ANTECEDENTS OF SPORTS TOURISM PARTICIPATION
Academic year: 2022
(2) DECLARATION. I hereby certify that the work embodied in this report is the result of the original research and has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution. √. OPEN ACCESS. I agree that my report is to be made immediately available as s hardcopy or on-line open access (full text). CONFIDENTIAL. (Contains confidential information under the Official Secret Act 1972) *. RESTRICTED. (Contains restricted information as specified by the organization where research was done) *. I acknowledge that University Malaysia Kelantan reserves the right as follow.. The report is the property of University Malaysia Kelantan. The library of University Malaysia Kelantan has the right to make copies for the purpose of research only. The library has the right to make copies of the report for academic exchange.. Certified by:. (Signature of Group Representative) NOR HANISAH BINTI MOHAMAD HANAFI Date: 19 June 2021. (Signature of Supervisor) DR. AIFA ROZAINI BINTI MOHD RADZOL Date:. 19 June 2021. FYP FHPK. APPENDIX B: DECLARATION.
(3) This study was conducted to examine the Antecedents of Sports Tourism Participation. Therefore, the study identifies the relationships between the Attractiveness of Sports Tourism, Travel Experience, Identity of Being a Fan, and Travel Cost on the Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism. This study adopted a quantitative research and using SPSS to analyse the data. The survey was distributed on Google Form and able to collect 384 respondents. The findings show that all hypotheses are accepted and answered the research questions.. Keywords: Sports Tourism, Attractiveness of Sports Tourism, Travel Experience, Identity of Being a Fan, Travel Cost, Intention to Participate. FYP FHPK. ABSTRACT.
(4) Kajian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji Anteseden Penyertaan Pelancongan Sukan. Oleh itu, kajian ini dilakukan bagi mengenal pasti hubungan antara Daya Tarik Pelancongan Sukan, Pengalaman Perjalanan, Identiti Menjadi Peminat, dan Kos Perjalanan dengan Niat untuk Menyertai Pelancongan Sukan. Kajian ini menggunakan penyelidikan kuantitatif dan menggunakan SPSS untuk menganalisis data. Tinjauan kajian ini diedarkan melalui Google Form dan sebanyak 284 reponden dapat dikumpulkan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa semua hipotesis diterima dan menjawab persoalan kajian.. Kata Kunci: Pelancongan Sukan, Daya Tarik Pelancongan Sukan, Pengalaman Perjalanan, Identiti Menjadi Peminat, Kos Perjalanan, Niat untuk Menyertai.. FYP FHPK. ABSTRAK.
(5) First of all, we would like to thank everyone for their contributions and efforts that helped us complete this research. Thank God, we were able to finish the project within the allotted time. Therefore, after the completion of this research, we would like to thank the responsible people who contributed to our understanding and ideas for completing this study. Here, we would like to thank to Dr. Aifa Rozaini Binti Mohd Radzol for her guidance and support throughout the research process. Thank you very much for your support and understanding in the process of finishing this final project. Without her help and knowledge that has been shared with us, we could not have finished this research paper in time and effectively. In addition, we are very grateful to the library and knowledge management office of University Malaysia Kelantan for providing a lot of materials and courses for our research. Moreover, we would like to thank our team members for all commitment and enthusiasm in doing this research. Without mutual cooperation, understanding and tolerance, this research could not have been completed on time. We also want to thank all of our family for their continued support and believing us. Last but not least, we would like to reveal our thanks to our friends who giving full commitment and passion while doing this research.. FYP FHPK. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.
(6) PAGE TITLE PAGE. i. CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION. ii. ABSTRACT. iii-iv. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. v. TABLE OF CONTENTS. vi-ix. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of The Study. 1-3. 1.2. Problem Statements. 4. 1.3. Research Objectives. 5. 1.4. Research Questions. 6. 1.5. Significance of Study. 6-7. 1.6. Definitions of Term. 7-8. 1.7. Summary. 8. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Introduction. 9. 2.2. Theory of Planned Behaviour. 9-11. 2.3. Intention to Participate. 11-12. 2.4. Attractiveness of Sport Tourism. 12-14. 2.5. Travel Experience. 14-17. 2.6. Identify of Being a Fan. 17-19. 2.7. Travel Cost. 19-21. 2.8. Conceptual of Framework. 21. 2.9. Summary. 22. vi. FYP FHPK. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
(7) 3.1. Introduction. 23. 3.2. Research Design. 3.3. Population. 24. 3.4. Sample Size. 25-26. 3.5. Sampling Method. 26. 3.6. Data Collection Method. 27. 3.7. Questionnaire. 27-28. 3.8. Data Analysis. 29-30. 3.9. Summary. 23-24. 31. CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS 4.1. Introduction. 32. 4.2. Responder Rate. 32. 4.3. Demographic Profile. 33-36. 4.4. Reliability Test. 36-38. 4.5. Descriptive Analysis. 38-43. 4.6. Correlation Analysis. 43-47. 4.7. Summary. 47. CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 5.1. Introduction. 48. 5.2. Link with Previous Studies. 48-52. 5.3. Research Finding. 52-57. 5.4. Limitation. 57-59. 5.5. Recommendation. 59. 5.6. Conclusion. 60. REFERENCES. -. APPENDICES. -. vii. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.
(8) Tables. Title. Page. Table 1.1. The Definitions of Terms. 7-8. Table 3.1. The Likert Scale Ranking. 28. Table 3.2. Summary of the Research Instruments. 28. Table 4.1. Number of Respondents by Gender. 33. Table 4.2. Number of Respondents by Age. 34. Table 4.3. Number of Respondents by Marital Status. 34. Table 4.4. Number of Respondents by Work Status. 35. Table 4.5. Number of Respondents by Income. 36. Table 4.6. Result of Reliability Coefficient Alpha. 38. for the Independent Variable and Dependent Variable Table 4.7. Descriptive Analysis for Attractiveness of Sports. 39. Tourism Table 4.8. Descriptive Analysis for Travel Experience. 40. Table 4.9. Descriptive Analysis for Identity of Being a Fan. 41. Table 4.10. Descriptive Analysis for Travel Cost. 42. Table 4.11. Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism. 42. Table 4.12. Correlation Analysis. 44. Table 4.13. Summary for Hypothesis Testing. 47. Table 5.1. Discussion on IV 1 (Attractiveness of Sports. 53. Tourism) Table 5.2. Discussion on IV 2 (Travel Experience). 54. Table 5.3. Discussion on IV 3 (Identify of Being a Fan). 55. Table 5.4. Discussion on IV 4 (Travel Cost). 56. viii. FYP FHPK. LIST OF TABLES.
(9) Figures. Title. Page. Figure 2.1. The Theory of Planned Behaviour. 10. Figure 2.2. Proposed Conceptual Framework. 21. Figure 3.1. Determining Sample Size from a Given. 26. Population Figure 4.1. Rule of Thumb Cronbach’s Alpha. 37. Figure 4.2. Strength Interval of Correlation Coefficient. 43. LIST OF SYMBOLS & ABBREVIATIONS. Abbreviations SEA GAMES. Southeast Asian Games. TPB. Theory of Planned Behaviour. PBC. Perceived Behavioural Control. AST. Attractiveness of Sports Tourism. TE. Travel Experience. IBF. Identity of Being a Fan. TC. Travel Cost. IP. Intention to Participate. SPSS. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Covid-19. Coronavirus Disease 2019. SD. Standard Deviation. M. Mean. ATT. Attitude. DV. Dependent Variable. IV. Independent Variables. SN. Subjective Norm. TV. Television. ix. FYP FHPK. LIST OF FIGURES.
