(1)FYP FHPK UNDERSTANDING VOLUNTEER TOURIST EXPERIENCE TOWARDS SATISFACTION IN VOLUNTEERING WHILE TRAVELING IN MALAYSIA
Academic year: 2022
(2) I hereby certify that the work embodied in this report is the result of the original research and has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution √. OPEN ACCESS. I agree that my report is to be made immediately available as hardcopy or on-line open access (full text). CONFIDENTIAL. (Contains confidential information under the Official Secret Act 1972) *. RESTRICTED. (Contains restricted information as specified by the organization where research was done) *. FYP FHPK. DECLARATION. I acknowledge that Universiti Malaysia Kelantan reserves the right as follow. The report is the property of Universiti Malaysian Kelantan The library of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan has the right to make copies for the purpose of research only The library has the right to make copies of the report for academic exchange. Certified by. R.Liana Signature Group Representative: Nurul Najwa Nasuha Binti Muda. Signature of Supervisor Name: Puan Raja Norliana Binti Raja Omar. Date: 20 Jun 2021. Date: 20 Jun 2021. Note: • If the report is CONFIDENTIAL OR RESTRICTED, please attach the letter from the organization stating the period and reasons for confidentiality and restriction. i.
(3) First of all, we would like to thank everyone who had showed their contribution and effort in helping us to complete this research study. Their participation had given us a lot of help and supports us so we can do it efficiently in this research study. We would like to express our gratefulness and appreciation to our supervisor, Mrs. Raja Norliana Binti Raja Omar for supervising us to complete this project. Without her help and the knowledge she had been shared with us, we cannot complete this project in time and efficiently. Moreover, we would like to reveal our thanks to our group members who giving full commitment and passion while doing this research study. Without each other’s cooperation, understanding, and tolerance, this project could not be finished on time. We would also like to thank our family who gave full support to our study at Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK). Last but not least, we are very grateful to Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK) for giving us this opportunity to run this research project.. ii. FYP FHPK. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.
(4) PAGES DECLARATION. i. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. ii. TABLE OF CONTENT. iii. LIST OF TABLES. vi. LIST OF FIGURES. vii. ABSTRACT. viii. ABSTRAK. ix. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction. 1. 1.2 Background of the Study. 1. 1.3 Problem Statement. 2. 1.4 Research Objectives. 4. 1.5 Research Questions. 4. 1.6 Scope of the Study. 5. 1.7 Significance of the Study. 5. 1.8 Definition of Terms. 6. 1.9 Summary. 8. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction. 10. 2.2 Conceptual Discussion of the Study Variable. 10. 2.3 Previous Related Research of Satisfaction in. 11. Volunteering While Traveling In Malaysia. 2.3.1. Satisfaction in Volunteering While Traveling. 12. In Malaysia. 2.3.2. Behavioural Intention. 12. 2.3.3. Sense of Community. 12. 2.3.4. Development of Career. 13 iii. FYP FHPK. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
(5) 14. 2.5 Research Model. 14. 2.6 Hypothesis. 15. 2.7 Summary. 16. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction. 18. 3.2 Research Design. 19. 3.3 Target Population. 19. 3.4 Sample Size. 20. 3.5 Sampling Method. 22. 3.6 Data Collection. 23. 3.7 Research Instrument. 24. 3.8. 26. Data Analysis Plan. 3.9 Summary. 28. CHAPTER 4: RESULTS & DISCUSSION 4.1 Introduction. 29. 4.2 Result of Descriptive Analysis. 29. 4.2.1. Demographic Profile of Respondent. 30. 4.2.2. 38. Mean and Average Mean of Independent and Dependant Variable. 4.2.3. Satisfaction in volunteering while Travelling in. 40. Malaysia. 4.2.4. Behavioural Intention. 41. 4.2.5. Sense of Community. 43. 4.2.6. Development of Career. 45. 4.3 Result of Reliability Test. 46. 4.4 Results of Inferential Analysis. 47. 4.5 Discussion Based On Research Objectives. 52. 4.6 Summary. 53. CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 5.1 Introduction. 55 iv. FYP FHPK. 2.4 Theorical Underpinning.
(6) 55. 5.3 The Discussion Based On Research Objective. 56. 5.3.1 Factors That Influenced the Volunteer Tourist. 56. Experience While Travelling In Malaysia. 5.3.2 Relationship between Behavioural Intention. 58. And Volunteer Tourist Satisfaction while Travelling In Malaysia. 5.3.3 Relationship between Sense of Community. 59. And Volunteer Tourist Satisfaction while Travelling In Malaysia. 5.3.4 Relationship between Developments of. 60. Career and Volunteer Tourist Satisfaction while Travelling In Malaysia. 5.4 Limitations. 61. 5.5 Recommendations. 62. 5.5.1 Theoretical Recommendation for Future Research. 62. 5.5.2 Methodology Recommendation for Future Research. 62. 5.5.3 Practical Recommendation for Future Research. 63. 5.6 Conclusion. 63. REFERENCES. 64. APPENDICES. 68. v. FYP FHPK. 5.2 Recapitulation of the Findings.
(7) Tables. Title. Page. Table 3.1. Table for Determining Sample Size for an. 21. Finite Population. Table 4.1. Gender of Respondent. 30. Table 4.2. Age of Respondent. 31. Table 4.3. Marital Status of Respondent. 32. Table 4.4. Occupation of Respondent. 33. Table 4.5. Citizens of Respondent. 34. Table 4.6. How Many Time Involve In. 35. Volunteer Activities of Respondent Table 4.7. Types of Volunteer Activities. 36. Performed of Respondent’s Frequency Table 4.8. Shows the level of mean. 38. Table 4.9. Descriptive Statistics. 39. Table 4.10. Satisfaction in volunteering while. 40. Traveling in Malaysia. Table 4.11. Descriptive Analysis of Behavioural Intention. 41. Table 4.12. Descriptive Analysis of Sense of community. 43. Table 4.13. Descriptive Analysis of Development of career. 45. Table 4.14. Results of Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient for the. 46. Independent Variable (IV) and Dependent Variable (DV) Table 4.15. Relationship between behavioural intention and. 48. Satisfaction in Volunteering while Travelling in Malaysia. Table 4.16. Relationship between senses of community and. 49. Satisfaction in Volunteering while Travelling in Malaysia. Table 4.17. Relationship between developments of career and Satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in. vi. 50. FYP FHPK. LIST OF TABLES.
(8) Table 4.18. Overall of Satisfaction in volunteering while. 51. Traveling in Malaysia. Table 5.3.1. Research Objective 2 & Research Question 2. 58. Table 5.3.2. Research Objective 3 & Research Question 3. 59. Table 5.3.3. Research Objective 4 & Research Question 4. 60. LIST OF FIGURES. Figures. Title. Page. Figure 2.5.1. Research Model. 15. Figure 3.2. Formula for determining the sample size.. 22. Figure 4.1. Gender of Respondent. 30. Figure 4.2. Age of Respondent. 31. Figure 4.3. Marital Status of Respondent. 32. Figure 4.4. Occupation of Respondent. 33. Figure 4.5. Citizens of Respondent. 34. Figure 4.6. How Many Time Involve In Volunteer. 35. Activities of Respondent Figure 4.7. Types of Volunteer Activities Performed of Respondent’s Frequency. vii. 37. FYP FHPK. Malaysia..
