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ACADEMIC LEADERS’ ORGANIZATIONAL

CAPABILITIES AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AS DETERMINANTS FOR SUCCESSFUL

INTERNATIONALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN BANGLADESH

BY

TAREQ MOHAMMAD ZAYED

A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education

Kulliyyah of Education

International Islamic University Malaysia

SEPTEMBER 2018

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ii

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of the study is to investigate if organizational capabilities and personal characteristics of HEI leaders predict successful internationalization of higher education institutions in Bangladesh. Secondly, it is to examine if the government bureaucracy and quality initiative are the mediators for this study. As the research design of this study was quantitative research approach, survey technique was employed. One thousand and one hundred (1,100) academic leaders were sampled based on two stage multi-stage cluster sampling method. Among the 1,100 respondents 358 survey questionnaires were returned which were analyzed by SEM statistical tools.

Constructs of all exogenous and endogenous variables were observed by CFA whose results showed that organizational capabilities have four distinct factors, personal characteristics have also four factors, and successful internationalization has three factors. In contrast, government bureaucracy and quality initiatives are unidimensional ones. Finally, the proposed model of successful internationalization of higher education institutions (SIHEIs) has been tested by SEM and determinants of SIHEIs are established. Its results conclude that strategic leadership practices (i.e. OC and PC) do not have a direct causal effect on successful internationalization. Neither, government bureaucracy and quality initiatives had a direct causal effect on successful internationalization. While government bureaucracy and quality initiatives have indirect significant effect (the mediators) between strategic leadership and successful internationalization as perceived by the academic leaders of higher education institutions. It could be understood that successful internationalization can be implemented through improving the personal characteristics of the strategic leaders.

Moreover, quality initiatives should be taken; while government bureaucracy should be reduced because both QI and GB play a mediating role in the internationalization of the higher education institutions. With this evidence, University Grant Commission should offer leadership training for the academic leaders of higher education intuitions so that leaders become aware of leadership acts and practices, challenges and so on.

Bureaucratic practices should be lessened and UGC can introduce suitable leadership in HEIs. Quality Initiatives should be highlighted and outcomes of each initiative should be monitored by experts. Specific focus on Internationalization of HEIs should be given in all activities of university. Message of internationalization should be incorporated in the website of both public and private universities. Finally, a thorough study should be conducted on the understanding of leadership practices for internationalization.

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iii

ثحبلا ةصلاخ

ABSTRACT IN ARABIC

لاوأ وه ةساردلا هذه نم سيئرلا ضرغلا :

ةيصخشلا صئاصلخاو ةيميظنتلا تاردقلا تناك ام اذإ نم قيقحتلا

ميلعتلا تاسسؤم ةداقل لياعلا

ليودتل حاجنلا عقوتت دلاغنب في لياعلا ميلعتلا تاسسؤم

شي . ام ةسارد ،اينثا

،ةيموكلحا ةيطارقويربلا تناك اذإ رود اله ةدولجا ةردابمو

ةساردلا هذله ةطاسولا .

ةساردلا هذه نوكل ارظنو

حسلما ةينقت ىلع دامتعلاا تم دقف ،يمكلا ثحبلا جهنم نىبتت .

نم ةئامو فلأ ةساردلا ةنيع تلشم تادايقلا

ةعبتم ؛ينتلحرم ىلع ةييمداكلأا يعلا ةقيرط

ةددعتم ةيدوقنعلا ةن لحارلما

. غلابلا ينكراشلما تناابتسا ينب نمو

اهددع 1100 تتم ةنابتسا

ةداعتسا 358

مادختسبا ايئاصحإ اهليلتح تم ةنابتسا ةيلكيلها ةلداعلما ةجذنم

.

ظحول دقو جئاتنلا اتهرهظأو يلماعلا ليلحتلا دكؤم اهنيب تيلا ةيتاذلاو ،ةيجرالخا تايرغتلما لك نم

ا نأ تاردقل

ةيميظنتلا ةيصخشلا صئاصلخاو ،ةفلتمخ لماوع ةعبرأ اله

لماوع ةثلاث هل ةلموعلا حانجو ،لماوع ةعبرأ اضيأ اله .