(10) INTRODUCTION. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. There are three main types of tourism performance related to Sports Tourism. Firstly, Active Sports Tourism. Active Sports Tourism is the active participation of tourists in certain non-event or unstructured sports activities. For example, individuals on holiday participate in water sports such as kayaking, rafting, and swimming. The second type is Sports Event Tourism, where tourists can witness various types of Sports Tourism activities such as the Olympics, the FIFA World Cup, national football championships, and regional or local events. The sports subset is the feeling of being there separate from watching television or on the Internet. According to Zhang & Zhao (2009), the effects of large-scale events and audiences have caught the attention of researchers since the 1980s. Third, a Relatively Small Area of Sports Tourism is Nostalgic Sports Tourism, where mega-event venues become tourist attractions, although this research area has not been well studied. These three types of Sports Tourism can be given a better definition of leisure-based travel that attracts participants from their homes to participate in physical sports activities, watch these activities, or look around at destinations related to sports activities. The appeal of Sports Tourism is one of the sub-set-in Sports Tourisms characterized by the availability of regular sports activities available for incoming participants. 1. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 1.
(11) attend sports in Malaysia. According to Hinch & Higham (2011), Sports Tourism has acquired significant popularity in tourism policies over the last decades. Sports Tourism is a fast-growing industry, and it is a way of expanding the economies of local communities as well as enhancing and rejuvenating tourism. Sports Tourism competitions and practises are one of the most popular activities in the world (Peeters et al., 2014). The medium of tourism has gained international recognition and involvement because of mega-events as strategic for sport as a channel of public policy. Henderson et al. (2010), concluded that Sports Tourism has been an integral part of both the tourism industry and is beneficial to Sports Tourism destinations. This paper focuses specifically on the participant’s attraction to Sports Tourism. Held Sports Tourism will influence the audience to visit a country that has become a popular plan. The most popular Sports Tourism in Malaysia is football. In this Sports Tourism, the match held is between the teams representing each state in Malaysia. Events like this include a series of other participant’s activities regularly, which is one reason for incoming and exiting travel. The sporting event held in Malaysia has its charm because Sports Tourism involves the arrival of participants from one place to a new destination. Participants come to watch sports games that have become an increasingly popular plan in the travel schedule. Thus, it can be seen that there is a clear understanding of how participants respond to Sports Tourism trends when participating in Sports Tourism in Malaysia. In addition, Malaysia is a popular destination for Sports Tourism. It has hosted significant mega-sports events such as Formula One Car Racing Championship, Le Tour De Langkawi Bicycle Racing Championship, Thomas Cup Badminton, and World Cup Hockey Tournament. Through the organization of prestigious sport this world community knows our country and they will visit here to watch the competition. For example, the Formula One tournament has been a success due to the encouraging response from local and foreign 2. FYP FHPK. The research aims to explore how Sports Tourism can attract participants to travel and.
(12) that is gaining international recognition. Every year the number of participants participating increases and their performance is very encouraging. This will affect the attraction of participants to participate in Sports Tourism. Meanwhile, in 2017 Southeast Asian Games (SEA GAMES) tournament has recorded an important history in the organization of sports in Malaysia. The second largest sports tournament after the Olympics has brought various successes to Malaysia. Malaysia has never won so many gold medals during the sports tournament, but when the sport is held in Malaysia, the performance of sports athletes is very encouraging. There are many benefits to being gained when we host world-class sports. The appeal of Sports Tourism allows national athletes to gain extensive experience through participation in sports. The country's tourism industry is also growing as a foreign participant will use various facilities while traveling in our country. This situation can indirectly help the country's economic growth. Furthermore, the country's image is also prominent on the world stage when our country succeeds in organizing world-class sports. This expansion is estimated in the organization with athletic activities. There was a significant effect on more than 50 industries, including tourism activities, and has had a remarkable impact on infrastructure, work growth, profits and promotion as a participant destination. However, it is necessary to better understand where each difference is, and what dictates the potential in engaging in Sports Tourism in each location.. 3. FYP FHPK. communities. The Le Tour De Langkawi Bicycle Racing Championship is a cycling tournament.
(13) Sports Tourism is a unique industry where participants are willing to come to a destination and spend a certain amount of money to get the desired experience. The arrival of participants to a destination creates an attraction of participants in Sports Tourism. Sports Tourism also has opened the eyes of many stakeholders to be directly involved in the industry because it promises lucrative returns, new job opportunities and entrepreneurship in various tourism sub-fields. Although Sports Tourism is a concern in every country, there are some obstacles to participating in sports tourism. The first issue that became a problem to Sports Tourism participation among the participants was the constraint factor. Constraints are a factor in which it has prevented participants from participating in sports tourism. This is because the constraint factor has limited the travel behaviour of a participant to participate in sports tourism activities in a tourist destination. According to Li et al. (2019), event - based sports tourism is often associated with price increases and congestion, while for active sports tourism participants, the constraints encountered may be closely related to health and fitness. In addition, the participation of sports tourism also received less attention from participants. This is because participation in sports tourism may be limited by a lack of awareness or lack of such opportunities. Financial problems also prevent participants from participating in sports tourism. This is because external constraints such as lack of time and money cannot guarantee the participants to get involved with the sporting event being held. According to Crompton (2006), participants participating in a major sporting event may withdraw by replacing other participants who will be visiting, but this is not possible because they cannot guarantee accommodation and are not prepared to deal with other participants interested in sporting events. 4. FYP FHPK. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT.
(14) The purpose of research is to accomplish the following objectives: 1.. To examine the perception of participants toward Sports Tourism.. 2.. To identify what are the antecedents that may influence Participants to Participate in Sports Tourism.. 3.. To identify what are the relationships between the antecedents that influences Sports Tourism and the Intention of Participants to Participate in Sports Tourism.. 5. FYP FHPK. 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES.
(15) There are three questions in this research that will be determined and exhibited for this research: 1. What is the perception of participants towards Sports Tourism? 2. What are the antecedents that affect The Intention of Participants to Participate in Sports Tourism? 3. What are the relationships between the antecedents that influence Sports Tourism and the Intention of Participants to Participate in Sports Tourism?. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY. For Sports Tourism Organizer: Sports Tourism is a kind of tourism for the aim of watching, appreciating, and participating in numerous sports activities. When making travel decisions, participants can search and use the travel evaluation information provided by others, including the satisfaction and experience of Sports Tourism. Based on the characteristics of participants, the analysis and study of the current Sports Tourism market will point out the development direction for the operation and management of Sports Tourism enterprises, which has important guiding significance for the sustainable development of Sports Tourism.. 6. FYP FHPK. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
(16) for Malaysia's participant attractions to participate in Sports Tourism. The development of Sports Tourism industry has formed a certain market scale and achieved certain economic and social benefits. Travel is a consumption-oriented activity where participants are willing to pay more for the experience. Accounting to the different needs of participants, physiological characteristics and social and economic status, and then subdivide the Sports Tourism market, is conducive to find the best target market opportunity, the establishment of reasonable and efficient management policy, is conducive to the Sports Tourism research and development of appropriate marketing strategy, the formulation of effective competitive strategy. The growth of the national economy comes from participant's money consumption, which makes the government gain more profits and income in the field of Sports Tourism. The Minister of Sport and Youth can refer to this research to understand the needs of participants and come up with better ideas or strategies to meet participants' satisfaction.. 1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS. Table 1.1 introduces the variables and definitions that have been adopted for this study. The variables and definitions are as below: Table 1.1: The Definitions of Terms. Variable 1. Intention to Participate. Definition Refers to “a willingness to participate in the event” (Wafi et al., 2017). 7. FYP FHPK. For Government: This research will help the Government to obtain more opportunities.