(9) Volunteering is derived from the term volunteer. It is a concept and practice that refers to the voluntary giving or sharing of time, resources, information, skills or talents, experiences, and so on (Azizan, 2016). Volunteer tourism is mostly giving benefits for tourists to gain cultural experience and host residents such as receiving assistance to enhance vital resources. Voluntary activities do not always lead to increased cross-cultural understanding for those involved. In some cases, voluntary tourism can strengthen instead of reducing national or cultural stereotypes supported. This research was conducted to examine the understanding of volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia. The independent variables for study are behavioural intention, sense of community and development of career. While the dependent variable is the satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia. This study employs a quantitative approach by using an online questionnaire via Google Form and managed to collect data from 502 respondents. The study results were subsequently analysed using the statistical descriptive analysis method, that is, frequency and percentage, as well as correlation analysis based on a performance evaluation model. To facilitate the analysis, SPSS software solutions (Statistical Product and Service) were used.. Keywords: volunteering, volunteer tourism, voluntary activities, culture experience, and tourist experience.. viii. FYP FHPK. ABSTRACT.
(10) Sukarela berasal dari istilah sukarelawan. Ini adalah konsep dan praktik yang merujuk kepada pemberian atau perkongsian masa, sumber, maklumat, kemahiran atau bakat, pengalaman, dan sebagainya secara sukarela (Azizan, 2016). Pelancongan sukarela kebanyakannya memberi faedah kepada pelancong untuk mendapatkan pengalaman budaya dan menjadi tuan rumah kepada penduduk seperti menerima bantuan untuk meningkatkan sumber daya penting. Aktiviti sukarela tidak selalu membawa kepada peningkatan pemahaman lintas budaya bagi mereka yang terlibat. Dalam beberapa kes, pelancongan sukarela dapat mengukuhkan dan bukannya mengurangkan stereotaip kebangsaan atau budaya yang disokong. Penyelidikan ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pemahaman pengalaman pelancong sukarela terhadap kepuasan dalam melakukan sukarelawan semasa melakukan perjalanan di Malaysia. Pemboleh ubah bebas untuk belajar adalah niat tingkah laku, rasa komuniti, dan pengembangan kerjaya. Manakala pemboleh ubah bersandar adalah kepuasan dalam sukarela ketika melancong di Malaysia. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan menggunakan borang soal selidik dalam talian melalui Google Form dan berjaya mengumpulkan data daripada 502 responden. Hasil kajian kemudian dianalisis menggunakan metode analisis deskriptif statistik, yaitu, frekuensi dan peratusan, serta analisis korelasi berdasarkan model penilaian prestasi. Untuk memudahkan analisis, penyelesaian perisian SPSS (Produk dan Perkhidmatan Statistik) digunakan.. Kata kunci: sukarela, pelancongan sukarela, aktiviti sukarela, pengalaman budaya, dan pengalaman pelancong.. ix. FYP FHPK. ABSTRAK.
(11) INTRODUCTION. 1.1. INTRODUCTION. In this chapter, the researchers explain about the background of research, problem statements, research questions, research objectives, and also the scope of the study. Other than that, a short description of the significance of the study and also explain definition of the terms have been used. In this research, there are many analyses that obtain.. 1.2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Volunteering involves certain events that have traditionally taken place locally, without. making any leisure plans, without requiring a long trip beyond the area. As a type of alternative experience, voluntary tourism is conceptualised. It discusses the aim of volunteer tourism activities for the youth generation, seen as alternate opportunities where science expertise and leisure activities are related. As mentioned by Wearing, a substantial association between the research operation and the successful engagement of voluntary tourism, and the researchers or persons with various hobbies on sustainable environmental issues are best identified (Wearing, 2001). This research attempts to establish the aspirations and attitudes of voluntary visitors and experiences of voluntary tourism by assessing their level of satisfaction. The author indicated that volunteer. 1. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 1.
(12) The author analysed that, volunteer tourism helps fight the symptoms of exhaustion, anger, and depression. It has also been found to increase mood and decrease depression and distress when interacting with people in the community. From the beneficial effects on impacted populations to the advantages, it provides to participating individuals, the benefits of volunteering are well known (Manea G., 2013). Based on the research of Coghlan, define the perspective of volunteer tourism as a means of serious entertainment, concentrating on understanding and connecting to a great cause (Coghlan, 2013). From the studied by Coghlan, the aspirations and perceptions of volunteer visitors have increased the ability of volunteers. Volunteer tourism understands volunteer tourist motivations, experiences, satisfaction, and expectations. These volunteer tourism organizations take advantage of their involvement and efficiency and growth funding maintenance for nature preservation (Coghlan, 2013).. 1.3. PROBLEM STATEMENT The experience of volunteer tourism in Malaysia has given an effect on an individual who. has participated in a volunteer program. About half of the young adults who participate in volunteer programs have different experiences in each program involved. The experience gained has slightly changed their lives for the better. This proves that the volunteer program has a positive impact on those who follow the volunteer program. First of all, the problem statement is a communication skill. Communication skills are a key factor that is closely related to the volunteer activity. This is because of differences in the cultural heritage, natural environment, and social continuity of visitors and the local community. The author indicated that it can enhance the socio-economic growth of the 2. FYP FHPK. tourism offers both emotional and physical wellbeing with many advantages (Manea G., 2013)..
(13) (Chaiyatorn, 2010). In recent years, the number of the young generation that volunteers have increased, therefore there is a need in improving communication skills among volunteers. Therefore, communication skills are a difficult thing for young people to get communicate with people around or difficult to get along with their parents especially strangers. This is because communication skills need to be trained. To train communication skills, individuals need to engage in a variety of programs that interact extensively with people. The second is a different environment. The author indicated that youths are happier to do volunteer activities in a good and orderly atmosphere other than for challenging areas such as areas affected by disasters including floods, mud floods, storms, hurricanes, landslides, and so on (Hussain, 2017). This is because it is difficult for young people to discriminate between the environment and culture. This problem makes it young people hard to get understand what happening in other live and other situations. According to Brown, removal from the familiar home setting has been shown to give students independence from cultural and family constraints and the ability to explore themselves, while exposure to a foreign culture has given them the opportunity to develop their cross-cultural communication skills (Brown, 2009). Other than that, the lack of information about volunteering experiences that available for young people could encourage them to volunteer travel and make a difference (Yotopoulus, 2016). The author indicated that the lack of information and the most volunteer roles are uninteresting is another reason why people do not know where to volunteer, or if they do, the jobs are not meaningful or purposeful. While younger volunteers are more motivated by future preparation such as increasing skills, knowledge, and advancing careers and older volunteers are more likely to cite generativity as a reason for volunteering, most people are motivated to volunteer by personal gratification and having a meaningful experience (Yotopoulus, 2016).. 3. FYP FHPK. community through the income generated by their involvement in home stay programs.
(14) OBJECTIVES The main research objective is to understanding volunteer tourist experience towards. satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. The objectives of this research state below: 1.4.1 To identify the factors that influenced the volunteer tourist experience while travelling in Malaysia. 1.4.2 To study the relationship between behavioural intention and volunteer tourist satisfaction while travelling in Malaysia. 1.4.3 To determine the relationship between sense of community and volunteer tourist satisfaction while travelling in Malaysia. 1.4.4 To examine the relationship between development of career and volunteer tourist satisfaction while travelling in Malaysia.. 1.5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS Concerning our research question that has been expanded in this research study, there are. several questions that create to fulfil the research objective: 1.5.1 What is the factors that influenced the volunteer tourist experience while travelling in Malaysia? 1.5.2 What is the relationship between behavioural intention and volunteer tourist satisfaction while travelling in Malaysia? 1.5.3 What is the relationship between sense of community and volunteer tourist satisfaction while travelling in Malaysia?. 4. FYP FHPK. 1.4.