ةيموكلحا ةيطارقويربلا نإف ،لباقلما في ةدولجا تاردابمو

ةدحاولا ةهجولا تاذ تناك .

جذومنلا نإف ،ايرخأو

تم دق لياعلا ميلعتلا تاسسؤم ةلموع حاجنل حترقلما مادختسبا هرابتخا

،ةيلكيلها ةلداعلما ةجذنم

سيستأ تم امك

تصلخو .لياعلا ميلعتلا تاسسؤم ةلموع حاجنل تاددمح سيل هنأ لىإ جئاتنلا

،ةيصخشلا ةدايقلا تاسراملم

ميلعتلا ةلموع حانج ىلع رشابم يرثتأ ةيميظنتلا تياافكلاو .

ةدولجا تاردابمو ،ةيموكلحا ةيطارقويربلل ،لا و

يرثتأ ميلعتلا ةلموع حانج ىلع رشابم بيبس .

يرثتأ اله ةدولجا تاردابمو ةيموكلحا ةيطارقويربلا نأ ينح ىلع

رشابم يرغ يربك (

ءاطسوك )

ميلعتلا ةلموع حانجو ةيجيتاترسلاا ةدايقلا ينب رظن ةهجو نم

ينييمداكلأا ةداقلا

لياعلا ميلعتلا تاسسؤم نم .

لا ةلموع حانج نأ اموهفم نوكي نأ نكيم ميلعت

ينستح للاخ نم هقيقتح نكيم

ينيجيتاترسلاا ةداقلل ةيصخشلا صئاصلخا .

؛ةدولجا تاردابم رابتعاو ذاتخا يغبني هنإف ،كلذ ىلع ةولاعو

رود بعلي ةيموكلحا ةيطارقويربلاو ةدولجا تاردابم لاك نلأ ةيموكلحا ةيطارقويربلا صيلقت يغبني ينح في ا ميلعتلا تاسسؤم ليودت في ةطاسولا لياعل

. يهيدبلا نم هنإف، جئاتنلا هذه ءوض في حنلما ةنلج ىلع بيج

هيعمالجا ىلع ةداق نوحبصي ثيبح لياعلا ميلعتلبا ةييمداكلأا تادايقلل ةدايقلا ىلع ةيبيردت جمارب يمدقت

ارج ملهو تيادحتلاو تاسراملماو ةدايقلا لامعبأ يعوو ةيارد .

و ،ةيطارقويربلا صيلقت بيج ةنجلل نكيم

لما ةيعمالجا حن لياعلا ميلعتلا تاسسؤم في ةبسانلما ةدايقلا مدقت نأ

. امك ،ةدولجا تاردابم راهظإ يغبنيو

ءبرلخا لبق نم ةردابم لك جئاتن دصر يغبني .ا

بجاولا نمو تاسسؤم ليودت ىلع صاخ هجوب زيكترلا

ةعمالجا ةطشنأ عيجم في لياعلا ميلعتلا .

ا ميلعتلا ليودت ةلاسر جاردإ يغبنيو تاعمالجا نم لك عقاوم في يعمالج

ةصالخاو ةيموكلحا .

ليودت لجأ نم ةيدايقلا تاسراملما رود مهف لوح ةيفاو ةسارد ءارجإ يغبني ،ايرخأو

يعمالجا ميلعتلا

.

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APPROVAL PAGE

The thesis of Tareq Mohammad Zayed has been approved by the following:

_____________________________

Hairuddin Mohd Ali Supervisor

_____________________________

Mohamad Sahari Nordin Co-Supervisor

_____________________________

Azam Othman Co-Supervisor

_____________________________

Mohd Burhan Ibrahim Internal Examiner

_____________________________

Hamidah Binti Yusof External Examiner

____________________________

Noor Mohammad Osmani Chairman

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v

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this thesis is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degrees at IIUM or other institutions.

Tareq Mohammad Zayed

Signature ... Date ...

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COPYRIGHT PAGE

INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA DECLARATION OF COPYRIGHT AND AFFIRMATION OF

FAIR USE OF UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH

ACADEMIC LEADERS’ ORGANIZATIONAL CAPABILITIES AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AS DETERMINANTS FOR SUCCESSFUL INTERNATIONALIZATION OF HIGHER

EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN BANGLADESH

I declare that the copyright of this thesis is jointly owned by the student and IIUM.