(17) Attractiveness of Sports. Refers to “a physical activity that has an attractive attraction that has the. Tourism. strength or quality of interest to participate a competition in a sports program". (Merriam-Webster, 2020). 3. Travel Experience. Travel Experience - Refers to “a process of participation and experience, and travel process in a variety of humanities, natural environment and other information generated after the interaction of feelings and feelings, and this feeling by the participants themselves by the social conditions, cultural background.” (Walls et al. 2011). 4. Identity of Being a Fan. Refers to “a fan is a person who exhibits strong interest or admiration for something or somebody”. (Merriam-Webster, 2012). 5. Travel Cost. Refers to “a related expenses incurred by tourist who are travel for business purposes or travel during holiday”. (Merriam-Webster, 2010). 1.7 SUMMARY. The first chapter describes the general description of the research that contained research problems, research questions, research objectives, significance of the study, and definition of terms that are adopted in this research. The second chapter focuses on the Literature Review of the research variables involved in this research.. 8. FYP FHPK. 2.
(18) LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1 INTRODUCTION. The chapter discusses Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Intention to Participate as the Dependent Variable (DV), while Attraction of Sport Tourism, Travel Experience, Identity of Being a Fan and Travel Cost are the Independent Variables (IV) that are adopted in the study.. 2.2 THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR (TPB). This section will concentrate on the literature review related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). According to Ajzen (2012), TPB is the essential and general philosophical structure for studying human behaviour. Icek Ajzan, who created TPB (1985), has attracted considerable attention from researchers. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is an expansion of the Rational Action Theory evolved by Ajzen and Fishbein (1975). According to Cornner and Armitage (1999), these. 9. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 2.
(19) motivational influences. Based on TPB, a person's intentions can be predicted by three concepts such as Attitudes, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control that affect certain behaviours. The first prediction by Latimer & Martin Ginis (2005) states that Attitude (ATT) is a belief of a person’s behavior that can assess either negatively or positively towards the intended behavior. While Rhodes et al. (2006) said ATT influences predictions of intentions and behaviors. In fact, Fieshbein & Ajzen (1975), claimed that solitude is difficult to predict behaviour. The Subjective Norm (SN) refers to the belief that an important group of people will agree and support particular action. SN can be determined through the social pressures felt by others that make a person behave in a certain way and make them motivated to adhere with the views of those people. Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC), which is the difference between Reasoned Action Theory and Organised Behaviour Theory, is the last predictor that influences one's intentions. PBC is the viewpoint of the predicament of acting. Figure 1 depicted the TPB model.. Attitude. Subjective Norm. Intention. Perceived Behavioural Control Source: Ajzen & Fishbein (1975) Figure 2.1: The Theory of Planned Behaviour. 10. Behaviour. FYP FHPK. concepts are rooted in the psychology of learning and are used to describe behavioural and.
(20) similar to all objects, with people possessing the same attitude generally positive or generally negative. Consequently, this research defined Attractiveness of Sport Tourism as Attitude (ATT) that may influence the Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism among participants. From the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the researchers defined the Identity of Being a Fan as a Subjective Norm (SN) in this research. Identity of Being a Fan among participants in Sports Tourism can be affected by the views of people that are necessary to them. Researchers also defined Travel Experience and Travel Cost as Perceived Behaviour Control (PBC). In this research, PBC was used as a significant positive influence on Travel Experience and Travel Costs for participants to participate in Sports Tourism.. 2.3 INTENTION TO PARTICIPATE. Intention is a form of actual decision making. Intention is a state of mind that makes choices and acts (Alotumi, M., 2020). Intention can be captured by recommending intents and re-accessing intents (Joseph Raz, 2017). The intention or willingness to execute an action determines the degree of readiness to execute an action (Ajzen, 2011). Intentions can be divided into favorable and unfavorable (Ladhari, 2009). Favorable behavior intentions are associated with future purchases, spending more cash in the business, remaining faithful, paying a premium, and spreading favorable word of mouth (Molinari et al., 2008). Unfavorable behavioral intentions include reducing expenses in the company, spreading unfavorable word. 11. FYP FHPK. According to Helper &Albarrac'ın (2013), Attitudes (ATT) may be unique, or it can be.
(21) 2010). The range of Sports Tourism is wide, ranging from participating in sport competitions as athletes to spectators assisted activities, becoming one of the first choices of using leisure time and leisure among the population (Angosto, 2014). Understanding the future intentions of sports participants is an important research topic (Jani and Han, 2011). Participation and loyalty reflect participant willingness to re-recommend and visit (Chen and Chen, 2010). The purpose of revisiting is to return to the destination, and the purpose of referral is to share experiences through word of mouth (Jeong et al., 2019). For a long time, most researchers have believed that behavioral intention is one of the most reliable sources of information about potential participants (Chi et al., 2008). According to Jin et al., (2013), event quality is related to behavioral intention. In terms of the relationship between perceived value, target image, service quality, and sports tourism behavior intention theory, service quality has an important influence on Sports Tourism behavior intention (Moon, Ko, Connaughton and Lee, 2013).. 2.4 ATTRACTIVENESS OF SPORTS TOURISM. In this research, the term Attractiveness of Sports Tourism refers "the Sports Tourism has a magnetization for individuals to engage in physical activity" (Merriam - Webster, 2020). Through this definition, the concept of Attractiveness of Sports Tourism can be identified that Sports Tourism by itself is exciting, but of course the attractiveness can be done through sports. 12. FYP FHPK. of mouth, the product or service provider to take legal action and leaving the business (Shukla,.
(22) accordance with certain rules. Sports Tourism is the sports held by tourism destinations to attract and benefit participants at domestic and abroad (McCartney, 2011). The purpose of Sports Tourism is to attract participants to visit, with the aim of receiving a positive emotion as a result of holding it. Highly activated positive impact included emotions such as excitement and enthusiasm, reflecting a person's expectation of a good outcome (Skinner & Brewer, 2004). It is essential to measure the excitement of participants who have participated in Sports Tourism activities. More exciting games can attract more participants (Vecer et al. 2007). If sport activities can bring happiness and satisfaction to participants, they will be motivated to take part in Sports Tourism and continue to live an active life (Downward & Rasciute, 2011). According to Yusof et al. (2010), watching and participating in Sports Tourism has emerged as a popular tourism industry. Sports Tourism activities such as the Formula One Grand Prix and the Southeast Asian Games held in Malaysia have successfully attracted participants and tourists to participate in Sports Tourism. It is because Sports Tourism competitions can provide fun to the participants. Competitors in Sports Tourism also have competitive features where the match will end in victory. Since sports have an element of competition that requires winners, thus more participants will be attracted to participate in Sports Tourism because participants want to be a winner and achieve excellence in themselves. According to J Mapjabil (2015), Sports Tourism occurs when participants leave their surroundings and go to a destination on holiday to participate in Sports Tourism activities. Instate of the holiday, participants can engage in Sports Tourism activities either directly and indirectly by doing physical activities or just watching the competition that takes place at that time. Thus, the Attractiveness of Sports Tourism can affect participants in their Intention to 13. FYP FHPK. competition that need to be managed at a particular time and location and it needs to be in.
