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Academic year: 2022


Tunjuk Lagi ( halaman)






A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Information Technology

Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology International Islamic University Malaysia

JULY 2019




The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education sector has altered the way teaching and learning activities conducted in all levels. Despite the rapid growth of ICT adoption in developed countries, a number of challenges have hindered the use of ICT in developing countries. Since, the ICT have massive potential and is considered as enabler for social economic development of a country. Therefore, developing countries needs to adopt ICT, in order to achieve the sustainable development and quality of life. Hence, such a motivation towards technology have compelled every country to produced ICT trained people. Driven by this, higher education institutions (HEIs) around the world are integrating ICT tools and adopting latest technologies to continue providing quality education. In fact, the effectiveness of any modern ICT technology depends upon the acceptance and utilization by academics in any academic institutions. However, literature shows that, in past research on ICT is focused in context of industrial sector, e- governance, e-commerce and education in general. While it is believed that, success of education system depends upon academics.

It was found that there were rare studies on ICT acceptance by academics especially in context of developing countries. This study addressed this gap and identified factors that influences the acceptance of ICT by academics. Subsequently, this study aimed to develop a model of ICT acceptance by academics. The study was carried out by adopting mix methods approach. The data was collected using survey questionnaire, followed by face-to-face interviews from academics. The 325 valid responses, were analysed using SPSS-SEM methods that yields and test measurement and structural models. Followed by interviews data, using thematic analysis method. The study has successfully explored the success factors for ICT acceptance by academics and the findings show that the proposed model achieved an acceptable fit with the data. The results revealed that the Culture, External Incentives, Perceived Needs, Job Relevance, Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy and Facilitating Conditions were found to have significant effect on intention to use ICT. In contrast, Social Influence had no significant effect on intention to use ICT. Further, findings provide the guidance towards the ICT management and utilization in HEIs. This study also suggests that academics should be provided with be regular trainings relevant to ICT services. The impact of this research work will be on higher education to improve the quality of the education system by effectively utilizing ICT in HEIs.




ثحبلا ةصلاخ


ل ( تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكت مادختسا يرغ دق ICT

ملعتلاو ميلعتلا ةطشنأ ابه سراتم تيلا ةقيرطلا ) عاطق في

،ةمدقتلما نادلبلا في تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكت دامتعا في عيرسلا ومنلا نم مغرلا ىلع .تياوتسلما عيجم ىلع ميلعتلا لاا نا تايناكمبإ تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكت عتمتت .ةيمانلا نادلبلا في اهمادختسا تلقرع دق تيادحتلا نم ضعب

ماع ةباثبم برتعتو ةلئاه .ةيعامتجلاا ةيداصتقلاا ةيمنتلل ينكتم ل

و ايجولونكتلا هذه دامتعا لىإ ةيمانلا نادلبلا جاتتح ،كلذل

نو ةمادتسلما ةيمنتلا قيقتح لجأ نم صاخشأ نيوكت ىلع نادلبلا هذه عفد ام اذهو ،ةايلحا ةيعو

لامج في ايجولونكت

تامولعلما ايجولونكت تاودأ جمدب موقت لماعلا ءانحأ عيجم في لياعلا ميلعتلا تاسسؤم نا امك .تلااصتلااو تامولعلما يأ ةيلاعف دمتعت .ديلجا ميلعتلا يرفوت ةلصاولم تاينقتلا ثدحأ دامتعاو تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكتل ةثيدح ايجولونكت

لأا لوبق ىلع تلااصتلااو لوح ةقباسلا ثابحلأا نا ينبت ،كلذ عمو .ةييمداكأ ةسسؤم يأ في اهمادختساو ينييمداك

ميلعتلاو ةينوتركللإا ةراجتلاو ،ةينوتركللإا ةمكولحاو ،يعانصلا عاطقلا قايس في تزكر تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكت لكشب ينييمداكلأا ىلع دمتعي ميلعتلا ماظن حانج نأ دقتعي ينح في .ماع لوبق لوح تزكر ةليلق تاسارد كانه نا لاا .