Copyright © 2018 Tareq Mohammad Zayed and International Islamic University Malaysia. All Rights Reserved.

No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below

1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgement.

2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.

3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.

By signing this form, I acknowledge that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Rights and Commercialization policy.

Affirmed by Tareq Mohammad Zayed

……..……….. ………..

Signature Date

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DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated to:

My beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), the greatest role model human race even known, who

sacrificed his life guiding mankind,

My beloved parents; Muhammad Nazrul Islam,

al-Marhumah Tohura Khatun for their unconditional support and love,

My beloved wife; Rubaia Tabassum for her support, courage, love and patience

and

All my brothers, sisters, friends and beloved ones who were instrumental to the accomplishment of this thesis.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

All praises be unto Allah (S.W.T.) for His bounties, mercies and blessings cascaded on me and my entire family. I testify that Allah alone is worthy of worship, and He alone deserves all praises. Without His Mercy, I would not have been able to carry out this research work.

I am very grateful to my academic supervisor, Prof. Dr. Hairuddin Mohd Ali, who inspired, academically, socially, taught me a lot of things and paved the way of this thesis. I will never forget the support he rendered me during the past several years.

His guidance, patience, dedication and attention to details were instrumental to my successful completion of this thesis.

Special thanks to Prof. Dr. Mohamad Sahari Nordin and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Azam Othman, who provided useful and constructive suggestions for this research. The other members to acknowledge here are Prof. Dr. Sidek Baba, Prof. Dr. Rosnani Hashim, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ssekamanya Siraje Abdallah, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adnan Rashid, Assoc.

Prof. Dr. Noor Mohammad Osmani, Dr. Tajul Islam, Dr. Nazmus Sayadat all deserve special recognition, I appreciate their guidance and sustained enthusiasm throughout the process of writing this thesis.

My profound gratitude and appreciations are also due to my parents whose financial support gave me success. Because of their sincere prayer to Almighty Allah – day and night – I could complete this thesis.

My heartfelt gratitude and appreciations are also due to all brothers and sisters who have been the source of motivation, courage, moral and academic support; may Allah bless them all and reward them abundantly for the unlimited support rendered me throughout the journey of this academic achievement.

My warm thanks and appreciations are also due to my children Tahira and Nusaiba who patiently postponed many times pleasurable trips, tours, rides, visits. They were deprived of my fatherly role during the period of writing literature review, methodology and analysis chapters.

Special acknowledgements and appreciations are also due to academic staff of the sampled in the selected universities, whose cooperation in filling out the questionnaires distributed them, despite their tight schedules, made this research work possible.

Lastly but not the least, special thanks and sincere appreciations are due to all my colleagues, academic staff of Kulliyyah of Education for their unlimited support, advice and constructive comments on the research work directly or indirectly. I would not be able to forgive myself if I fail to acknowledge the efforts of administrative staff of KOED, especially sister Norsiah Yahya, sister Norazlinda Bt. Hussin, brother Meor Shahfitri Meor Said and brother Mohd. Lukman Muda for their unlimited support,

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cooperation and kind attendance, without the aforementioned concerned people, the completion of my study would have not become a reality.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ... ii

Abstract in Arabic ... iii

Approval Page ... iv

Declaration ... v

Copyright Page ... vi

Dedication ... vii

Acknowledgements ... viii

Table of Contents ... x

List of Tables ... xv

List of Figures ... xvii

Abbreviations ... xviii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ... 1