(23) in Malaysia has its own unique identity. Therefore, the first hypothesis is formulated as below:H1: There is a positive relationship between Attractiveness of Sports Tourism and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism.. 2.5 TRAVEL EXPERIENCE. The word ‘experience’ can refer to two different states: i) the moment by moment lived experience and ii) the evaluated experience, subject to reflection and prescribed meaning (Highmore, 2002). Chui et al. (2010) defined that the participant’s experience “as a temporal account of the participant gaze as to describe the process through which a participant reminisces the place or experience, he or she encounter.” In relation to this study, the definition of Gammon and Robinson (2003) will be used as it offers a full overview of the essential components of sports tourism. Under this definition, the concepts of active and passive sport participants are defined too as they both include various aspects of the experience of the sport event or fixtures of the participant. Ek et al., (2008) emphasizes that participants share their experience while interacting with others such as those traveling with them, other participants from the host communities. Experience is produced when sensory stimuli, emotion, and information are exchanged (Robinnete, Brand, & Lenz, 2001). The feeling, mood or emotion of one will impact his or her experience and these affective responses which the both pleasure and negative are found to be. 14. FYP FHPK. Participate in Sports Tourism in Malaysia (Arman et al., 2019). This is because Sports Tourism.
(24) (2007), experience is affected by the aspect of the environment, individual variables, and contact or even the circumstances between people and the environment. According to Knutson and Beck (2003), experience requires an individual’s participation and experience is internal in nature and that is the reason why experience is special. Environmental psychology research has shown that practice is capable enough of changing the outcome of services (e.g., StimulusOrganism-Response model), as satisfaction level will be affected by the participant experience (Chen & Chen 2009). In the 1990s, researchers started using the experience-based study approach in an attempt to gain a deeper understanding of the participant experience (Andereck et al., 2006). The participant's experience has been growing to be the key research issue in the 1960s (Uriely, 2005). Therefore, although the participants' experience is highly subjective, it can only interpret it by focusing on the individual people involved and the different environments where experiences occur (Jennings, 2006). These approaches have included some participants reporting feelings and thoughts in diaries or by responding to inquiries. While the results seemed to point to the complex existence of interactions, little understanding of the meanings involved was produced, too (Andereck et al., 2006). The participant experience is also framed by evaluating the influential factors involved in shaping the outcome of experience. In reviewing the literature on quality participant experience, Nickerson (2006) argues that there are three interwoven influencing aspects related to this phenomenon: the travelers, the product (or destination), and the local population. The travelers arrive at a destination with the idea of experiences which could take place. These ideas are influenced by an individual’s social construction and include ideas or perceptions taken from media, product images, previous knowledge, expectations, and past travel experiences.. 15. FYP FHPK. connected to the overall satisfaction of the ride (Price et al., 1995). According to Flore and Kim.
(25) and formal cultural brokers (such as travel agents or tour guides). Poor service experience, such as lodging, transportation and food service, may contribute a lot to a poor overall destination experience. The meaning and attitude of location encouraged by the local community may also have a profound impact toward the experience of the participant (Nickerson, 2006). Similarly, Mossberg (2007) focuses on the principle of themes as a framework for structuring the experience of the participant, suggesting that the physical environment, workers, those available products or souvenirs and other participants are the main factors. Nickerson (2006) and Mossberg (2007) has introduced these prominent variables to illustrate the dynamic existence of participant experience. The events in which the participants take part the kinds of experiences the participant has with different environments, and the casual social interactions that take place often have other factors (Nickerson, 2006). Past experience affects the intent of a participant to return to a destination, as it is considered less risky to select the familiar destinations (T Henkel et al., 2017)). Baloglu (1999) found that familiarity which includes the past experience and information visits familiarity has a positive effect on the picture of the destination and satisfaction. Morgan (2007) research points out that sport participants experience social contact, cultural interactivity, social identities, success, hedonic pleasures and even the personal significance at the destination. Motivations for the participation of participants may impact their experience at the destination in some tourism studies. Experiences-based research designs can strive to capture participant perceptions in natural environment settings to clarify the participant experiences (Tussyadiah.2014). Therefore, the hypothesis below is formulated to proceed the whole research.. 16. FYP FHPK. The tourist product generally refers to experiences with tourism industries, the public sector,.
(26) Sports Tourism.. 2.6 IDENTITY OF BEING A FAN. A fan refers to a person who exhibits strong interest or admiration for something or somebody (Merriem-Webster, 2012). A sports fan may also be an enthusiast of a single athlete, team, event, or all organised sports (Earnheardt, Adam C., Paul M., Haridakis (May 30, 2013)). In a number of ways, fans may express their excitement, such as by promoting their interest in the item, becoming members of a related fan club, attending or participating in fan conventions (Wann and James, 2019). The majority of fans can name their favourite teams easily. They are likely to be able to report the strength of their relationship to a team, or their level of identification of sports fans. There are more difficult sports fan identity conceptualizations. Identification of sports fans usually refers to the degree to which a fan feels a psychological bond with a team or sport (Murrell & Dietz, 1992). For instance, Dimmock, Grove, and Eklund (2005) presented evidence to suggest that the identification of sports teams can best be conceptualised by incorporating cognitive (e.g., group membership knowledge) and evaluative (e.g., group membership value) identification aspects.. 17. FYP FHPK. H2: There is a positive relationship between Travel Experience and Intention to Participate in.
(27) include software designed explicitly to determine the identity of sports fans. The seven-item Sport Spectator Identification Scale is the most basic and widely used tool for determining sports fan identification (SSIS; Wann & Branscombe, 1993). The Connection to a Team Scale (CTS; Trail & James, 2001) and the Psychological Commitment to a Team Scale are other, less commonly used sports fan identification measurements (PCT; Mahony, Madrigal & Howard, 2000). The SSIS was compared with the PCT by Wann and Pierce (2003) and found both variables to be strongly correlated and predictive of many behaviours of sports fans. Indirect fan identification methods still exist. For instance, measuring the frequency of participation in Sports Tourism or the number of sporting events watched on TV will provide data on the level of identification of a fan (Murrell & Dietz, 1992). Similarly, marketing behaviour can serve as a surrogate indicator for sports fan or team affiliation, such as the amount of money spent on sports fan merchandise and paraphernalia. Indirect tests of the sort mentioned here are, of course, also used as indications of the effects of recognising sports fans. Finally, how fans come to associate with a specific sport or team is worth asking. Wann, Tucker and Schrader (1996) performed one of the most important inquiries into the history of team recognition. The results of their study showed a number of explanations for a team's initial interest, including parental interest in a team, team players' talent, geography and friends' influence, and team success. Similar explanations for identifying with a specific team are found in other research (e.g., Jones, 1997a), although not exactly in the same order as Wann, Tucker, and Schrader (1996). Jones (1997a), for instance, found that the primary reason given for being a fan of a team was geographical position. End, Dietz-Uhler, Harrick, and Jacquemotte (2002) observed that the key justification for team identification was the performance of a team.. 18. FYP FHPK. Directly and indirectly, fan recognition can be analysed. Usually, direct interventions.
