolineatus (Schneider, 1801)

Eight-lined

Kukri Snake LC Lowland dipterocarp forests Oligodon signatus

(Günther, 1864) Half-keeled

Kukri Snake LC Lowland dipterocarp forests Ptyas fusca

(Gunther, 1858) White-bellied

Rat Snake LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Sibynophis

melanocephalus (Gray, 1834)

White-lipped Black-headed

Snake LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Xenelaphis

hexagonotus (Cantor, 1847)

Malayan

Brown Snake LC Lowland dipterocarp forests NATRICIDAE

Hebius flavifrons

(Boulenger 1887) White-fronted

Keelback LC

Lowland dipterocarp forests, in streams and rivers Rhabdophis

conspicillatus (Günther, 1872)

Red-bellied

Keelback LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests Xenochrophis

maculatus (Edeling, 1864)

Malayan Spotted Keelback

Water Snake LC

Lowland dipterocarp forests, in wetland areas Xenochrophis

trianguligerus (Boie, 1827)

Red-sided Keelback

Water Snake LC

Lowland dipterocarp forests, in wetland areas

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Bako: Biodiversity Between Land and the Sea

REPTILES

Species Common Name IUCN Habitat Remarks HOMALOPSIDAE

Cerberus rynchops

(Schneider, 1799) Dog-faced

Water Snake LC

Mangrove swamps and mud flats Gerarda

prevostianus (Eydoux &

Gervais, 1837)

LC

VIPERIDAE Tropidolaemus subannulatus (Gray, 1842)

Bornean Green Keeled Pit Viper LC

Lowland dipterocarp forests; forest edges ELAPIDAE

Calliophis bivirgatus (Boie, 1827)

Blue Coral

Snake LC Lowland

dipterocarp forests

Species complex with multiple species Naja sumatrana

Müller, 1887 Sumatran Cobra LC

Secondary forests and other open areas; rarely in forests Ophiophagus

hannah (Cantor,

1836) King Cobra V Lowland

dipterocarp forests

Species complex with multiple species Laticauda colubrina

(Schneider, 1799) Yellow-lipped

Sea Krait LC Coral reefs and other nearshore habitats TYPHLOPIDAE

Indotyphlops braminus (Daudin, 1803)

Brahminy

Blind Snake LC Human commensal XENODERMIDAE

Xenodermus javanicus Reinhardt, 1836

Rough-backed

Litter Snake LC Lowland dipterocarp forests PAREIDAE

Aplopeltura boa (Boie, 1828)

Blunt-headed Slug-eating

Snake LC

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The Editors

Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan (left) earned his doctoral degree from Charles Darwin University for his work on mangrove avifauna of Australia. He is currently the Director of the Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

Mohamad Kadim Suaidi (middle) is the Vice Chancellor of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak since 2013, and hails from Kampung Bako. He is passionate about community engagement and sustainable development in relation to biodiversity conservation.

The university’s visibility and recognition at the global stage is one of his main achievements.

Indraneil Das (right) received his doctoral degree from the University of Oxford, and was a Fulbright Fellow at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. Currently, he is Professor at the Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

BAKO NATIONAL PARK

This work takes the readers through a journey through several unique ecosystems within Bako National Park, highlighting many inhabitants on the way, from humble insects, such as mosquitoes and dragonfl ies, to the charismatic species, including the Proboscis Monkey and a rich assemblage of shorebirds that draw tourists by the thousands to the Park.

Bako is rich in biodiversity and accessible throughout the year via a short boat ride to the Park headquarters. From this vantage point, an eager tourist will be able to easily access the various habitats represented, including mixed dipterocarp forests, mangrove forests, cliff forest, beach forests, Kerangas, as well as mudfl ats, each with its unique biodiversity. The Park is also home to several endemic species, as well as species of conservation importance, upon which substantial ecotourism activities are based.

Bako National Park’s rich ecosystems are presented through images and text accounts in this volume, which is based on fi eld research, that reiterates their value for naturalists, tourists, as well as researchers. This book aims to enlighten stakeholders and present information on species biology and distribution to nature enthusiasts.

The chapter on geology and geomorphology sets the scene for the book.

The wildlife aspects cover species from an array of taxa that includes plants and invertebrates, to fi shes, herpetofauna, birds and mammals, rounded up with the ecotourism potential of the Park.

Research in Bako National Park was possible thanks to the generosity of various government agencies through research grants to Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. The project is aimed at assessing the area’s biotic diversity, examine anthropogenic elements, and fi nally, to develop an applicable environmental model for ecotourism.

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