(15) satisfaction while travelling in Malaysia?. 1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY In this study, the researchers will specialize in understanding volunteer tourist experience. towards satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. First and foremost, this research will only concentrate on identifying the experience of volunteer tourists in Malaysia. Second, the researchers will note the link between the tourist experience and satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. Third, this research focuses on satisfaction in volunteering that may affect the tourist’s experience in Malaysia.. 1.7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research would be a major effort in recognizing the influences of the various. experiences of volunteer tourists in preparing their volunteer journey. This research would even be helpful for the VTO in preparing their volunteer program that is to fulfil the volunteer tourist standards for better satisfaction volunteer tourism experiences. It is also hoped that it will be accustomed directly to the creation of a possible voluntary scheme to confirm better retention standards by recognizing the satisfice of volunteer visitors. This report would also provide suggestions on the event of Malaysia's voluntary tourism program. Other than that, this research will benefit the community in Malaysia. Volunteer tourists would connect the community to the world then be a linking link between the universe and them. They should bring the influence of the internet to these people who can know and learn about the world through its borders.. 5. FYP FHPK. 1.5.4 What is the relationship between development of career and volunteer tourist.
(16) responsibilities and contributions and focus on the sector achieve the goals of their mission and satisfying the expectations and happiness of the volunteer.. 1.8. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS. 1.8.1 Behavioural Intention Behaviour intention is meant any change of an entity with respect to its surroundings. Active behaviour is that in which the object is the source of the output energy involved in a given specific reaction (Rosenblueth, 1943). In essence, intentions can be conceived of as goal states in the expectancy-value tradition that are the result of a conscious process that takes time, requires some deliberation, and focuses on consequences (Loewenstein, 2001). Intentions are defined as plans or goals. People oftentimes fall short of achieving their goals, however, which raises the question of whether respondents take this into account when stating their intentions (Warshaw, 1984). Intentions have been defined in the Theory of Reasoned Action/ The Theory of Planned Behaviour as the amount of effort one is willing to exert to attain a goal (Ajzen I. , 1991), “behavioural plans that enable attainment of a behavioural goal” (Ajzen I. , 1996), or simply “proximal goals” (Bandura, 1997). 1.8.2 Volunteerism Activities According to Abd Rahim, Volunteering activities should be determined by the type, place, and time of the place where the activity is conducted. Volunteerism is linked to charitable and welfare work carried out by individuals or groups for individuals or groups requiring assistance (Abd Rahim, 2020). United Nations defines 6. FYP FHPK. On the other hand, government organizations must also track the voluntary service.
(17) paid, or not driven by financial rewards and should benefit other people who are not members of the immediate family or even could be benefited by the volunteers themselves (United Nation Volunteers , 2011). Volunteerism activities will contribute significantly to the national economy, collaboration between communities and promote social entrepreneurship and promote potential and talent in various areas of life (Azizan, 2016).. 1.8.3 Volunteerism Satisfaction Volunteerism. Volunteerism has been a distinctive element of American culture from its foundation, yet there is no universally recognized definition of this concept. Volunteerism is defined here as "long-term, planned, prosocial activities that benefit strangers and occur inside an organizational context," which is consistent with definitions most often used in the social sciences (Kuskova, 2011). The precise origins of scientific study on life satisfaction are unknown, although philosophical investigations may be traced back to Aristotle and his idea of eudaimonia. Here, satisfaction is defined as an overall, “global assessment” of one's sentiments and attitudes about one's life at a specific point in time-based on that individual's “chosen criteria.” (Kuskova, 2011). 1.8.4 Tourism Experience According to Cohen, tourism is essentially a brief reversal of everyday activities ‘it is a no-work, no-care, no-thrift situation’ (Cohen, 1972). Supported Smith, the tourist may be a temporarily leisured one that visits an area removed from the home for the aim of experiencing change (Smith V. , 1978). And here the author indicates that. 7. FYP FHPK. volunteerism activities with three main features - work or activity on own will, non-.
(18) been engaged on an emotional, physical, intellectual, or even spiritual level. Although a variety of tourism sources and stakeholders use the word tourism experience implicitly, some writers have sought to temporally define the term tourist experiences (Pine, 1998) and (Pine B. J., 1999). Others have concentrated on time, activity, experiences, meanings, rewards, and satisfaction frames. These are covered in further detail later in this section. Tourism experience is a set of activities in which individuals engage on their own terms, such as pleasant and memorable places, allowing each tourist to construct his or her own travel experiences that meet a variety of personal requirements, ranging from pleasure to a search for meaning (Ramos, 2016).. 1.8.5 Voluntary tourism Voluntary tourism is mostly giving benefit for both tourists as an example gain cultural experience and host residents, as an example, receiving assistance to enhance or build structures or preserve vital resources. However, symbiotic relationships have recently been criticized, especially within the context of intercultural interactions. The author indicated that voluntary activities don't always lead to increased cross-cultural understanding for those involved (Raymond, 2008). In some cases, voluntary tourism can strengthen instead of reducing national or cultural stereotypes (Simpson, 2005). . 1.9. SUMMARY To summarise in this chapter, the researchers found outlined the fundamental information. on the general aim of the research. In order to provide a general understanding of the research problems and also the specific objectives of the analysis, this chapter is essential. In addition, 8. FYP FHPK. experiences are inherently personal, existing only in the mind of an individual who has.
(19) as is the overall research design. Besides that, the research questions, the scope, and also the significance of the study, and also the overall research design is clearly defined. A solid theoretical history of the research is very important in order to have a transparent path across the entire phase of this analysis. Thus, the theoretical context of this research will be clarified in the following sections.. 9. FYP FHPK. the research questions, the scope, and also the importance of the analysis are clearly specified,.
(20) LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1. INTRODUCTION. This chapter will discuss the experience of tourist, experience in volunteering, and experience while travelling in Malaysia as independent variables while understanding volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia as the dependent variable, the relationship between every independent variable with the dependent variable, conceptual discussion of the study variable, previous related research, theoretical underpinning, research model, hypothesis and closed by this chapter's review.. 2.2. CONCEPTUAL DISCUSSION OF THE STUDY VARIABLE Variables that are modified or controlled in scientific experiments are independent. variables used to test the effect on dependent variables. The variable tested measured in scientific experiments is a dependent variable. The dependent variable depends on the independent variable. The variables being tested in scientific experiments are known as dependent variables. During the experiment of changing independent variables, changes in dependent variables were observed, ascertained and recorded. When taking data in an experiment, the dependent variables are the large ones evaluated and measured. Figure 2.5.1 show if independent variable has change will also change in dependent variable. Dependant variable being test on independent which is behavioural intention, sense 10. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 2.
(21) sense of community, and development of career will directly affect the result of dependant variable. Independent variable makes a change and will give effect to the improvement dependent variable.. 2.3. PREVIOUS RELATED RESEARCH OF SATISFACTION IN VOLUNTEERING WHILE TRAVELING IN MALAYSIA.. Identify the understanding of volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. From reading articles, we conclude that there are many volunteer experiences towards satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. Understanding volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia was affected by this factor. The authors indicated this factor was linked to the motivations associated with the ability to communicate and pursue employment opportunities, develop career skills and social relationships, make new friends, and wait for social events (Carvache-Franco, 2019) . The factor of this impact because of the experience of tourists, experience in volunteering, and experience while travelling in Malaysia. The dependant variable which is the satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia is not deeply research in any article. The practise can only be found in the article on volunteer tourism between students and young researchers, which analyses how the volunteer does it when travelling in Malaysia, which is similar to volunteering abroad, and so on. All the practice is done by the volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while travelling to Malaysia.. 11. FYP FHPK. of community, and development of career. If there have a change in behavioural intention,.