ةلجاعم لىا ةساردلا هذه فدته .ةيمانلا نادلبلا قايس في ةصاخو ينييمداكلأا لبق نم تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكت ىلع رثؤت تيلا لماوعلا ديدتح اضيأو ةوجفلا هذه امك .ينييمداكلأا لبق نم تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكت لوبق


نم ةساردلا تيرجأ .ينييمداكلأا لبق نم تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكت لوبقل جذونم ريوطت لىإ اضيأ ةساردلا هذه تسلاا ةساردلا مادختسبا تناايبلا عجم تم ثيح .ةيليلحتلا بيلاسلأا ينب عملجا دامتعا للاخ ةيئاصق

تلاباقبم ةعوبتم

لتح تم دقو .ينييمداكلأا عم هجول ًاهجو لي

325 نايبتسا مادختسبا SPSS-SEM

. ليلتح اما دقف تلاباقلما تناايب

لبق نم تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكت لوبق لماوع ةساردلا تفشكتسا .يعوضولما ليلحتلا ةقيرط مادختسبا تم نأ جئاتنلا ترهظأو ينييمداكلأا .تناايبلا عم ًلاوبقم اًقفاوت ققح حترقلما جذومنلا

امك لا تفشك ةفاقثلا نأ اضيأ جئاتن

يربك يرثتأ اله ةرسيلما فورظلاو دهلجا عقوتو ءادلأا عقوتو ةفيظولا ةمءلامو ةكردلما تاجايتحلااو ةيجرالخا زفاولحاو في

لل نكي لم ،لباقلما في .تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكت مادختسا ايجولونكت مادختسا ىلع يربك يرثتأ يعامتجلاا يرثأت

و تامولعلما تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكت ةرادإ ونح تاهيجوتلا ضعب جئاتنلا ترفو ،كلذ ىلع ةولاع .تلااصتلاا

ت تارودب ينييمداكلأا ديوزت يغبني هنأ اًضيأ ةساردلا هذه تحترقا امك .لياعلا ميلعتلا تاسسؤم في اهمادختساو ةيبيرد

ك .تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكت تامدبخ قلعتت ةمظتنم لياعلا ميلعتلا ىلع يرثتأ ةليسوك يثحبلا لمعلا اذه دعي ام

.لياعلا ميلعتلا تاسسؤم في تلااصتلااو تامولعلما ايجولونكتل لاعفلا مادختسلاا للاخ نم ميلعتلا ماظن ةدوج ينسحتل




The thesis of Shahmurad Chandio has been approved by the following


Muhamad Sadry Abu Seman Supervisor


Suhaila Samsuri Co-Supervisor


Asadullah Shah Co-Supervisor


Mira Kartiwi Internal Examiner


Jamaiah H. Yahaya External Examiner


Helen Margaret Hassan External Examiner


Shihab A. Hameed Chairman




I hereby declare that this thesis is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degrees at IIUM or other institutions.

Shahmurad Chandio

Signature ... Date ...






I declare that the copyright holders of this thesis are jointly owned by the Shahmurad Chandio and IIUM.

Copyright © 2017 Shahmurad Chandio and International Islamic University Malaysia. All rights reserved.

No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below

1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may only be used by others in their writing with due


2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.

3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.

By signing this form, I acknowledged that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Right and Commercialization policy.

Affirmed by Shahmurad Chandio

……..……….. ………..

Signature Date


vii Dedicated to

This research work is dedicated, to my grandmother, late grandfather, late maternal grandparents, my dear parents, my three uncles, my two brothers, my sister, my two kids Hasnain and Rubab and loving wife Abida.

I also dedicate my work to my late father in law Muhammad Anwar Khan Pathan and my Cousin late (تاسام) Sahib Khan whom I lost during my journey to Ph. D studies (May Almighty Allah rest their soul in heaven (Ameen).




All praise to Allah the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. I take this opportunity while relying on the instruction of the Prophet (S.A.W) to the effect that “Whoever does not thank people does not thank Allah”, to express my profound gratitude to my dear parents (Mr.Muhammad Salah Chandio and Mrs Asiyat Khatoon), my late father in law Muhammad Anwar Khan Pathan, my elder brother Muhammad Murad Chandio, My Uncle Hareef Khan Chandio, who all granted me the gift of unwavering belief in my ability to accomplish this goal: thank you for your support and patience.

It is most important to thank my wife Abida Kanwal Chandio, whose cooperation, patience and sacrifices are most admirable. She left her job, relatives and came with me to stay abroad. Here, she put all her energies to keep me happy and undisturbed so that, I could work smoothly and with a peace of mind. It is her cooperation that, I have completed this mountainous task.