(28) sport. Given the disparity in their motivations for identifying with a specific team, some fans tend to have a greater psychological connection to a team than other fans do. The level of identification with a team or sport can, in fact, vary from very poor to extremely powerful. A wealth of research on the impact of the identity of sports fans indicates that this psychological attachment can influence affective, cognitive, and behavioural aspects greatly. There are connections between Identify of Being a Fan and sports participant intention to participate in sports events in Malaysia. The sports participant that comes to join in sports tourism are initially sports fan themselves. According to Earnheardt, Adam C., Haridakis, Paul M. (2013), sports fans are passionate about a single person, team or sport and can demonstrate their passion in a number of ways, such as endorsing the object of their interest, becoming part of a similar fan group or trying out the sports they are fans of. Sports fans who participate in sports events means that they join the sports event to cheer their team sports or take part in it. Therefore, the third hypothesis formulated as follows: H3: There is a positive relationship between Identify of Being a Fan and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism. 2.7 TRAVEL COST. Travel Costs are described in the Merriem-Webster Dictionary (2010) as transportation, accommodation, subsistence (meals and incidentals) and related expenses incurred by travellers. 19. FYP FHPK. There are certainly many reasons why fans want to become loyal to a specific team or.
(29) travelling, accommodation and meals. Changes in prices in specific destinations compared to other destinations, adjusted for exchange rate fluctuations, are considered to be the most significant economic effect on destination shares of overall overseas travel. According to the Edward (1995) cost competitiveness analysis of selected countries in the Asia Pacific region, it can be seen that a rise in relative costs in the medium and long term is related to a decrease in market share for travel from all countries of origin. Foreign participants are widely agreed to be price-sensitive (Crouch, 1992; Bureau of Transport and Economic Communications (BTCE), 1995). This is because participants who are travel for Sports Tourism need to calculate their budget during their travelling to specific destination for Sports Tourism. By budget means that participants calculate all costs during their travel such as cost of sport admission, cost of travel and exchange rate of foreign country if they travel outside their country (Kim et al., 2005; van Cranerburgh, Chorus & van Wee, 2014). Travel Cost of Sports Tourism can influence the Intention of Participants to Participate in Sports Tourism. According to Gratton, Shibli and Coleman (2004), Sports Tourism in Malaysia such as The Formula One Grand Prix, Commonwealth Games and Thomas Cup Badminton Finals can attract sport participants to attend Sports Tourism. Sports Tourism admission fee is at reasonable price cause sport participants to travel to that destination. According to Leaper (1990), Sports Tourism is a participant attraction and participant sports like go to that destination if the cost is within their budget. Therefore, the final hypothesis is formulated as below: -. 20. FYP FHPK. who travel for business or holiday travel. This means that the total cost travellers use for.
(30) Participate in Sports Tourism.. 2.8 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK. Dependent Variable. Independent Variables. Attractiveness of Sports Tourism H2. Travel Experience. Intention to Participate. Identity of Being a Fan Travel Cost. Source: Uhinva et al., (2018). Figure 2.2: Proposed Conceptual Framework. Figure 2.2 is the conceptual framework model of the study. Independent variables are the factors that affect participants' participation in Sports Tourism. In this study, The Attractiveness of Sports Tourism, Tourism Experience, Identity Being a Fan and Travel Cost factor were taken as Independent Variables (IVs). The Intention to Participates in Sports Tourism was also used as the Dependent Variable (DV) of this research.. 21. FYP FHPK. H4: There is a positive relationship between Travel Cost of Sports Tourism and Intention to.
(31) In chapter 2, the researcher has explained about the variable involved in this research. The conceptual framework and research hypothesis which also proposed as the framework of this research also has been described in this chapter. The next chapter will discuss the methods that used in this research.. 22. FYP FHPK. 2.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY.
(32) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. 3.1 INTRODUCTION. The research methods and techniques used will be discussed in this chapter, including introduction, data collection, population, sampling, and research design, analysing data, research instruments and this chapter will conclude by summary.. 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN. Once a decision is made to conduct a study, a plan for data collection is needed to achieve the research objectives (Aaker et al., 2000). A structured method of collecting and analysing data from various sources is quantitative research. Quantitative research includes statistical, computational tools to obtain results. In quantitative research, large-scale research is helpful to generate statistical data through a questionnaire survey, or structured interview (Wirth, 2018).. 23. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 3.
(33) participate in Sports Tourism. The most suitable method for application in this study is descriptive study design. Quantitative research method was adopted in this study. In the nonprobability sampling, the technique of convenience sampling is used. Since this study is based on the intentions that participant choose to participate in Sports Tourism, this study adopts relevant research to answer the questions in this study. The study used this method to identify Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism including Attractiveness of Sports Tourism, Travel Experience, Identify of Being a Fans and Travel Cost.. 3.3 POPULATION. Population refers to the study of problems to be examined, people or events (Mukesh et al., 2018). The researchers tried to come to a conclusion, according to the statistical survey. According to Tourism Malaysia Statistic (2018), Malaysia recorded 25.83 million participant arrivals in 2018, and 2.3% participated in Sports Tourism. This population has been chosen for this study because it can answer all the research objective. Therefore, the population for this research is Malaysia participants who are involved in Sports Tourism.. 24. FYP FHPK. This study uses a questionnaire survey to collect intention from participants to.
(34) Sample size is the number of participant or results used in a survey or research. Typically, this number is denoted by n. The size of the sample determines two statistical attributes, such as the accuracy of the prediction and the ability of the analysis or study to draw conclusions. R. Krejcie and Morgan (1970) point out that 384 Malaysia Sports Tourism participants will become the sample size in this study when the total population of Sports Tourism is 25.83 million. In this research, the population (N) was around 100,000, and the questionnaires were distributed to 384 participants who participated in sports tourism in Malaysia. As a result, the sample size (n) for this study is 384.. Figure 3.1 shows the table of determining sample size from a given population (R. Krejcie & Morgan, 1970).. 25. FYP FHPK. 3.4 SAMPLE SIZE.
(35) Source: (Krejcie, V, Morgan, & W, 1970). 3.5 SAMPLING METHOD. The convenience sampling technique can define as the method adopted by researchers to collect market research data from a conveniently available pool of respondents. In this study, the respondents are formed with a certain number of students to reach our respondents easily. Data was obtained from a sample of the population of participants’ incentives to participate in Sports Tourism. The participation of participants in the questionnaire came from several different backgrounds, such as gender, age, marital status, job status and income. 26. FYP FHPK. Figure 3.1: Determining Sample Size from a Given Population.
(36) Primary data is the new data collected from the first source for study. The data is received directly from primary resources such as interviews, and survey that have not been manipulated and processed. In this study, researchers chose to obtain information by distributing questionnaires using Google Forms to the random participants. Each question that has been selected and identified is listed into a questionnaire. Every participant needs to fill up the question accordance to the five items of Likert scales which is from 1: Strongly Disagree to 5: Strongly Agree. By completing the questionnaire on the Google Form, consists of 4 sections and total of 25 items.. 3.7 QUESTIONNAIRES. The questionnaires for this survey have four sections. Section A is about Demographic, Section B is about Sports Tourism, while Section C is about Antecedents of Sports Tourism Participation, and Section D is Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism. The sample of the survey has been attached in appendix. ● Section A - Demographic 27. FYP FHPK. 3.6 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE.
(37) ● Section C - Antecedents of Sports Tourism Participation ● Section D - Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism. The table 3.1 shows the Likert Scale Ranking. Table 3.1: The Likert Scale Ranking Category. Strongly. Disagree. Neutral. Agree. Strongly. Disagree Scale. 1. Agree 2. 3. 4. 5. Table 3.2 shows the Summary of The Research Instruments. Table 3.2: Summary of the Research Instruments Section. Variables. Items. A. Demographics. 5. B. Sport Tourism. 5. C. Antecedents of Sports Tourism. 12. References. (Uvinha et al., 2018). Participation C1 Attractiveness of Sport Tourism (AST) C2 Travel Experience (TE) C3 Identity of Being a Fan (IBF) C4 Travel Cost (TC) (Lee et al., 2018) D. Intention to Participate in Sports. 3. Tourism (IP) Total of Items. 25. 28. FYP FHPK. ● Section B - Sports Tourism.