(22) The dependent variable for our research topic is satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia. The author indicated the points of satisfaction for volunteers and factors affecting their potential plans to volunteer must be known in order to do this (Pauline, 2011). Although there is a plethora of research to understand the motivation of volunteers, there has been little exploration of the antecedents of voluntary satisfaction as well as intent to stay. Based on the author, in assessing intentions, satisfaction with volunteer tourism encounters was of utmost importance (Bo Meng, 2020).. 2.3.2 BEHAVIORAL INTENTION The intention to act is characterised as the propensity of a person to behave according to emotions, perception or assessments of previous experiences (Spears, 2004). It can be graded as beneficial or disadvantageous (Ladhari, 2009). The author indicated tourist behavioural intention will bring tourist satisfaction (Zabkar, 2010). By deduction, therefore, the level of satisfaction an individual tourist gains are related to how the tourist would be motivated to share behavioural intention to other potential people who might be willing to travel. Early studies have established the link between tourists’ expectation and behavioural intention of tourist can affect the tourist satisfaction in volunteering.. 2.3.3 SENSE OF COMMUNITY A sense of community is the sense that participants belong, the awareness that participants are important to each other and to the organisation, and a mutual confidence that their expectations will be fulfilled through their contribution to each other as stated. 12. FYP FHPK. 2.3.1 SATISFACTION IN VOLUNTEERING WHILE TRAVELING IN MALAYSIA..
(23) contributor to and satisfaction with one's contribution to a neighbourhood. People learned the reality that those most devoted and happy saw their neighbourhood as a tiny one the city's population was more committed to the area than to the rest of the city. The city and thought about their neighbourhood as providing unique activities for its people, the elements that reflect the conceptualization of the meaning of community by people (McMillan, 1986). As mentioned by the author, using a scientific method, the interactions of voluntary visitors using social representation theory in host societies (Aquino, 2018). Particularly, it was tough for most of the volunteers in this report to explain how voluntary tourism has helped the world outside their own individual efforts, and it was hard for them to see larger effects of voluntary tourism in general. The sense of community has directly contributed to the experience of a person, whereas the real worth community, the essence of the phenomena as reported by (McMillan, 1986) would lead one to think that it would be more important to make certain thoughts, experiences, and expectations more valuable than anyone else.. 2.3.4 DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER. According to McKay, Career development refers to the process of deciding on a career, honing your skills, and progressing along a career path. It is a lifelong process of learning and making decisions that brings you closer to your ideal job, skillset, and lifestyle (McKay, 2020). Malaysia is a country where the majority of the population speaks English and can communicate effectively with tourists and international students. As a tourist destination, English is also emphasized during the educational process, which can actually help international students improve their English fluency (Ijaz, 2021).. 13. FYP FHPK. (McMillan, 1986). The author indicated that regarded the sense of community as an integral.
(24) Asian countries. Chinese, Indians, and indigenous peoples all contribute to Malaysia's cultural diversity, making it an incredibly multicultural place to learn. It also entailed learning about different roles and industries to find one that matched their abilities, looking for opportunities to advance, and possibly changing careers entirely if they found one that was more suitable.. 2.4. THEORICAL UNDERPINNING The concept of collaborative learning, which is based on the social constructivist view of. learning and knowledge, is the theoretical foundation for collaborative writing or writing groups. According to Bakhtin, the researcher have drawn on the theoretical structures developed to see writing as a socio-contextual phenomenon. The common conceptual denominator of the three theoreticians is to see language and learning as a sense formation process and as a bunch of action (Bakhtin, 1981).. 2.5. RESEARCH MODEL Based on the past literature review, the researchers have proposed a framework to study. Understanding volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. Hence, the framework is shown below.. 14. FYP FHPK. Aside from that, English is much more widely spoken in Malaysia than in most other.
(25) Understanding Volunteer Tourist Experience Towards Satisfaction In Volunteering While Traveling In Malaysia. Independent Variable (IV). Dependent Variables (DV). Behavioural intention Satisfaction in volunteering. Sense of community. while traveling in Malaysia. Development of career. Figure 2.5.1 shows that the research model operationalizes the theory that showing the relationship of the difference between the independent variables (IV) and dependent variable (DV) of this research study. Independent variables (IV) are the behavioural intention, the sense of community, and the development of career. Other than that, the dependent variable (DV) is satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. However, this figure shows the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables.. 2.6. HYPOTHESIS The development of a hypothesis is a summary or summary that can be constructed through the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables i.e. tourist experience and volunteer experience. This hypothesis was constructed to look at the relationship between satisfactions in volunteering while travelling. Among the hypotheses that can be built are. 15. FYP FHPK. Figure 2.5.1: Research Model.
(26) volunteer tourist. This hypothesis shows that the behavioural intention by tourists during volunteering activities will affect their satisfaction when traveling. Tourist with a good behavioural intention will make the satisfaction of tourists increase and vice versa.. H2: There is the relationship between sense of community and satisfaction with the volunteer tourist in Malaysia. This second hypothesis shows that the factors that tourists with sense of community will doing volunteer activities while travelling. Tourists will pleasure to volunteer again in Malaysia if they archive their satisfaction and experience expectation.. H3: There is the relationship between measures of general satisfaction with the volunteer vacation experience in Malaysia and development of career. This third hypothesis shows a measure of general satisfaction with the experience of volunteer vacations and the development of career. The level of satisfaction experienced by volunteer tourists will cause a response to the helping volunteer tourist develop their career such as succeed in chosen profession and improve their resume.. 2.7. SUMMARY In summary, a variable is an element or trait that is specified in a particular or specific. character. Variables are items that can be assessed, controlled, or tampered with in an inquiry.. 16. FYP FHPK. H1: There is the relationship between behavioural intention and satisfaction items for the.
(27) the academic success of students. In short, variables like the independent variables (IV) and dependent variable (DV) are the main in research. This chapter has discussed the experience of tourists, experience in volunteering, and experience while travelling in Malaysia as the independent variables while understanding volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia as a dependent variable.. 17. FYP FHPK. The vector 'grade point average' is a point in the event, where it may be used as an indicator of.
(28) METHODOLOGY. 3.1. INTRODUCTION. This section discusses research methodology. Researchers explain about research methods that was used to complete this research. Researchers defines the needed data and information to handle the research objectives and research questions was collected, submitted, and analyse. The research methodology primarily refers to the target population and the difficulty in gaining access to it. The importance of the decision to be taken from the research study is one aspect that will affect the research method. The author indicated that the main part is the research methodology research methods, data collection methods, sampling plans, plan the field work and analysis plan (Mukesh, 2012). According to Kothari, research is an intellectual activity, and with terms, that must be used in the industrial sense (Kothari, 2004). This chapter will show the way of conducting this research study. This chapter will go over the research design used to conduct this research, which includes the research design, sampling strategy, data collection, data analysis, and summary.. 18. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 3.
(29) RESEARCH DESIGN According to the author, the research design consists of arranging research tasks,. including data collection, in ways that are most likely to achieve the research goals and to find out the Understanding of volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia (Smith, 1991). Each component of the research design provides a number of critical decision points (Sekaran, 2019). To achieve the aim, a well-structured questionnaire tool was designed and distributed to respondents to obtain the correct answers. The researcher used a quantitative method as the research design because any conclusion drawn on the basis of number and analysis will only prove to be effective for the study. There is three primary research design that is explanatory, descriptive, and causal research. For this study, the researcher used to investigate a problem that is not clearly defined, and it is conducted to have a better understanding of the existing problem, but will not provide conclusive results. The researcher use survey as primary data and online research as secondary data.. 3.3. TARGET POPULATION The population has a slightly different meaning than it does in everyday speech, and the. sample is a population that frequently contains too many individuals to study conveniently, so an investigation is frequently limited to one more sample drawn from it. For the questionnaires are invited for target tourist volunteer and the total sample for doing research is among tourist volunteer has visited Malaysia and students University that join volunteer for sampling. The topic of the researchers is understanding volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. In this research, the researcher choose the population among tourist volunteers in Malaysia. 19. FYP FHPK. 3.2.