In addition, I am thankful to my university of Sindh, who provided funds to pursue my studies. I am also thankful to my cousin Ameer Ali Chandio who become my guarantor to pay money if I become unable to re-join the University of Sindh.

Moreover, I thank my friends especially Muhammad Yaqoob Koondhar, Gulsher, Saad, Kamran who were always part of my happiness and sad moments to share with through online groups.

I am also thankful to Dr.Azhar Ali Shah, Muhammad Saleem Chandio, Sajid Qayoom Memon, Asgher Raza burfat, Ayaz Ahmed Kerio, Hyder Ali Nizamani, Barkat Ali Bughio and Mr.Mehar Ali Qazi for their support from the start of the journey. It was their support that, they handled the formalities required from time to time to handle various issues arose in smooth funding and study leave and stay here.

It is my utmost pleasure to thank my supervisors Dr. Muhammad Sadry Abu Seman, Dr. Suhaila Samsuri, Professor Dr. Asadullah Shah, for their invaluable assistance, guidance and tireless advice.

I would also like to thank other faculty members and staff of IMCS and to all my friends and relatives who prayed for my successful journey throughout my research period.

I wish to express my appreciation and thanks to those who provided their time, effort and support for this project. To the members of my dissertation committee, thank you for sticking with me.

I would also like to extend my gratitude to all academic staff of Karachi University, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Shah Abdul Latif University, Sindh, Pakistan for allowing me to conduct research there. I would like to especially thank the faculty members who took the time to fill the questionnaire.