1.1 Introduction ... 1

1.2 Background of the Study ... 2

1.2.1 Development of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Bangladesh ... 8

1.2.2 Reformation of Tertiary Education for National Development ... 8

1.2.3 Internationalization of HEIs and Enrolment Pattern ... 9

1.2.4 Rationale for Internationalization of HEIs in Bangladesh ... 10

1.2.5 Expenditure On HEIs In Bangladesh ... 11

1.3 Statement of the Problem ... 12

1.4 Main Purpose of the Study ... 13

1.5 General Conceptual Framework of the Study ... 14

1.5.1 Organizational Capabilities (OC) and Personal Characteristics (PC) ... 15

1.5.2 Government Bureaucracy (Gb)... 16

1.5.3 Quality Initiatives (Qi) ... 17

1.5.4 Successful Internationalization of Higher Education Institutions (SIHEIs) ... 17

1.6 Objectives of the Study ... 19

1.7 Research Questions ... 20

1.8 Delimitation of the Study ... 21

1.9 Significance of the Study ... 21

1.10 Operational Definitions ... 24

1.11 Chapter Summary... 26

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ... 27

2.1 Introduction ... 27

2.2 Internationalization of Hei, Organizational Capabilities (Oc), and Personal Characteristics (Pc) Factors ... 27

2.3 Organizational Capabilities ... 29

2.3.1 Direction Setting ... 30

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2.3.2 Translating Strategy into Action ... 31