(30) Yayasan Sukarelawanan Siswa. According to Sukarelawan Siswa, (Yayasan Sukarelawan Siswa, 2021) was launched in 2012 as an entity owned by the Government of Malaysia through the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE). Yayasan Sukarelawan Siswa (YSS) committed to growing a culture of volunteering among Malaysia’s 1.3 million students of higher learning institutions and in the ASEAN region. YSS positions youth volunteering as a key tool in developing volunteer leaders who are aligned with the Malaysia Education Blueprint (Higher Education) in 2021 until 2025 that emphasizes the balance between both knowledge and skills as well as ethics and morality. However, the researchers did not specifically assign respondents from any organization and received the people who volunteering while traveling in Malaysia because researchers value the experience of volunteer tourist while traveling in Malaysia. There population by age of Malaysia is 21,131.900 people. We pick 495 tourist volunteers from the random sample which is age, gender, and occupation. Besides that, for our sample population, we choose males and women to see the differences between them. Probability sampling refers to samples selected deliberately according to the research's needs. This suggests that the researcher chooses participants because they have demonstrated willingness to engage in the research. The questionnaires that we give based on the scale of their experience volunteering in Malaysia.. 3.4. SAMPLE SIZE Sample size can be described as an observation being made, or as a direct count of the. number of samples measured (Zamboni, 2018). The sample of this study is about the understanding of volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia (Zamboni, 2018). In addition, by referring to the (Morgan, 1970), 20. FYP FHPK. There are several organizations that run volunteering, one of the organizations is the.
(31) while travelling to Malaysia to provide this study with an appropriate level of confidence. Then to determine the size, the researchers used figure 3.1 to conduct the sample size.. Table 3.1: Table for Determining Sample Size for a Finite Population. Sources: Krejcie and Morgan (1970).. 21. FYP FHPK. respondents will be selected from the population of tourists who enjoy sharing their experience.
(32) Figure 3.1: Formula for determining the sample size. Sources: Krejcie and Morgan, 1970. 3.5. SAMPLING METHOD According to Tuovilla, sampling is a method used in statistical analysis where a fixed. number of findings from a wider sample are taken from it. Methods used for sampling from a larger population (Tuovilla, 2020). The technique used to sample from a larger population depends on the type of research being conducted, but it may involve simple random sampling or systematic sampling, as stated by (Tuovilla, 2020). In the technique of sampling, the researchers chose some basics of population as the focuses of the sample. In this analysis, the researchers selected probability sampling that is only a random sample. The sample is from the target population which are volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. Volunteer tourists who visit. 22. FYP FHPK. The formula for the sample size according to Krejcie and Morgan is as shown in figure3.2..
(33) generated by Google Form, and will be publicly released through all types of social media such as WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and Telegram. Using Google Form and Social Media, the researchers might find the respondents from other places and whole Peninsular Malaysia, even East Malaysia which are difficult to meet in person during this COVID- 19 in this new norm.. 3.6. DATA COLLECTION Before beginning any analysis on the subject to be chosen, there are many articles that. need to be found to make it easy to choose the title of the study and to collect and interpret data easily. There are 10 randomized articles chosen to complete this analysis. Of these 10 articles, only 5 articles were chosen to classify and examine the data rather than on the basis of the subject to be selected. The smaller scope is modified from the larger scope to pick a title from the article in order to promote and evaluate the data that will be made in this report. The title of the analysis chosen from these 10 papers is “Understanding volunteer tourist experience towards satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia” For the second step after recognizing selected titles from the 10 randomly selected posts, the next step is to define holes or "gaps" that are not included in the article. For example, most of the chosen articles only illustrate two things, namely inspiration and tourist experience (Wearing, 2001). They do not reflect on the satisfaction of volunteering while travelling to Malaysia. The next move is to build objectives. In the development of this objective, this objective should be constructed on the basis of a relationship similar to the title of the article chosen. In order to improve the analysis of the desired subject, questions will need to be proved by the 23. FYP FHPK. Malaysia have been chosen as the sample size and as the respondents. The questionnaire is.
(34) research respondents (Roopa, 2012). Not to forget, the most important procedure in making this analysis is to build a survey question. This survey question needs to be done based on some sentences in the article. Usually, these survey questions (questionnaires) only make in 10-15 questions only. The next step is to create an SPSS system to enter the survey question data in the system. The next procedure to enter the data in the SSPS system is to conduct an online survey. To encourage this analysis, the application for the Google Form should be used to facilitate the planning of this online survey. The final move is to review the study results online. For this last step, the online study answered by the respondents will be transformed into the form of the data to be evaluated and the results achieved.. 3.7. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT In our designing survey questions, there are many methods that we use to classify the. profiles of each of our respondents. Depending on the intent, there are different kinds of measures that can be used by researchers for this research, such as surveys, case studies, or questionnaires (Biddix, 2009). Before establishing the instrument, we must first identify each target group's styles and characteristics for our survey. Our resources include the community in Malaysia, gender, age, race, faith, and experience. These questionnaires provide us with the main source and the results have been collected from others who have answered our questions. The questionnaire is separate into five sections (Section A, Section B, and Section C). Demographic segmentation was debated in Section A. The demographic question is a consumer segment centered on the age, gender, religion, marital status, and occupation of the respondent. 24. FYP FHPK. goals of the chosen topic. The questionnaire consisted of a set of questions subjected to the.
(35) Malaysia, was addressed in Section B. Section C are concentrated on all the independent variables provided by the researchers, such as tourist behavioural intention, sense of community, and development of career. The indicated the questions in the questionnaire will be distributed to the respondents. As mentioned earlier, the questionnaire form in Google Form is divided into five sections namely Section A, Section B, and Section C, Section D, and Section E. Section A contains the demographic profiles of the respondents, including their gender. The genders used in this study were, as expected, male and female. The next one was about age. In the table above, the age range began between the ages of 20 and 50 and above. The occupations that have been listed in the questionnaire are student, self-employed, employee, and unemployed. Next is the marital status of the respondents. Next, aspect of marital status. Marital status is about the status of respondents if he or she is married or single. The citizenship status of the respondents is listed in the questionnaire to find out the residence of the respondents. Next, how many times respondents were involved in volunteer activities. This question is asking to confirm that the respondent who answered this question was one who had participated in a volunteer activity. The last question in section A is the type of volunteer activities performed. This question would like to be asked to find out the type of volunteer activities carried out by the respondents. Volunteer tourism is ideal for joining with the spouse, family, or alone. Section B consisted of satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. For Section C, the questions are regarding the level of satisfaction in volunteering toward volunteer tourist experiences in Malaysia. In this section, the researchers also mention about will these experiences influence tourists to join in volunteering again in the future.. 25. FYP FHPK. (Fontanella, 2019). The dependent variable, the happiness of volunteering while travelling in.
(36) sense of community, and development of career while traveling in Malaysia. Each variable was given 4 or 5 questions that are related to the particular variables. Volunteer tourism encounters are a combination of volunteer work and travel-related events (Wearing S. &., 2013). For the experiences of tourists, the questions are all about how the tourist experience in Malaysia. Other than that, there is also a question which relates to the experiences of tourists who enjoy the country, its history, and culture’. In the questionnaire, there is also a question about compared the experience in various aspects like challenge, culture, relaxation, and learn. Section D is the second independent variable (IV) which is sense of community. The questions for the second variable refer to the experience of joint volunteering that can be related to the research. In the second variable, the questions asked are whether visitors get positive experiences when volunteering, such as opportunity to make a different of community and environment. Section E is the last independent variable (IV) which is career development. Volunteering can give self-confident to people in furthering career. Volunteering help people to know their passion that they never knew they had. This will bring tourist to the level of satisfaction they needs when travelling in Malaysia.. 3.8. DATA ANALYSIS PLAN At the end of the studies, the researchers use Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. (SPSS) to analyze the collected data. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) is software that is designed for interactive, or batched, statistical analysis. This software is one of the most famous statistical systems which could highly present difficult data manipulation and testing with a simple procedure. Meanwhile, it is user-friendly software the Statistical Kit for 26. FYP FHPK. Section C contained the independent variables (IV) which are behavioural intention,.