Abstract………... ii

Abstract in Arabic……… iii

Approval Page………...………... iv

Declaration………... v

Copyright Page………..….. . vi

Dedication……… vii

Acknowledgements………...………... viii

Table of contents………...………... ix

List of Tables………... xiv

List of Figures………...xviii

List of Abbreviations………xix


1.1 Background of The Research ... 1

1.2 Problem Statement ... 4

1.3 Research Questions ... 4

1.4 Research Aim and Objectives ... 5

1.5 Research Scope ... 6

1.6 Research Significance ... 6

1.7 Context of The Study Pakistan ... 7

1.8 Structure of Thesis ... 8


2.1 Introduction ... 11

2.2 Theories Related to Technology Acceptance ... 12

2.2.1 Innovations Diffusion Theory ... 13

2.2.2 Theory of Reasoned Action ... 15

2.2.3 Technology Acceptance Model... 16

2.2.4 Theory of Planned Behavior ... 18

2.2.5 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology ... 19

2.2.6 Comparison Between UTAUT and Other Theories ... 21

2.3 Determinants for ICT Acceptance and Usage ... 22

2.4 Higher Education System of Pakistan ... 26

2.4.1 Universities in Sindh-Pakistan ... 27

2.5 ICT in Universities of Pakistan ... 28

2.6 Conclusion ... 29


3.1 Introduction ... 31

3.2 Proposed Research Models and Hypothesis ... 31

3.3 Dependent Variable ... 32

3.3.1 Use Behavior ... 32

3.3.2 Behavioral Intention ... 33

3.4 Independent Variable ... 33

3.4.1 Culture ... 33



3.4.2 Job Relevance ... 35

3.4.3 External Incentives ... 36

3.4.4 Perceived Needs ... 36

3.4.5 Performance Expectancy ... 37

3.4.6 Effort Expectancy ... 37

3.4.7 Social Influence ... 38

3.4.8 Facilitating Conditions... 38

3.5 Conclusion ... 39


4.1 Introduction ... 40

4.2 Research Approaches ... 40

4.3 Mixed Methods ... 40

4.3.1 Sequential Explanatory Strategy ... 41

4.4 Why Mixed Methods Research ... 41

4.5 Research Design ... 42

4.5.1 Rationale for Each Step-in Design ... 42

4.6 Methods of Data Collection ... 44

4.6.1 Questionnaires ... 45

4.6.2 Interviews ... 45

4.7 The Population and Sample for Quantitative Data ... 46

4.7.1 Type of Sample ... 47

4.7.2 Probability Sampling ... 47

4.7.3 Stratified Random Sampling ... 48

4.7.4 Sampling Frame ... 48

4.7.5 Sample Size for Survey Questionnaire ... 49

4.8 Instrumentation ... 50

4.8.1 Questionnnaire Content Development ... 50

4.9 Scale Used ... 59

4.10 Pilot Testing Plan ... 60

4.11 Qualitative Data ... 61

4.11.1 The Population and Sample for Qualitative Data ... 61

4.11.2 Sampling Technique... 61

4.11.3 Type of Data to Collect / Interview / One-on-One Interview ... 62

4.11.4 Field and Ethical Issues ... 62

4.12 Pretesting and Pilot Study ... 63

4.12.1 Pre-Testing The Questionnaire ... 63

4.12.2 Pilot Study ... 64

4.12.3 Demographic Details ... 64

4.12.4 Geneal Assesment of ICT in Universities ... 67

4.12.5 Reliability Of The Instrument ... 70

4.12.6 Pilot Study Conclusion ... 72


5.1 Preliminary Check-Up Of Quantitative Data ... 74

5.1.1 Handling Missing Data ... 75

5.1.2 Randomness of Missing Data... 76

5.1.3 Treatment of Missing Data (Mean Substitution Method) ... 77

5.1.4 Outliers Identification ... 77



5.1.5 Normality of Data ... 79

5.1.6 Linearity ... 81

5.2 Demographic Data Characteristics & General Ict Assessment ... 83

5.2.1 General assessment of ICT in Universities ... 84

5.3 Descriptive Analysis ... 85

5.3.1 Behavioral Intention (BI) ... 85

5.3.2 Use Behavior (UB) ... 86

5.3.3 Power Distance (PD) ... 86

5.3.4 Individualism / Collectivism (IC) ... 87

5.3.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) ... 87

5.3.6 Masculine / Feminine (FM) ... 88

5.3.7 External Incentives (EI) ... 88

5.3.8 Perceived Needs (PN) ... 89

5.3.9 Job Relevance (JR) ... 89

5.3.10 Performance Expectancy (PE) ... 90

5.3.11 Effort Expectancy (EE) ... 90

5.3.12 Social Influence (SI) ... 90

5.3.13 Facilitating Condition (FC) ... 91

5.4 Reliability Analysis ... 91

5.4.1 Behavioral Intention (BI) Construct ... 92

5.4.2 Use Behavior (UB) Construct ... 93

5.4.3 Power Distance (PD) Construct ... 94

5.4.4 Individualism/Collectivism (IC) ... 95

5.4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) ... 96

5.4.6 Masculine / Feminine (MF) ... 97

5.4.7 External Incentives ... 98

5.4.8 Perceived Needs ... 99

5.4.9 Job Relevance Construct ... 100

5.4.10 Performance Expectancy Construct ... 101

5.4.11 Effort Expectancy Construct ... 102

5.4.12 Social Influence Construct ... 103

5.4.13 Facilitating Conditions Construct ... 104

5.5 Exploratory Factor Analysis ... 105

5.5.1 Finding Suitability of Data for Factor Analysis ... 105

5.5.2 Communalities Explained by Each Item ... 106

5.5.3 Factor Extraction ... 106

5.5.4 Factor Rotation and Interpretation ... 108

5.6 Structural Equation Modelling (Sem) Analysis ... 109

5.6.1 First Step Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) ... 109

5.6.2 Goodness of fit Indices... 110

5.6.3 Assessment of Reliability and Validity of Constructs ... 114 Reliability of Construct... 114 Validity of Constructs ... 115