(38) The process of using a statistical practice to organize, describe, represent, evaluate, and interpret data is data analysis. It is important to clearly understand the purpose of this research while conducting the analysis.. 3.8.1 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS. Descriptive analysis is a division of statistics that describes the number of data features that are usually involved in s study. It aims to provide a summary of the samples and the measures done on detailed research. Descriptive analysis is the essential first step for conducting data analysis, and it can provide the idea of the distribution of data and determine the association among variables. The data analysis from Descriptive analysis includes the means, median, modes, standard deviations, frequency and ranges based on the questions and the research design selected for this research. Descriptive analysis is to simplify the larger amount of data into a sensible way and with a simple graphic analysis.. 29. FYP FHPK. 3.8 DATA ANALYSIS.
(39) FYP FHPK. 3.8.2 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS. Reliability is the extent to which accurate measurements are given according to scale and replicated repeatedly. The behavior method must first be accurate for the outcome of a study to be considered valid. The study of reliability is to assess the proportion of systematic variance in scale by obtaining it and it is very important when it comes to tracking and comparing the results with the previous internal surveys and external resource goals. Cronbach’s Alpha is use in testing the consistency and also measuring the reliability scale in this research. Cronbach’s Alpha ranges from 0 to 1 to provide an overall assessment of reliability metrics.. 3.8.3 CORRELATION ANALYSIS. In this study, all the collected data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). SPSS is the software for editing and exploring all sorts of data. The researcher can know to test the level of understanding of respondents towards the questionnaire. 30.
(40) FYP FHPK. 3.9 SUMMARY. In conclusion, the method used in conducting the researches has included data collection plans. The methodology also mentions the sample and population study. In this research, quantitative methods are used in terms of questionnaires.. 31.
(41) RESULT AND DISCUSSION. 4.1. INTRODUCTION. This chapter is examining the data analysis and findings of the study. Data analysis is the most pivotal piece of any research. It outlines the gathered information and it includes the translation of information accumulated using analytical and consistent thinking to decide the patterns and relationships. It also able to capture the data essential to accomplish the research objectives. The data captured from all 384 respondents. The questionnaire is comprised of four sections and must answer all the questions accordingly.. 4.2. RESPONSE RATE. A whole amount of 384 questionnaires were distributed online. From 384 questionnaires collected from the targeted respondents, all the returned questionnaires survey were usable. The respondent's data of the questionnaire survey obtained were studied and tested. The study survey was founded on a sample relatively can give positive response rates and better accuracy. The response rate, which is, the proportion of the number of survey respondents to the quality tested, is often occupied as an amount of how well the survey consequences can be widespread. 32. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 4:.
(42) RESPONDENT’S DEMOGRAPIC. The online platform had assigned to a total of 384 sets of questionnaires. The contextual profiles of the respondents existed in the segment. This segment is about the respondent demographic profile and their background such as gender, age, marital status, work status, and income. Table 4.1: Number of Respondents by Gender 1. Gender Respondent’s. Frequency. Percentage. Profile. N=384. (%). Female. 231. 60.2%. Male. 153. 39.8%. Total. 384. 100.0%. Table 4.1 showed the respondents by gender. The total number of respondents selected for the survey was 384, and the total number of respondents received was 384. From the results of this study, it was found that there were 153 of male respondents which was about 39.8% while for female it was about 231 respondents equal to 60.2%.. 33. FYP FHPK. 4.3.
(43) 2. Age (years old) Frequency. Percentage. Respondent’s Age. N=384. (%). 18 – 20. 21. 5.5. 21 – 30. 320. 83.3. 31 – 40. 34. 8.9. 41 – 50. 7. 1.8. Above 50. 2. .5. Total. 384. 100.0. Table 4.2 showed the respondents by age. It shows that the highest age of the respondents is in the aged between 21-30 years old with 320 respondents (83.3%). Followed by the aged between 31-40 with 34 respondents (8.9%), and 21 respondents (5.5%) aged 18-20. The less age of the respondents is between 41-50 years old with 7 respondents (1.8%), and 2 respondents (0.5%) between the age of 50 and above.. Table 4.3: Number of Respondents by Marital Status 3. Marital Status Respondent’s. Frequency. Percentage. Marital Status. N=384. (%). Married. 52. 13.5. Single. 332. 86.5. Total. 384. 100.0. 34. FYP FHPK. Table 4.2: Number of Respondents by Age.
(44) of the respondents is single with 332 respondents (86.5%) while for married it was about 52 respondents equal to 13.5%.. Table 4.4: Number of Respondents by Work Status 4. Work Status Respondent’s Work Status. Frequency N=384. Percentage (%). Full-time. 97. 25.3. Intern. 1. .3. Not working. 3. .8. Part-time. 12. 3.1. Retired. 1. .3. Small business. 1. .3. Student. 269. 70.1. Total. 384. 100.0. Table 4.4 showed the respondents by work status. The results show that 269 respondents (70.10%) are Students, while 97 respondents (25.30%) are Full-time worker. Next, 12 respondents (3.10%) are Part-time worker, and 3 respondents (0.80%) are not working. There is 1 respondent (0.30%) with three work status as intern, retired, and small business.. 35. FYP FHPK. Table 4.3 showed the respondents by marital status. It was found that the highest status.
(45) 5. Income Frequency Respondent’s Income. N=384. Percentage (%). ≤ RM1,000. 268. 69.8. ≥ RM4,001. 9. 2.3. RM1,001 – RM2,000. 60. 15.6. RM2,001 – RM3,000. 30. 7.8. RM3,001 – RM4,000. 17. 4.4. Total. 384. 100.0. Table 4.5 showed the respondents by income. The highest income of respondents is below RM 1,000 with 268 respondents (69.80%). Next, the second highest income of respondents at RM 1,001-RM 2,000 with 60 respondents (15.60%), followed by income RM 2,001-RM 3,000 with 30 respondents (7.80%), income from RM 3,001-RM 4,000 has tracks with 17 respondents (4.40%), and the balance of 9 respondents (2.30%) has income above RM4001.. 4.4. RELIABILITY TEST. Test reliability is investigated in terms of general, category, and individual factors among the products, as well as the consistency of scores in these factors from trial to trial (Lee J. Cronbach, 1950). According to Joppe (2000), reliability is defined as the degree to which findings are consistent over time and an accurate representation of the total population under 36. FYP FHPK. Table 4.5: Number of Respondents by Income.
(46) instrument is considered reliable. The hypothetical self-correlation, the coefficient of equivalence, the coefficient of equilibrium, and the coefficient of stability and equivalence are four essentially different concepts of reliability. It is debated if each of these coefficients can be estimated. In corrections for attenuation, normal errors of calculation, and other practical applications, the coefficients are not identical and have different values. The value of the value is close to the number of these values.. Figure 4.1: Rule of Thumb Cronbach’s Alpha. Source: Lee Cronbach in 1951. 37. FYP FHPK. analysis, and if the results of a study can be replicated using similar methods, the research.