2.3.3 Aligning the People and the Organization to the Strategy ... 31

2.3.4 Determining Effective Intervention Points ... 31

2.3.5 Developing Strategic Capabilities ... 32

2.3.6 Summary of the Literature on Organizational Capabilities (OC) ... 32

2.4 Personal Characteristics (PC) ... 37

2.4.1 Restlessness ... 39

2.4.2 Absorptive Capacity ... 39

2.4.3 Adaptive Capacity ... 40

2.4.4 Wisdom ... 40

2.4.5 Summary of the Literature on Personal Characteristics ... 40

2.5 Government Bureaucracy (GB) ... 48

2.5.1 Bureaucracy in HEIs ... 48

2.5.2 Bureaucratic Model in Educational Management: Public and Private Universities ... 50

2.5.3 Summary of the Literature on Government Bureaucracy... 53

2.6 Quality Initiatives ... 60

2.6.1 ‘Quality in Education’ and ‘Quality Education’ ... 60

2.6.2 Quality Assurance and Internationalization of HEIs ... 62

2.6.3 Summary of the Literature on Quality Initiatives ... 67

2.7 Internationalization: An Impact of Globalization on HEIs ... 74

2.7.1 International Agreements and Frameworks ... 75

2.7.2 Sustainability of Bangladesh HEIs in the Context of Globalization ... 77

2.8 Internationalization of Higher Education ... 81

2.8.1 Definition and Related Key Concept ... 82

2.8.2 History of Internationalization ... 86

2.8.3 Rationale of Internationalization ... 87

2.8.4 Policy for Internationalization ... 90

2.8.5 Approaches to Internationalization ... 92

2.8.6 Implementation Strategy for Internationalization ... 93

2.8.7 Values and Principles of Internationalization ... 95

2.8.8 Challenges and Obstacles to Internationalization ... 97

2.8.9 Risks for Internationalization ... 98

2.8.10 Misconceptions about the Internationalization ... 100

2.8.11 Assessment of Successful Internationalization ... 101

2.8.12 Leadership and Internationalization ... 107

2.8.13 Summary of Literature on Internationalization of HEIs ... 108

2.9 Gap of the Study and Hypotheses ... 147

2.10 Summary of the Chapter ... 150

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY ... 151

3.1 Introduction ... 151

3.2 Research Design ... 151

3.3 Population and Sample ... 152

3.3.1 Population ... 152

3.3.2 Sample Frame ... 157

3.3.3 Sample Unit ... 157

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3.3.4 Sample Size ... 158

3.3.5 Sampling Techniques ... 160

3.5 Instrumentation ... 164

3.5.1 Demographic Section ... 165

3.5.2 Organizational Capabilities (Oc) ... 166

3.5.3 Personal Characteristics (Pc) ... 166

3.5.4 Government Bureaucracy (Gb)... 167

3.5.5 Quality Initiatives (Qi) ... 167

3.5.6 Successful Internationalization of Higher Education Institutions (SIHEIs) ... 168

3.6 Pilot Test ... 169

3.7 Validity and Reliability ... 170

3.7.1 Face Validity ... 170

3.7.2 Content Validity ... 170

3.7.3 Convergent and Divergent Validity ... 172

3.7.4 Reliability ... 173

3.8 Data Collection... 175

3.9 Technique of Data Handling for its Security ... 176

3.10 Data Screening ... 177

3.10.1 Missing Values ... 178

3.10.2 Outliers ... 180

3.11 Data Analysis and Statistical Techniques ... 181

3.11.1 Structural Equation Modelling ... 182

3.11.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis ... 186

3.12 Summary ... 188

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS ... 189

4.1 Introduction ... 189

4.2 Creating a Data File ... 190

4.3 Data Cleaning Procedures ... 190

4.3.1 Checking the Categorical Variables ... 194

4.3.2 Checking the Continuous Variables ... 195

4.3.3 Skewness and Kurtosis for Initial Normality Check ... 195

4.3.4 Treatment Of Outliers ... 196

4.3.5 Checking for Normality ... 199

4.3.6 Linearity and Homoscedasticity ... 201

4.3.7 Multicollinearity ... 202

4.4 Descriptive Statistics of the Respondents: After Data Cleaning Processes ... 204

4.5 Demographic Characteristics of the Sample ... 206

4.6 Cronbach Alpha for Scale Reliability ... 207

4.7 Multidimensional Measurement Model of Organizational Capabilities (OC) ... 208

4.7.1 Model Specification Of OC ... 208

4.7.2 Model Estimation Of OC ... 210

4.7.3 Revised Measurement Model of OC ... 211

4.8 Multidimensional Measurement Model of Personal Characteristics (PC) ... 215

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4.8.1 Model Specification of PC ... 215

4.8.2 Model Estimation of PC ... 216

4.9 Revised Measurement Model of PC ... 218

4.10 Unidimensional Measurement Model of Government Bureaucracy (GB) ... 220

4.10.1 Model Specification of GB ... 220

4.10.2 Model Estimation of GB ... 220

4.10.3 Revised Measurement Model of GB ... 222

4.11 Unidimensional Measurement Model of Quality Initiatives (QI) ... 223

4.11.1 Model Specification of QI ... 223

4.11.2 Model Estimation of QI ... 224

4.11.3 Revised Measurement Model of QI ... 226

4.12 Multidimensional Measurement Model of SIHEIs ... 228

4.12.1 Model Specification of SIHEIs ... 228

4.12.2 Model Estimation of SIHEIs ... 229

4.12.3 Revised Measurement Model of SIHEIs... 230

4.13 Determinants of Successful Internationalization of Higher Education Institutions (SIHEIs) ... 233

4.13.1 Structural Model Specification of SIHEIs ... 233

4.13.2 Structural Model Estimation of SIHEIs ... 234

4.13.3 Revised Hypothesized Structural Model of SIHEIs... 236

4.13.4 Addressing the Research Questions and Testing the Corresponding Hypothesis from no. 2 to no. 7 ... 239

4.14 Summary ... 242

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION ... 245

5.1 Introduction ... 245

5.2 Discussions of the Findings ... 246

5.2.1 Organizational Capabilities of Academic Leaders in HEIs ... 246

5.2.2 Personal Characteristics of Academic Leaders in HEIs ... 247

5.2.3 Government Bureaucracy in HEIs ... 248

5.2.4 Quality Initiatives of HEIs ... 249

5.2.5 Successful Internationalization of Higher Education Institution (SIHEIs) ... 250

5.2.6 Structural Model of SIHEIs ... 250

5.3 Implications ... 253

5.3.1 Theoretical Implications ... 253

5.3.2 Managerial Implication ... 255

5.3.3 Practical Implication ... 257

5.3.4 Islamization of Knowledge Implications ... 257

5.4 Limitations ... 258

5.5 Recommendations ... 259

5.5.1 Recommendations for the UGC ... 259

5.5.2 Recommendations for Future Study ... 260

5.6 Conclusion... 261

REFERENCES ... 263

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APPENDIX A: LIST OF PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES ... 283

APPENDIX B: LIST OF PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES ... 285