5.7 Structural Model Evaluation And Hypothesis Testing ... 118

5.8 Explaining The Final Hypothesis ... 123


6.1 Introduction ... 128

6.2 Research Approach For Qualitative Data ... 128



6.3 Data Analyses ... 128

6.4 Resutls Of Qualitative Data Analysis ... 130

6.4.1 Themes And Subthemes ... 132

6.4.2 Theme 1 Adoption of ICT ... 132

6.4.3 Theme 2 Utilization of ICT ... 134

6.4.4 Theme 3 ICT Policy / ICT Vision ... 136

6.4.5 Theme 4 Higher Authorities ... 138

6.4.6 Theme 5 Motivating Factors ... 140

6.4.7 Theme 6 Attitude towards ICT ... 143

6.4.8 Theme 7 Issues towards ICT ... 145

6.5 Conclusion ... 147


7.1 Introduction ... 148

7.2 Quantitative Results Discussion ... 148

7.2.1 Response Rate ... 149

7.2.2 Participants Demographic Characteristics ... 149

7.2.3 General Assessment Of Ict In Universities ... 150

7.2.4 Construct And Items Discussions ... 154

7.3 Hypothesis Testing ... 164

7.3.1 Acceptance and Use of ICT by academicians and Dependent Variables ... 164

7.3.2 Impact of Behavioral intention on Use Behavior ... 164

7.3.3 Impact of Culture to Behavioral Intention ... 165

7.3.4 External Incentives (EI) to Behavioral Intention (BI)... 166

7.3.5 Perceived Need (PN) to Behavioral Intention (BI) ... 167

7.3.6 Impact of Job Relevance (JR) on Behavioral Intention (BI)... 167

7.3.7 Impact of Performance Expectancy (PE) on Behavioral Intention (BI) ... 168

7.3.8 Impact of Effort Expectancy (PE) on Behavioral Intention (BI) . 169 7.3.9 Impact of Social Influence (SI) on Behavioral Intention (BI) ... 169

7.3.10 Impact of Facilitating Conditions (FC) on Use Behavior (UB) . 170 7.4 Summary Of Quantitative Discussion ... 171

7.5 Qualitative Results Discussion ... 171

7.5.1 Introduction ... 171

7.5.2 Response Rate ... 172

7.6 Demographic Discussion ... 172

7.7 Discussion On Themes And Subthemes ... 173

7.7.1 Theme 1 Adoption of ICT ... 173

7.7.2 Theme 2 Utilization of ICT ... 173

7.7.3 Theme 3 ICT Policy / ICT Vision ... 174

7.7.4 Theme 4 Higher Authorities ... 175

7.7.5 Theme 5 Motivating Factors ... 176

7.7.6 Theme 6 Challenges towards ICT ... 178

7.7.7 Theme 7 Attitude towards ICT ... 179

7.8 Data Triangulations ... 179

7.8.1 Confirmation Of Results ... 180

7.8.2 Demographic Characteristics ... 180

7.8.3 General Assessment of ICT ... 181



7.8.4 Construct Confirmation ... 182 Dependent Variables ... 182 Independent Variables ... 183

7.8.5 Completeness Of Results ... 184


8.1 Introduction ... 185

8.2 Research Questions ... 185

8.3 Research Implications ... 188

8.3.1 Theoretical Implications... 188

8.3.2 Practical Implications ... 189

8.4 Summary Of The Research Contribution ... 191

8.5 Limitations To This Research ... 192

8.6 Future Work ... 193


APPENDIXES.. ... 205

1. Appendix A Quantitave Questionnaire ... 205

2. Appendix B Qualitative Questionnaire ... 214

3. Appendix C ... 217

4. Appendix D ... 231

5. Appendix E Publications ... 240




Table No. Page No.