(47) Variable. Reliability Cronbach’s Alpha. Comment. 0.796. Acceptable. Travel Experience. 0.799. Acceptable. Identify of a Being a Fan. 0.897. Good. Travel Cost. 0.819. Good. Intention to Participate. 0.814. Good. Attractiveness of Sports Tourism. 4.5. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF VARIABLES. According to Will Kenton (2019), the descriptive statistic is a short descriptive coefficient that summarizes a given data set, which can represent a population or a sample population. Descriptive statistic divided into measures of central tendency and measures of variability (expansion). Measures of central tendency include the mean, median, and mode, while variability measures include standard deviation, variance, minimum variables, and kurtosis and skewness.. 38. FYP FHPK. Table 4.6: Result of Reliability Coefficient Alpha for the Independent Variable and Dependant Variable..
(48) OVERALL MEAN SCORE FOR VARIABLES. This segment information showed that the mean score attained as descriptive analysis. Overall mean score and standard deviation of variables and sub-variables were designed based on 5 points Likert scale (1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= neutral, 4= agree and 5= strongly agree.) The overall mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) for each variable and measurement are exposed, as indicated in Table 4.. 4.5.2. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS FOR INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (IV) FOR INTENTION TO PARTICIPATE IN SPORT TOURISM.. Table 4.7: Descriptive Analysis for Attractiveness of Sports Tourism. Attractiveness of Sport Event N Mean SD I intend to participate in a Sports. 384. 3.89. 0.796. 384. 3.98. 0.813. Tourism because the excitement of the event. I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because the existence of additions tourism activities related to Sport Tourism.. Based on Table 4.7, Attractiveness of Sport Tourism makes up of two questions. The mean score of the in, attractiveness of Sport Tourism ranges from 3.89 to 3.98. The query with the highest ‘I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because the existence of additions tourism activities related to sport tourism.’ (M=3.98, SD= 0.813) followed. 39. FYP FHPK. 4.5.1.
(49) 3.89, SD= 0.796).. Table 4.8: Descriptive Analysis for Travel Experience Travel Experience. N. Mean. SD. I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism. 384. 3.94. 0.799. 384. 4.02. 0.814. 384. 3.99. 0.798. 384. 4.05. 0.791. 384. 3.95. 0.797. because of the tourist experience. I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because the availability of transportation infrastructure and service. I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because quality of the accommodations. I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because of the local security safety I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because a good attitude of local resident at the event.. According to Table 4.8 Travel Experience has five (5) questions. The mean score of the five (5) questions in travel experience range from 3.94 to 4.05. The highest to lowest score was reported as ‘I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because of the local security safety’ (M= 4.05, SD= 0.791), ‘I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because the availability of transportation infrastructure and service.’ (M= 4.02, SD= 0.814), ‘I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because quality of the accommodations’ (M= 3.99, SD= 0.798), ‘I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because a good attitude of local resident at the event.’ (M=3.95, SD= 0.797), and ‘I 40. FYP FHPK. by ‘I intend to participate in a sport tourism because the excitement of the event.’ (M=.
(50) SD= 0.799).. Table 4.9: Descriptive Analysis for Identity of Being a Fan Identity of Being a Fan. N. Mean. SD. I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism. 384. 3.84. 0.880. 384. 3.79. 0.897. because the identity of being a sport team or club. I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because the identity of being a sport team or club.. Referring to Table 4.9, it has consisted two (2) questions under the IV identity of being a fan. The highest query rank from ‘I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because the identity of being a sport team or club.’ (M= 3.84, SD= 0.880), and ‘I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because the identity of being a sport team or club.’ (M= 3.79, SD= 0.897). This indicates that almost all respondents want to join the Sport Tourism because of as a fan of sport club.. 41. FYP FHPK. intend to participate in a Sports Tourism because of the tourist experience.’(M= 3.94,.
(51) Travel Cost. N. Mean. SD. I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism that. 384. 4.02. 0.780. 384. 3.98. 0.819. 384. 3.96. 0.772. offered the low cost of sports event admission. I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism that has a low cost of travel. I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism that has a low exchange rate.. According to Table 4.10, there are three (3) questions in this IV variable. The highest rate which is 4.02 while the lowest rate is 3.96, ‘I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism that offered the low cost of sports event admission’ (M= 4.02, SD= 0.780), ‘I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism that has a low cost of travel.’, (M= 3.98, SD= 0.819), and ‘I intend to participate in a Sports Tourism that has a low exchange rate.’, (M= 3.96, SD= 0.772).. Table 4.11: Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism Intention to participate in Sport Tourism. N. Mean. SD. Participating in Sports Tourism is something. 384. 3.93. 0.890. 384. 3.72. 0.897. 384. 3.96. 0.856. that I would do. I intend to participate in Sports Tourism for my needs. I would participate in Sports Tourism.. 42. FYP FHPK. Table 4.10: Descriptive Analysis for Travel Cost.
(52) questions has also different mean scores and standard deviation. The highest is ‘I would participate in sport tourism’, (M= 3.96, SD= 0.856), followed by ‘Participating in sport tourism is something that I would do’, (M= 3.93, SD= 0.890), and ‘I intend to participate in sport tourism for my needs’, (M= 3.72, SD= 0.897).. 4.6. CORRELATION ANALYSIS. Figure 4.2: Strength Interval of Correlation Coefficient. Source: Abgunbiade and Ogunyika, (2013). Table 4.12 shows the interpretation of correlation analysis between the dependent variable which is Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism and independent variable are Attractiveness of Sports Tourism, Travel Experience, Identity of Being a Fan, and Travel Cost. 43. FYP FHPK. For this part, there are a total three (3) questions. The mean score of these 3.
(53) determine whether the hypothesis is accepted or rejected. The correlation results between the variables are as follows. Table 4.12: Correlation Analysis Attractiveness. Attractiveness Pearson of. Identity. of sports. Travel. of Being. Travel. Intention to. tourism. Experience. A Fan. Cost. Participate. 1. .797**. .684**. .692**. .737**. .000. .000. .000. .000. 384. 384. 384. 384. 384. .797**. 1. .731**. .756**. .700**. .000. .000. .000. sports Correlation. tourism. Sig. (2-tailed) N. Travel. Pearson. Experience. Correlation. Identity Being A Fan. Travel Cost. Sig. (2-tailed). .000. N. 384. 384. 384. 384. 384. .684**. .731**. 1. .651**. .705**. Sig. (2-tailed). .000. .000. .000. .000. N. 384. 384. 384. 384. 384. .692**. .756**. .651**. 1. .607**. Sig. (2-tailed). .000. .000. .000. N. 384. 384. 384. 384. 384. .737**. .700**. .705**. .607**. 1. Sig. (2-tailed). .000. .000. .000. .000. N. 384. 384. 384. 384. of Pearson Correlation. Pearson Correlation. Intention Participate. to Pearson. .000. Correlation. **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).. 44. 384. FYP FHPK. The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether the correlation is significant and to.
(54) in Sports Tourism.. In Table 4.12 it shows that the results of the correlation between Attractiveness of Sports Tourism and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism are 0.737. The consequence proved that there is a relationship between the variables. The positive value of correlation coefficient 0.737 indicated that their relationship is high positive. Hence, the H1, which is to measure the relationship between Attractiveness of Sports Tourism and Intention to Participate is accepted.. H2: There is a positive relationship between Travel Experience and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism.. Table 4.12 established that the relationship between Travel Experience and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism stated as 0.700. This result exposes the existence of the relationship between the variables. The positive value of correlation coefficient 0.700 indicated that their relationship is high positive. Hence, H2, which is designated to assess the relationship between Travel Experience and Intention to Participate is accepted.. 45. FYP FHPK. H1: There is a positive relationship between Attractiveness and Intention to Participate.