(37) reports such as charts and distribution plots. The term used for describing, explaining, or demonstrating data analysis and summarising data is descriptive analysis. The demographic profile, such as the percentage, frequency, mean, and average mean of the respondents, will be defined using descriptive analysis. The mean table range is used to determine how likely the respondents will agree or disagree with the questionnaire statement. In required to conduct statistical analyses, a descriptive analysis is an important first step. It gives the researcher an understanding of the distribution of data and allows the researcher to identify outliers and typos, and allows the correlations between variables to be identified and ready for further statistical analysis. The research questions and the research design chosen for this research should be the basis of these data analyses. The use of the Pearson correlation coefficient is used to evaluate data obtained. One of the significant tests that can calculate the strength of the linear relationship between the independent variables (IV) and the dependent variable is the Pearson Correlation Coefficient analysis (DV). This study is intended to identify whether there is a link between the independent variables (IV), which are the experience of tourists, experience in volunteering, and experience while traveling in Malaysia, and the dependent variable (DV) which is satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. If the correlation occurs, the intensity and direction of the interaction between the independent variables (IV) and the dependent variable must be determined by the researchers (DV). Reliability analysis refers to the fact that the construct it is evaluating should accurately represent a scale. There are certain occasions and conditions where it can be beneficial. Reliability refers to the degree to which, if the measurements are replicated a number of times,. 27. FYP FHPK. Social Sciences (SPSS) could collect virtually any kind of archive in order to create tabulated.
(38) variance in a scale that can be accomplished by evaluating the relationship between the scores obtained from the various scale administrations. If therefore, the correlation in the measurement of reliability is strong, the scale shows consistent results and is therefore accurate. Reliability analysis is an indication of stability and consistency without bias and helped assess the “goodness” of the measure (Sekaran, 2019). The reliability analysis evaluated by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient value. It is a measure of the internal consistency of a study which expresses as the number between 0 and 1. Therefore, when 27 the value of alpha is an increase, it means the terms in a survey is more reliable to each other (Tavakol, 2011). From the value result, researchers are able to define and determine whether our questionnaire was valid, reliable, and understand by the respondents.. 3.9. SUMMARY Through this chapter, the researchers are clearer on the study as they decided the research. design, target population, sample size, sampling method, data collection, research instrument, and data analysis. From this research also the researcher can know how to use the research design as well as other components in the thesis and function which is, the target population, sample size, sampling method, data collection, research instruments, and data analysis. In this section also explained how the questionnaire is been conducted and how the questionnaire can be applied in this research. The researchers also explain the content of each question and the usage of every question. Lastly, all of the components in this research can be used in future research. In addition, researchers started to go on the survey regarding the study by completing this chapter.. 28. FYP FHPK. a scale shows reliable results. Analysis of reliability is calculated by the proportion of systemic.
(39) RESULTS & DISCUSSION. 4.1. INTRODUCTION. This chapter will discuss about the results and findings from the analysis which conducted on the data collected from the questionnaires. Total numbers of 502 questionnaires were distributed to 502 respondents among satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia and all of them were valid. The data collected from the questionnaires analyse using descriptive and inferential analysis. Data obtained from the questionnaire has been evaluated by software program using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Before conduct the actual questionnaire, pilot test was done on total number of 30 respondents and reliability test used to obtain the validity of the variables.. 4.2. RESULT OF DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS. Descriptive analysis is used to describe the demographic profile stated in section A of the questionnaire, as well as the mean and average mean of dependent variable and independent variables stated in section B until section E of the questionnaire. Descriptive analysis implies a simple quantitative summary of a date set that has been collected. It helps the researchers to understand the experiment or data sent in details and tells all about the required details that. 29. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 4.
(40) section E of the questionnaires would be examined in this report.. 4.2.1 Demographic Profile of Respondent. (i). Gender of Respondent. Table 4.1: Gender of Respondent Gender of Respondent Cumulative Gender. Frequency. Percent (%) Percentage (%). Male. 188. 37.45. 37.45. Female. 314. 62.55. 100.0. Total. 502. 100.0. Figure 4.1: Gender of Respondent. Gender of Respondent. 37.45%% Male. 62.55%. 30. Female. FYP FHPK. help put the data in perspective. The mean and standard deviation for section C, section D and.
(41) respondents accounted for 188, while female respondents accounted for 314. Out of 502 respondents who participated in the survey, 37.45 percent were male and 62.55 percent were female. (ii). Age of Respondent. Table 4.2: Age of Respondent Age of Respondent Cumulative Percentage Age. Frequency. Percent (%) (%). 20 - 29 years old. 354. 70.52. 70.52. 30 - 39 years old. 78. 15.54. 86.06. 40 - 49 years old. 49. 9.76. 85.82. Above 50 years old. 21. 4.18. 100.0. Total. 502. 100.0. Figure 4.2: Age of Respondent. Age of Respondent 4.18% 20 - 29 Years Old. 9.76% 30 - 39 years Old. 15.54% 40 - 49 Years Old. 70.52% Above 50 Years Old. 31. FYP FHPK. The gender of the respondents was displayed in Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1. Male.
(42) respondents, 354 (70.52 percent) respondents are between 20 to 29 years old, 78 (15.54 percent) respondents are between 30 to 39 years old, 49 (9.76 percent) respondents are between 40 to 49 years old and 21 (4.18 percent) respondents are above 50 years old are answered the questionnaire. (iii). Marital Status of Respondent. Table 4.3: Marital Status of Respondent Marital Status of Respondent Cumulative Status. Frequency. Percent (%) Percentage (%). Single. 385. 76.69. 76.69. Married. 94. 18.73. 95.42. Prefer not to say. 23. 4.58. 100.0. Total. 502. 100.0. Figure 4.3: Marital Status of Respondent. Marital Status of Respondent 4.58% Single. 18.73% Married. 76.69%. 32. Prefer not to say. FYP FHPK. Table 4.2 and Figure 4.2 shows the percentage by age of the respondent. Out of 502.
(43) who are divided into 3 categories. There were 502 respondents, with 385 single (76.69 percent), 94 married (18.73 percent), and follow up by prefer not to say who have 23 respondents (4.58 percent) has responded to the questionnaire. (iv). Occupation of Respondent. Table 4.4: Occupation of Respondent Occupation of Respondent Cumulative Occupation. Frequency. Percent (%) Percentage (%). Student. 283. 56.37. 56.37. Self-Employed. 127. 25.30. 81.67. Unemployed. 26. 5.18. 86.85. Employed. 66. 13.15. 100. Total. 502. 100.0. Figure 4.4: Occupation of Respondent. Occupation of Respondent. 5.18%. Student. 13.15%. Sel-Employed. 25.30%. 56.37%. Unemployed. Employed. 33. FYP FHPK. Table 4.3 and Figure 4.3 indicate the overall number of respondents by marital status,.