2.1 Summary of Past Research 217

2.2 Summary of Past Research in Pakistan 225

4.1 Total Population and Sample Size 49

4.2 University Wise Sample Size 50

4.3 Details of Variables 53

4.4 Summary of Items Used in Measuring Proposed Variables 54

4.5 Demographic Details 64

4.6 General Assessment of ICT 67

4.7 Reliability of Constructs 71

5.1 Missing Data Item Wise Details 229

5.2 Variable with Missing Value Ratio 230

5.3 Little’s MCAR Test for Randomness of Missing Data 77

5.4 Mahalanobis D2 for IV=BI, UB and DV 78

5.5 Descriptive Statistics Showing Skewness and Kurtosis 79

5.6 Test of Normality 80

5.7 Pearson’s Correlations 82

5.8 Demographic Details of the Respondents 83

5.9 General Assessment of ICT 84

5.10 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (BI) 85

5.11 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (UB) 86

5.12 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (PD) 86

5.13 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (IC) 87

5.14 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (UA) 87



5.15 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (MF) 88

5.16 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (EI) 88

5.17 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (PN) 89

5.18 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (JR) 89

5.19 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (PE) 90

5.20 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (EE) 90

5.21 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (SI) 91

5.22 Descriptive Statistics of Measured Items of (FC) 91

5.23a Reliability of Statistics (Behavioral Intention) 92

5.23b Summary of Item Statistics for BI 92

5.23c Item-Total Statistics for BI 92

5.24a Reliability of Statistics (Use behavior) 93

5.24b Summary of Item Statistics 93

5.24c Item-Total Statistics 93

5.25a Reliability of Statistics (Power Distance) 94

5.25b Summary of Item Statistics 94

5.25c Item-Total Statistics 94

5.26a Reliability of Statistics (Individualism / Collectivism) 95

5.26b Summary of Item Statistics 95

5.26c Item-Total Statistics 95

5.27a Reliability of Statistics (Uncertainty Avoidance) 96

5.27b Summary of Item Statistics 96

5.27c Item-Total Statistics 96

5.28a Reliability of Statistics (Masculine / Feminine) 97

5.28b Summary of Item Statistics 97

5.28c Item-Total Statistics 97

5.29a Reliability of Statistics (External Incentives) 98



5.29b Summary of Item Statistics 98

5.29c Item-Total Statistics 98

5.30a Reliability of Statistics (Perceived Needs) 99

5.30b Summary of Item Statistics 99

5.30c Item-Total Statistics 99

5.31a Reliability of Statistics (Job Relevance) 100

5.31b Summary of Item Statistics 100

5.31c Item-Total Statistics 100

5.32a Reliability of Statistics (Performance Expectancy) 101

5.32b Summary of Item Statistics 101

5.32c Item-Total Statistics 101

5.33a Reliability of Statistics (Effort Expectancy) 102

5.33b Summary of Item Statistics 102

5.33c Item-Total Statistics 102

5.34a Reliability of Statistics (Social Influence) 103

5.34b Summary of Item Statistics 103

5.34c Item-Total Statistics 103

5.35a Reliability of Statistics (Facilitating Conditions) 104

5.35b Summary of Item Statistics 104

5.35c Item-Total Statistics 104

5.36 KMO and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity. 105

5.37 Communalities 231

5.38 Total Variance Explained 233

5.39 Rotated Component Matrix / Pattern Matrix (Factor Loading) 108

5.40 Goodness of Fit Statistics for the Initial CFA 112

5.41 Goodness of Fit Statistics of Revised CFA Model 114

5.42 Measurement of Composite Reliability of Constructs 115



5.43 Convergent Validity Results 234

5.44a Inter-Construct Correlation 116

5.44b Discriminant Validity 117

5.45a Regression Weight (Group Number 1 – Default Model) 235 5.45b Construct Correlations (Group Number 1 –Default Model) 236

5.46 Hypothetical Relationship 118

5.47 Structural Model Fit Measure Assessment 119

5.48 Regression Estimates of Latent Constructs 120

5.49 Hypothesis Testing 121

6.1 Demographic Data 129




Figure No. Page No.

2.1 Innovation Diffusion Theory 14

2.2 Theory of Reasoned Action TRA 15

2.3 Original Technology Acceptance Model 17

2.4 Final Version of TAM 1 17

2.5 Theory of Planned Behaviour 19

2.6 UTAUT Model 20

3.1 Proposed Research Model 32

4.1 Research Design Steps 42

4.2 Research Design Process 43

5.1 Plot Scree 107

5.2 Hypothesized CFA Model Derived from EFA 111

5.3 Final CFA Model 113

5.4 Structural Model 122

5.5 Final Model 123

6.1 Themes and Sub Themes 131




ICT Information and Communication Technology

HEC Higher Education Commission

UTAUT Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

TRA Theory of Reasoned Action

TAM Technology Acceptance Model

IDT Innovations Diffusion Theory

TPB Theory of Planned Behavior

DTP Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

SCT Social Cognitive Theory

BI Behavioral Intention

UB User Behavior

PE Performance Expectancy

AAU-ICT Academics Acceptance and Use of Information &

Communication Technology

GDP Gross Domestic Product

EE Effort Expectancy

SI Social Influence

FC Facilitating Conditions

PN Perceived Need

EI External Incentives

JR Job Relevance

SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences

AMOS Analysis of Moment Structures

SEM Structural Equation Modelling

EFA Exploratory Factor Analysis

CFA Confirmatory Factor Analysis



MM Measurement Model

ML Maximum Likelihood

SMC Squared Multiple Correlation

SIC Squared inter-construct correlation

GOF Goodness of Fit





Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is defined as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store and manage information (Tinto, 2002). ICT refers to the totality of methods and tools that are used in gathering, storing, processing and communicating information (Rafiu Olatoye, 2011). ICT has created a new global village thus global economy, and the global market and economy forces all groups to constantly acquire new technology and apply new skills (Tinto, 2002). Now, it is difficult not only for individuals, but also for countries to survive and compete in the global world without the utilization of ICT tools and techniques. The ICT tools are the digital infrastructures. whereas techniques provide the way or scientific procedure to carry out task.