APPENDIX C: MAP OF BANGLADESH: SIX MAIN REGIONS... 286

APPENDIX D: QUESTIONNAIRE ... 287

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LIST OF TABLES

Table No Page

1.1 Foreign student enrolment in Bangladeshi private universities 7

2.1 Summary of Literature on OC 33

2.2 Summary of Literature on PC 42

2.3 Summary of Literature on GB 54

2.5 Summary of Literature on Quality Initiatives 68

2.6 Eight narratives discuss policy and policy concerns 91 2.7 Summary of the Assessment Measurement of Successful

Internationalization from various sources 103

2.8 The summary of available literature on internationalization of

HEI 109

2.9 Summary of related studies with the proposed Model of

Internationalization 148

3.1 Distribution of Public Universities According to Regions in

Bangladesh 153

3.2 Distribution of Private Universities According to Regions in

Bangladesh 155

3.3 Identification of Sample Size for University 160

3.4 Probability Sampling Approaches 161

3.5 Multi-stage cluster sampling procedure 163

3.6 Names of Selected HEIs for the Study 164

3.7 The Structure and the Sources of the instrument 164

3.8 Cronbach Alpha of all constructs 174

3.9 Inter-correlation Matrix among Constructs 175

3.10 Fit Indices and the Accepable Thresholds 185

3.11 RQ and Hypotheses and their respective Data Analysis

Techniques with justification 187

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4.1 Preliminary Descriptive Statistics of the Respondents 192

4.2 Checking scores of categorical variables 195

4.3 Residuals Statistics (Multivariate Outliers Detection) 199

4.4 Inter-correlation Matrix among Constructs 203

4.5 Descriptive Statistics of the Respondents (After the data

cleaning procedure) 204

4.6 Frequency and Percentages of Respondents' Demographic

Variables 207

4.7 Cronbach Alpha of all constructs 208

4.8 Comparison of Fit Indices Before and After the re-

specification of hypothesized multidimensional model of OC 215 4.9 Comparison of Fit Indices Before and after the re-specification

of hypothesized multidimensional model of PC 220

4.10 Comparison of Fit Indices Before and After the re- specification of the hypothesized unidimensional model of GB

223 4.11 Comparison of Fit Indices Before and After the re-

specification of hypothesized unidimensional model of QI 228 4.12 Comparison of Fit Indices Before and After the re-

specification of multidimensional hypothesized model of SI 233 4.13 Research Questions and Hypotheses related to Hypothesized

Model of SIHEIs 234

4.14 Comparison of Fit Indices Before and After the re-

specification of hypothesized structural model of SIHEIs 238

4.15 Standardized Regression Weights 239

4.16 The Summary of the Results of the Study 242

5.1 Autonomy of Academic leaders 249

5.2 QI in Public and Private University 251

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No Page

2.1 Quality Assurance Approach 64

2.2 Hypothesized Model of the Study 149

4.1 Boxplot 198

4.2 Q-Q plot for Normality 200

4.3 Histogram Normality of Distribution 200

4.4 Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual 201

4.5 Scatterplot 202

4.6 Generated hypothesized multidimensional model of OC 211 4.7 Re-specified hypothesized multidimensional model of OC 214 4.8 Generated hypothesized multidimensional model of PC 217 4.9 Re-specified hypothesized multidimensional model of PC 219 4.10 Generated hypothesized unidimensional model of GB 221 4.11 Re-specified hypothesized unidimensional Model of GB 222 4.12 Generated hypothesized unidimensional Model of QI 225 4.13 Re-specified hypothesized unidimensional Model of QI 227 4.14 Generated hypothesized multidimensional Model of SIHEI 230 4.15 Re-specified hypothesized multidimensional Model of SIHEIs

232 4.16 Generated hypothesized structural model of SIHEIs 236 4.17 Re-specified hypothesized structural model of SIHEIs 238

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ABBREVIATIONS

AMOS Analysis of Moment Structure CFA Confirmatory Factor Analysis

GB Government Bureaucracy

HEIs Higher Education Institutions

HEQE Higher Education Quality Enhancement OC Organizational Capabilities

PC Personal Characteristics QI Quality Initiatives

SEM Structural Equation Modeling

SIHEIs Successful Internationalization of Higher Education Institutions SPSS Statistical Packages for Social Sciences

UGC University Grant Commission

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1

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Organizational capabilities and personal characteristics (B. Davies & Davies, 2005) are the pillars of the successful and dynamic leadership driving to substantial change in the arena of higher education sector (Childress, 2009; Egron-polak, 2014). Now higher education has become a real part of the process of globalization. Higher education can no longer be viewed in a strictly national context and across the globe but there is an increasing demand for higher education (Egron-Polak, Hudson & Gacel-Avila, 2010).