(44) The questionnaire received 502 responses, with student (283 respondents / 56.37 percent), selfemployed (127 respondents / 25.30 percent), unemployed (26 respondents / 5.18 percent), and employed (66 respondents / 13.15 percent) accounting for the majority of the responses. (v). Citizens of Respondent. Table 4.5: Citizens of Respondent Citizens of Respondent Cumulative Citizens. Frequency. Percent (%) Percentage (%). Malaysian. 496. 98.80. 98.80. Indonesia. 6. 1.20. 100.0. Total. 502. 100.0. Figure 4.5: Citizens of Respondent. Citizens of Respondent 1.20%. Malaysian. 98.80%. 34. Indonesian. FYP FHPK. The overall respondents are broken down into occupations in Table 4.4 and Figure 4.4..
(45) from Malaysian (496 respondents / 98.80 percent), and from Indonesian (6 respondents / 1.20 percent) answered the questionnaire. (vi). How Many Time Involve In Volunteer Activities. Table 4.6: How Many Time Involve In Volunteer Activities of Respondent How Many Time Involve In Volunteer Activities of Respondent How Many Time Involve In Volunteer. Cumulative Frequency. Percent (%). Activities. Percentage (%). 1 – 3 Times. 342. 68.13. 68.13. 4 – 6 Times. 116. 23.11. 91.24. 7 – 9 Times. 19. 3.78. 95.02. 10 Times above. 25. 4.98. 100.0. Total. 502. 100.0. Figure 4.6: How many time involve in volunteer activities of Respondent. How many time involve in volunteer activities 3.78%. 4.98% 1 - 3 Times. 4 - 6 Times. 23.11% 7 - 9 Times. 68.13% 10 Times above. 35. FYP FHPK. The total by respondent’s citizens are seen in Table 4.5 and Figure 4.5. 502 respondents.
(46) Figure 4.6. 502 respondents of times involve in volunteer activities 1 to 3 times (342 respondents / 68.13 percent), 4 to 6 times (116 respondents / 23.11 percent), 7 to 9 times (19 respondents / 3.78 percent), and 10 times above (25 respondents / 4.98 percent) answered the questionnaire. (vii). Types of Volunteer Activities Performed of Respondent’s Frequency. Table 4.7: Types of Volunteer Activities Performed of Respondent’s Frequency Types of Volunteer Activities Performed of Respondent’s Frequency Types Of Volunteer Activities. Cumulative Frequency. Percent (%). Performed. Percentage (%). Agriculture. 61. 7.08. 7.08. Animal Care. 88. 10.22. 17.30. Community Development. 204. 23.69. 40.99. Public Health. 111. 12.89. 53.88. Marine Conservation. 58. 6.74. 60.62. Sport. 146. 16.96. 77.58. Teaching Programs. 147. 17.07. 94.65. Wildlife Conversation. 37. 4.30. 98.95. Others. 9. 1.05. 100.0. Total. 861. 100.0. 36. FYP FHPK. The total by times involve in volunteer activities of respondents are seen in Table 4.6 and.
(47) Types of volunteer activities performed 4.30%. 1.05% Agriculture. 7.08%. Animal Care. 10.22%. 17.07%. Community Development Public Health Marine Conservation. 23.69%. 16.96%. Sport Teaching Programs Wildlife Conservation. 6.74%. Others. 12.89%. Table 4.7 and Figure 4.7 showed the types of volunteer activities performed of Respondent’s frequency 502 Respondents answer this questionnaire. Respondent can answer more than one answer to this questionnaire. The highest of Respondent’s frequency is community development (204 respondent's frequency / 23.69 percent). The next, frequency of respondents is teaching programs (147 respondent's frequency / 17.07 percent), sport (146 respondent's frequency / 16.69 percent), public health (111 respondent's frequency / 12.89 percent), animal care (88 respondent's frequency / 10.22 percent), agriculture (61 respondent's frequency / 7.08 percent), marine conservation (58 respondent's frequency / 6.74 percent), wildlife conservation (37 respondent's frequency / 4.30 percent). The lowest frequency of respondent is other (9 respondent's frequency / 1.05 percent) which is faculty week, volunteer Mosque tour guide (MTG), architecture, community service, and border defence are respectively is (1 respondent's frequency / 0.12 percent) and welfare and communal work are respectively are (2 respondent’s frequency / 0.12 percent).. 37. FYP FHPK. Figure 4.7: Types Of Volunteer Activities Performed of Respondent’s Frequency.
(48) Descriptive analysis was used to describe the mean and average mean of each statement in both the dependent variables and independent variable. The researcher compared the mean between the dependent variable and the independent variable for each question based on the analysis. The mean and average mean are used to determine the level of agreement of respondents with the statements. The researcher will then determine which answers were strongly agreed upon and which were strongly disagreed upon by the respondent. The responses are scaled using the Likert Scale, with 1 indicating strongly disagree, 2 indicating disagree, 3 indicating neutral, 4 indicating agree, and 5 indicating strongly agree. The range is depicted in Table 4.8 below.. Table 4.8: Shows the level of mean. Level. Means. Strongly Agree. 4.01-5.00. Agree. 3.01-4.00. Neutral. 2.01-3.00. Disagree. 1.01-2.00. Strongly Disagree. 0.00-0.01. 38. FYP FHPK. 4.2.2 Mean and Average Mean of Independent and Dependant Variable.
(49) Independent Variables (IV) and Dependent Variable (DV).. Table 4.9: Descriptive Statistics Descriptive Statistics Std.. N. Mean. 502. 4.40. .604. Behavioural intention. 502. 4.46. .620. Sense of community. 502. 4.38. .734. Development of career. 502. 4.32. .778. Valid N (listwise). 502. Deviation. Satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. The number of respondents, mean, and standard deviation for both independent variables (IV) and dependent variables (DV) is seen in Table 4.9. Behavioural intention had the highest mean score of 4.46 for independent variables (IV), followed by Sense of community (4.38) and development of career (4.32). The mean score of dependent variables (DV), Satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia, is 4.40. In the independent variable (IV), Development of career have the highest standard deviation (.778), led by Sense of community (.734) and Behavioural intention (.620). The dependent variable (DV), Satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia, has a standard deviation of .604.. 39. FYP FHPK. i).
(50) Table 4.10: Satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. Descriptive Statistics Standard Variables. N. Minimum. Maximum. Mean Deviation. 1.. I am very satisfied with the 502. 2. 5. 4.40. .604. 502. 1. 5. 4.45. .619. 502. 3. 5. 4.41. .628. 502. 1. 5. 4.35. .729. 502. 1. 5. 4.44. .612. volunteer tourism experience. 2.. I agree to recommend future volunteer volunteering while traveling in Malaysia to friends.. 3.. I love to involve in volunteering activities while traveling in Malaysia.. 4.. Doing volunteer activities while traveling in Malaysia in accordance with my hobby.. 5.. Volunteer tourism is a part of society's activities. Valid N (Listwise). 502. Table 4.10 showed the number of respondents, mean and standard deviation of the Dependent Variable (DV) which is the satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia towards Behavioural intention, Sense of community and Development of career. The respondent strongly agree to recommend future volunteer volunteering while traveling in Malaysia to friends which the mean shows the level of 4.45. Next, the respondent strongly agree that volunteer tourism is a part of society's activities with the mean shows the level of 40. FYP FHPK. 4.2.3 Satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia..
(51) with the mean shows the level of 4.41. The respondent also very satisfied with the volunteer tourism experience with the mean shows the level of 4.40 and they strongly agree doing volunteer activities while traveling in Malaysia in accordance with their hobby with the mean shows the level of 4.35.. 4.2.4 Behavioural intention. Table 4.11: Descriptive Analysis of Behavioural intention Descriptive Statistics Standard Variables. N. Minimum. Maximum. Mean Deviation. 1.. I think participating in volunteering would be good for. 502. 2. 5. 4.46. .620. 502. 2. 5. 4.45. .654. 502. 1. 5. 4.48. .652. 502. 2. 5. 4.49. .625. 502. 2. 5. 4.30. .716. me 2.. I think participating in volunteering would be beneficial for me.. 3.. I think volunteering can help people and the community. 4.. I feel it is important to help others and the community.. 5.. Volunteering helps me work through my own personal problems Valid N (listwise). 502. 41. FYP FHPK. 4.44 and the respondent love to involve in volunteering activities while traveling in Malaysia.