Pakistan is treading in technology and has already introduced ICT in the education system. The current status of ICT in the higher education system of Pakistan is in practice. The Government through Higher Education Commission (HEC) has invested a huge amount of financial resources and HEC has introduced a host of programs to establish a world class ICT infrastructure which provides high-speed internet connectivity to universities across the country and ICT based educational services, such as digital libraries, video conferencing facilities, Pakistan research repository, campus management systems and much more (Ahsan, 2009).

However, despite the huge efforts to position ICT as a central tenet of university teaching and learning, the fact remains that many university students and faculty uses limited technology (Z. A. Shaikh, 2011). The monitoring force on Higher Education in



Pakistan sees poor quality of teachers, lack of student’s motivation, absence of relevance of the course contents to social and business needs, and student discipline. To compete with the developing economy, Pakistan needs to train its workforce with new technologies and modern management practices (Saleem, Qureshi, & Mustafa, 2011).

Administrative and behavioral conditions are also obstacles which inhibit ICT adoption (Attuquayefio, 2014).

Effective integration of ICT in the education system is a complex multifaceted process that involves more than technology; to obtain technology is the easiest part, but advancement in curriculum and pedagogy, institutional readiness, teacher competencies and long term financing and initial capital are also required (Tinto, 2002). The present education delivery system in Pakistan is not equipped with the necessities and requirements of the people, which is an existing threat to all levels of governments in the 21st century (Qamar Afaq et al, 2007). In spite of the huge efforts undertaken, Information and Communication technology infrastructure and utilization seems to be very low (Kyakulumbye, 2013).

According to Global Competitiveness Index 2014-2015, the potential of ICT in Pakistan is not sufficiently leveraged, and access to ICTs remains low, at 114th position in the global index. While, global information technology report 2016 by world economic forum, Pakistan is ranked at 110th position of out of 143 countries in networked readiness index (World Economic Forum, 2016). In addition to this, report by ( World Economic Foum, 2017) Pakistan is ranked 120th in Higher education and Training out of 137 Countries. Therefore, this study intends to critically investigate Information and Communication Technology in the higher education system. In fact, there are as yet no empirical studies on assessing ICT adoption in universities in



Pakistan, especially to determine success factors and obstacles that may hinder the ICT related performance.

Therefore, understanding ICT diffusion, validity and the availability across cultures makes a strong case for developing new models of transformation or examination of these models outside the context of developed countries (Rashed &

Daud, 2013). These models might affect ICT adoption and acceptance in universities in Pakistan. Renovation models attract commitment and motivate people, generate meaning in workers' ICT skills, readiness, begin a standard of excellence in education and make a connection between current and future university plans.

In this study, theories and models related to technology acceptance will be examined, especially the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), in order to build a standard framework for Pakistani academics. This study will also try to evaluate concerns instigating the perception of ICT culture in teaching and learning across the universities in Sindh-Pakistan, and also will try to identify factors in its success. Finally, this study will propose a model comprising critical success factors for academics of higher education institutions in Pakistan, as academics are the backbones of the education sector.

The overall purpose of this study is to first assess the current level of ICT adoption in Higher education institutes and then to measure the ICT acceptance and use by academics in teaching and learning. Finally, the researcher has proposed a standard framework containing critical success factors for academics in universities in Pakistan.



ICT infrastructure is available in almost all government higher educational institutions in Pakistan. However, despite the huge efforts to position ICT as a central tenet of university teaching, learning and administrating, the fact remains that many stakeholders of universities like students, faculty and administration have only limited formal use of ICT. ICT infrastructure and utilization seems to still be very low. The present education delivery system in Pakistan is not equipped with the necessities and requirement of the people, which is a threat to all levels of governments in the 21st century.

Therefore, this increases the need to critically study, analyze and determine the causes of lower usage of ICT in higher education in Pakistan. There are only a few studies available on assessing ICT adoption. Thus, the field still needs a comprehensive empirical study to assess ICT adoption and acceptance in universities, especially to determine the success factors and obstacles that may hinder the performance of ICT.

Moreover, academics are the backbone of the education system; hence, this study will also analyze the acceptance and the utilization of ICT by them. This prevailing situation of ICT in Pakistan with lower usage of ICT at universities and very few but not comprehensive study conducted from the academic perspective enforces to carry out the detailed research work entitled.


1. What is the ICT adoption and usage level among universities in Pakistan?

2. What are the preexisting challenges to ICT adoption at universities and what government efforts are needed for the success of ICT adoption at universities in Pakistan?



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