This has led higher education to undergo significant and substantial changes which are in fact the automatic response to the global demand and a way to minimize the dominance of globalization. Recently global higher education market has emerged with the increase of students’ mobility across borders for the purpose of higher education. In 2011 – worldwide – over 4.3 million students went beyond their national borders for education (Altbach & Engberg, 2014, p. 11) and this number reached about 4.5 million in 2014. It has been forecasted that the total students’ mobility will grow up to 8 million by 2025 (Maslen, 2012) whereby most of them are from Asia (Damme, 2001).

The reasons why students go abroad for studies vary however the inability of developing countries to fulfil the demand for education domestically, is often than not cited as the main reason for their departure. Internationalization of higher education is a strategy to reform the higher education in order to retain the home students and to increase the education export (Altbach & Knight, 2007; Altbach & Teichler, 2001; J.

Knight, 2010; J. Knight & Wit, 1995).

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Universities worldwide are competing to ‘Internationalize the student experience (both on and off campus), enhance the employability of students through international experience, such as participation in mobility programs, develop the international dimension of the curriculum, increase global competitiveness through international partnerships, networks, collaboration’ (Wadhwa & Jha, 2014, p. 101). In order to remain in the current global competition in education sector, this research involves exploring organizational capabilities and personal characteristics of the academic leaders and administrators as the determinants for the successful internationalization of higher education institutions.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The trend for internationalization of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) becomes more inevitable wherein education is not only limited to a country’s local students but also considered as a service to international students (Wing-Ng, 2012). ‘It is not just about commercialization of education for economic benefits; but it is also about enhancing ideas and improving the understanding among communities and nations’ (E.

Ali & Subramaniam, 2010, p. 9). Therefore, almost all developed countries emphasize on internationalization of higher education and thus have improved their institutions and institutional practices by establishing administrative network, shaping the international reputation of higher education, merging policy with communication activities etc. (Chen, 2011). While the scenario in developing countries is almost the same, the focus of this study is on the factors that likely to contribute to the successful internationalization of higher education institutions in Bangladesh.

Studies regarding such processes of internationalization of higher education in Bangladesh are still limited (E. Ali & Subramaniam, 2010). Similarly studies on

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overcoming the barriers to and determinants for internationalization of higher education in Bangladesh are also limited. In this context, this study intends to show a model whereby organizational capabilities and personal characteristics determine to some extent of the Successful Internationalization of Higher Education Institutions (SIHEIs).

In addition, quality initiatives and government bureaucracy mediate organizational capabilities and personal characteristics, and SIHEIs. The quality of higher education institutions in Bangladesh particularly, needs to be improved and in this situation the issues that compelled the researcher to give attention to this topic are firstly, there is no evidently systematic plan and strategy for the internationalization of the higher education in Bangladesh (E. Ali & Subramaniam, 2010; Zolfaghari, Sabran &

Zolfaghari, 2009); secondly, brain drain is very high in Bangladesh (Agarwal, 2008);

thirdly, studies on academic leadership in context of Bangladesh are rare; fourthly, as a developing country, in order to improve education sector quality initiatives are still insignificant (Patnaik, 2013); fifthly, bureaucratic culture is higher than autonomy in higher education sector (Al-hossienie & Barua, 2013).

Before embarking on internationalization of HEIs in Bangladesh, it is important to know the categories of HEIs available in Bangladesh and how they are operated.

There are five types of higher education available in Bangladesh. These are: i. General Education; ii. Science, Technology and Engineering Education; iii. Medical Education;

iv. Agricultural Education; v. Distance Education. In addition, the higher education sector also provides vocational and madrasha education (Monem & Baniamin, 2010).

The number of both public and private universities is gradually increasing (J. Hossain, Hoque & Jamal-Uddin, 2014; Karim, 2008). However, there are 93 (ninety three) universities in Bangladesh and out of which, 31 (thirty one) universities are in the public sector, while the other 62 (sixty two) are in the private sector (J. Hossain et al., 2014).