(52) behavioural intention, which is the first Independent Variable (IV). The respondent strongly agree to feel it is important to help others and the community with the mean shows the level of 4.49 and strongly agree to think volunteering can help people and the community with the mean shows the level of 4.48. Next, the respondent strongly agree to think participating in volunteering would be good for them with the mean shows the level of 4.46 and think participating in volunteering would be beneficial for them with the mean shows the level of 4.45. The respondent also strongly agree that volunteering helps their work through their own personal problems with the mean shows the level of 4.30.. 42. FYP FHPK. Table 4.11 showed that the number of respondent mean and standard deviation of the.
(53) Table 4.12: Descriptive Analysis of Sense of community Descriptive Statistics Standard Variables. N. Minimum. Maximum. Mean Deviation. 1.. The experience of the volunteer can connect with the. 502. 2. 5. 4.38. .734. 502. 2. 5. 4.29. .740. 502. 2. 5. 4.34. .741. 502. 2. 5. 4.34. 729. 502. 2. 5. 4.36. .752. 502. 2. 5. 4.35. .743. community. 2.. The volunteer activities can make new friends from local or abroad countries.. 3.. New experiences can increase social awareness and responsibility while volunteering.. 4.. The volunteer activities can enhance the understanding of different backgrounds and cultures in the community.. 5.. Volunteer activities can improve self-esteem while participating in community service.. 6.. Volunteering projects in the community can develop social and relationship skills. Valid N (listwise). 502. 43. FYP FHPK. 4.2.5 Sense of community.
(54) Independent Variable (IV) which is sense of community. Statement ‘The experience of the volunteer can connect with the community’ has the mean of 4.38 which is in the level of strongly agree. Next, statement ‘Volunteer activities can improve self-esteem while participating in community service’ has the mean of 4.36 which is in the level of strongly agree and statement ‘Volunteering projects in the community can develop social and relationship skills’ has the mean of 4.35 which is in the level of strongly agree. Statement ‘New experiences can increase social awareness and responsibility while volunteering’ and ‘the volunteer activities can enhance the understanding of different backgrounds and cultures in the community’ have share the mean of 4.34 which is in the level of strongly agree. Finally, statement ‘The volunteer activities can make new friends from local or abroad countries’ has the mean of 4.29 which is in the level strongly agree.. 44. FYP FHPK. Table 4.12 showed the number of respondent, mean and standard deviation of the second.
(55) Table 4.13: Descriptive Analysis of Development of career Descriptive Statistics Variables 1.. Standard. N. Minimum. Maximum. Mean. 502. 2. 5. 4.32. .778. 502. 2. 5. 4.33. .799. 502. 2. 5. 4.32. .829. 502. 2. 5. 4.32. .814. 502. 2. 5. 4.32. .806. Deviation. Involvement in a volunteer program gives confidence in the career.. 2.. The volunteer program can increase experience in the career.. 3.. Volunteering can improve communication skills in daily life.. 4.. The volunteer involvement gains new knowledge to use in the future.. 5.. The volunteer activity gives a chance to take opportunities in the career. Valid N (listwise). 502. Table 4.13 showed the number of respondents, mean and standard deviation of the third Independent Variable (IV) which is development of career. Statement ‘The volunteer program can increase experience in the career’ has the mean of 4.33 which is in the level strongly agree. Next, statement ‘Involvement in a volunteer program gives confidence in the career’, ‘Volunteering can improve communication skills in daily life’, ‘The volunteer involvement gains new knowledge to use in the future’, ‘The volunteer activity gives a chance to take opportunities in the career’ have shared the same the mean of 4.32 which is in the level strongly agree. 45. FYP FHPK. 4.2.6 Development of career.
(56) RESULT OF RELIABILITY TEST. Reliability analysis was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire. The pilot test has been done with 30 respondent before the questionnaire was distributed to 502 respondents through online survey method.. Table 4.14: Results of Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient for the Independent Variable (IV) and Dependent Variable (DV). Cronbach’s Alpha. Strength of. Coefficient. Association. 5. 0.852. Acceptable. Behavioural intention. 5. 0.861. Acceptable. Sense of community. 6. 0.930. Good. Development of career. 5. 0.942. Number of Variables Item Satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia. Good. Table 4.14 showed the Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient values for the independent and dependent variables in this study. According to Table 4.1, the value of all of the variables was above 0.7. As a result, the questionnaire has been accepted. There were 5 questions were used in measuring the satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia. The Cronbach’s Alpha result for this section’s question was 0.852 resulted as acceptable. As a result, the coefficients obtained for the satisfaction questions were reliable.. 46. FYP FHPK. 4.3.
(57) volunteering while travelling in Malaysia. The Cronbach’s Alpha result for this section’s question was (5 item: α = 0.861) resulted as acceptable. As a result, the coefficients obtained for the behavioural intention questions were reliable. Next is to measure the sense of community variable that influences the satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia. The Cronbach’s Alpha result for this section’s question was (6 item: α= 0.930) resulted as good. As a result, the coefficients obtained for the questions about the sense of community were reliable. Lastly, in measuring the satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia, 5 question were used and Cronbach’s Alpha result for this section’s was (5 item: α= 0.942) result as good. Therefore, the coefficient obtained for this questions was also reliable.. 4.4. RESULTS OF INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS. Inferential analysis used to study the relationship between independent variable which are behavioural intention, sense of community and development of career and dependent variable which is satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. The Pearson coefficient is a type of correlation coefficient that demonstrates the relationship between two variables calculated on the same interval or ratio scale. The Pearson coefficient measures the strength with which two continuous variables are related (Kenton, 2020).. 47. FYP FHPK. Then, to measure the behavioural intention variable that influences the satisfaction in.
(58) H1: There is the relationship between behavioural intention and satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia.. Table 4.15: Relationship between behavioural intention and satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia. Correlations. Pearson Correlation Satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. Behavioural intention. Satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. Behavioural intention. 1. .453**. Sig. (2-tailed). .000. N. 502. 502. Pearson Correlation. .453**. 1. Sig. (2-tailed). .000. N. 502. 502. **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).. Table 4.15 shows that the relationship between behavioural intention and satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia is low positive with correlation coefficient of .453. This indicates that relationship between behavioural intentions is positive and moderately related to the satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. The P value of behavioural intention is 000. which is less than the highly significant level .001. So, there is a significant relationship between behavioural intention and satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia. 48. FYP FHPK. HYPOTHESIS 1.
(59) H2: There is the relationship between sense of community and satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia.. Table 4.16: Relationship between sense of community and satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia. Correlations. Satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. Satisfaction in volunteering while traveling in Malaysia. Sense of community. 1. .300**. Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed). Sense of community. .000. N. 502. 502. Pearson Correlation. .300**. 1. Sig. (2-tailed). .000. N. 502. 502. **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).. Table 4.16 indicates that the relationship between senses of community with satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia is low positive with correlation coefficient of .300. This shows that relationship between senses of community with satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia is low positive. The P value of sense of community .000 which is less than the highly significant level .001. As a result, there is a significant relationship between senses of community with satisfaction in volunteering while travelling in Malaysia.. 49. FYP FHPK. HYPOTHESIS 2.
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