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Although, according to the official website of the University Grant Commission (UGC) the number of public universities is 34 (thirty four) and the number of private university is 76 (seventy six) (Appendix 1-2). Among the public universities Bangladesh National University mainly functions as an affiliating university for (3-year bachelor) degree and post-graduate degree level education at different colleges and institutions in different field of studies. Bangladesh Open University is a public university and provides distance learning for the mass.

Bangladesh has 85 government and private medical institutions. All are run under the control of University of Dhaka because they are considered as having the status of a college and a college cannot be autonomous in Bangladesh (University of Dhaka, n.d.). There is only one medical university which is, ‘Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University’, which like other public universities, offers courses on a different system where Fellowship of College of Physicians and Surgeons (FCPS) Degree is offered in the disciplines of medical education; and diploma courses are offered in 12 disciplines.

Ministry of Education (MOE) is concerned with policy formulation, planning, monitoring, evaluation and execution of plans and programs related to secondary and higher education including technical and Madrasah education. Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education and Directorate of Technical Education are responsible for management and supervision of institutions under their respective control (BANBEIS, n.d.).

The role and functions of Planning and Development Division of the University Grants Commission of Bangladesh are to formulate plans for overall development of the university education of the country. Apart from physical and infra-structural development of public and private universities, major thrust in the planning of

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university education is to bring necessary improvement in the standard and quality of university education. The University Resources Centre (URC) and Bangladesh Education and Research Network (BERNET) have been established for better coordination and cooperation between the universities and the University Grants Commission of Bangladesh. This has paved the way for the students, teachers, officers and researchers to enter into the world-wide information technology network. The Planning and Development Division of the UGC has been constantly trying to bring real and meaningful improvement in development activities and to establish planning discipline, accountability and transparency in the operating procedure of development projects undertaken by the universities (Karim, 2008).

Although there are a number of studies pertaining to internationalization of higher education in Southeast Asia but comparatively few studies concern countries of South Asia where Bangladesh is located. This prevailing situation compelled the current researcher to study the successful internationalization of higher education institutions (SIHEIS) in Bangladesh. On top of that, in this region internationalization of higher education is meant as sending students overseas, establishing a link with foreign universities, introducing English as a medium of instruction etc. More precisely trends towards internationalization in Bangladesh higher education are seen in several narrow spheres. Most noteworthy is the universal adoption of the American model of higher education, with a four-year bachelor's degree, a credit- hour system, and an academic calendar patterned after that in the United States. However, while the quality of private universities may be better to some extent than public institutions (J. Hossain et al., 2014), the price of private tuition is very much higher than that of public institutions.

Private universities can be indeed complementary to the public ones, but they are hardly a replacement for it because of education cost. Nevertheless, most of the private

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universities have tried to establish ‘links’ with universities abroad, especially in the United States.

The majority of these links, however, are hollow credit transfer agreements, which defines a set of courses that are transferable between two universities. The driving force behind these arrangements appears to be the legitimization and prestige that often come with foreign academic associations, and the chance that international relationships will increase the likelihood of study abroad. However, some of the private universities, such as North South University, have had very successful experiences with visiting faculty from abroad. One private institution in Dhaka, AMA International University, is a successful Philippine-Bangladesh joint venture with 330 students.

London School of Commerce has a partnership with the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UK) and apart from Melbourne and Kuala Lumpur it has a branch in Dhaka (Hopper, 1998).

In May 2007, UGC published a list of 56 private universities. As per the law of Bangladesh, private universities or local campuses of foreign universities can set up or run their academic activities only after obtaining licenses from the government. Most of the universities merely provide coaching to students and the certificates are issued by the foreign universities through their home campuses. UGC had issued notices, but they did not take any step later. This is the concern arising from growing private higher education with international flavor. While, these concerns may not be easy to address, there is uncertainty about the fate of 12,000 students enrolled in these institutions.

Despite, growing domestic capacity, a large number of Bangladeshi students go abroad for higher education. According to UNESCO data, 14,513 students from Bangladesh were studying in other countries in 2005, an increase of over 10 percent from 2004 (UNESCO, 2006, 2007). Australia, the United States, Malaysia, the United

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