(55) Participate in Sports Tourism.. Table 4.12 established that the relationship between identify of Being a Fan and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism stated as 0.705. This result exposes the existence of the relationship between the variables. The positive value of correlation coefficient 0.705 indicated that their relationship is high positive. Hence, H3 which is designated to assess the relationship between Identify of Being a Fan and Intention to Participate is accepted.. H4: There is a positive relationship between Travel Cost and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism.. Table 4.12 established that the relationship between Travel Cost and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism stated as 0.607. This result exposes the existence of the relationship between the variables. The positive value of correlation coefficient 0.607 indicated that their relationship is moderate positive. Hence, H4, which is designated to 46. FYP FHPK. H3: There is a positive relationship between Identity of Being a Fan and Intention to.
(56) Participate is accepted.. 4.7. SUMMARY. The data analysis was presented in this chapter. This part contains response rate, demographic profile, reliability test, descriptive analysis, and correlation analysis. All of the analyses answer the study issue of whether there is a relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Table 4.13 Summary for Hypothesis Testing Cronbach’s Results Alpha There is a positive 0.737 ACCEPTED relationship between Attractiveness and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism. There is a positive 0.700 ACCEPTED relationship between Travel Experience and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism. There is a positive 0.705 ACCEPTED relationship between Identity of Being a Fan and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism. There is a positive 0.607 ACCEPTED relationship between Travel Cost and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism.. Hypothesis Description of Hypothesis H1. H2. H3. H4. 47. Interpretation High Positive Correlation. High Positive Correlation. High Positive Correlation. Moderate Positive Correlation. FYP FHPK. assess the relationship between Travel Cost of Sports Tourism and Intention to.
(57) CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION. 5.1. INTRODUCTION. In this chapter, statistical analysis will be additionally discussed about pursued by the discussion of major implications and findings of the study. Furthermore, limitations of this research and the suggestions or recommendation for future research are additionally underlining. Finally, overall conclusion of the entire research project is created to extend the clear picture and ideas of this thesis.. 5.2 LINK WITH PREVIOUS STUDY. 5.2.1 Attractiveness of Sports Tourism. Attractiveness of Sports Tourism, according to Feng-Hsiang Ching and Chih Yung Tsai (2016), it refers to the distinctive attractions (sightseeing value or leisure activities) of a location or event that encourages tourists to attend. While Bigne and Andreu (2004), stated that 48. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 5:.
(58) participate in sports tourism. In addition, the previous research from Liu and Shih (2009) has found that the attractiveness of sports tourism has influenced the intention of participation among participants to participate in sports activities. Attractiveness of Sports Tourism includes the participant memories, participant’s participation, scenery, and services that fulfil their needs. The interaction of these elements has influenced participants' intention to participate in sports tourism. Moreover, Chou (2008) found that Attractiveness of Sports Tourism influences participant intentions in his research. Therefore, Attractiveness of Sports Tourism are critical when participants decides to participate in Sports Tourism (Bigne and Andreu, 2004; Liu and Shih, 2009; Chou, 2008). Accordingly, the following hypothesis is proposed: H1: Attractiveness of Sports Tourism has a significant with Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism among participants.. 5.2.2 Travel Experience. Individual travel experience through tourism participation and experience, and travel process in a variety of humanities, natural environment, and other information generated after the interaction of feelings and feelings, and this feeling by the passengers themselves by the social conditions, cultural background, and other information generated after the interaction of feelings (Ryan, 1995, Wearing & Wearing, 1996, Larsen, 2007, Walls et al, 2011). Past experiences, according to Fakeye and Crompton (1991), can influence the destination image and choices. Morgan (2007) study points out that the sport tourists experience at the destination,. 49. FYP FHPK. Attractiveness of Sports Tourism in recreation area is one of the intention of participants to.
(59) achievement and hedonic pleasures. From tourism studies above, it is found that the motivations of tourists' participation will affect their experience at the destination. The interplay between mind and environment affects their emotions of value for the journey in a participatory process. Past experience affects the intent of a participant to return to return a destination, as it is considered less risky to select the familiar destinations (T Henkel et al., 2017), and experiences-based research designs can strive to capture participant perceptions in natural environment settings to clarify the participant experiences (Tussyadiah, 2014). (Brito et al., 2017) stated that the tourism image has an impact on not just visitors’ behaviour, but also their judgement of their personal tourist experience in terms of satisfaction, which also defended by Chon (1992), Etchner and Ritchie (1993) and Chen and Tsai (2007). Therefore, Travel Experience are critical when participants decides to participate in Sports Tourism (Tussyadiah, 2014; Fakeye and Crompton, 1991). It had shown that participant’s travel experience is closely related to participating in sport tourism. The following hypothesis is proposed: H2: Travel Experience has a significant relationship with Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism among participants.. 5.2.3 Identity of Being a Fan. Identity of Being a Fan, according to Mir, Shank, Westerbeck and Smith (2003), sports fan displays a bewildering array of values, attitudes and behaviours towards sports that they love. Redden and Teiner (2002) stated that Identity of Being a Fan has influenced sports fan Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism. This is because not all sports fan is equally passionate. 50. FYP FHPK. which includes: social interaction, cultural interactive, social identities, personal meaning,.
(60) by Wann, Melnick, Russell and Peace (2001), sports fan intention to participate in Sports Tourism due to their different ways to experience sport and use the team affiliation to meet a diverse range of needs. Among these factors, identification has been regarded as a critical driving force for fans’ behavioural intention (Clark and Maher 2019; Fink et al. 2009; James and Trail 2008; Theodorakis et al. 2009). Numerous studies have reported that a higher level of identification leads to greater behavioural intentions, including attending games, purchasing merchandise,and watching broadcast games (Carlson, Donavan, and Cumiskey 2009; James and Trail 2008). Therefore, Identity of Being a Fan are critical when participants decides to participate in Sports Tourism (Westerbeck and Smith, 2003; Redden and Teiner, 2002; Wann et al., 2001). As a result, this finding was related to previous studies and it has a positive relationship. Accordingly, the following hypothesis is proposed: H3: Identity of Being a Fan has a significant relationship with Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism among participants. 5.2.4 Travel Cost. According to Bernstein, Giroud & Townsend (2016), the Travel Cost of Sports Tourism is the expenses used by sports tourists during their travel. Those expenses are using for transportation, lodging, meals, and related costs for Sport Tourism as cost of ticket admission. Bernstein, Giroud & Townsend (2016) stated that the Travel Cost of Sports Tourism might influence sports tourist's intention to participate in Sports Tourism. This is because not all 51. FYP FHPK. and fanatical nor use their team to confirm their personal identity. Based on previous research.
(61) admission and meals. So, if other travel costs such as cost for transportation are cheap or affordable, this may influence many sports tourist to participate in Sports Tourism. Based on previous study by Lin (2006) and Yu, C.C. (2010), price and overall convenience of arranging travel plans and travel costs showed significant impact on sports tourist intention to participate in Sports Tourism. Therefore, Travel Cost are critical when participants decides to participate in Sports Tourism (Yu, 2010; Lin, 2006). As a result, this finding was related to previous studies and it has a positive relationship. Accordingly, the following hypothesis is proposed: H4: Travel Cost of Sports Tourism has a significant relationship with Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism among participants.. 5.3 RECAPITULATION OF THE FINDINGS. This chapter abbreviates the main findings of the research. In the previous chapter, it has already mentioned the aim of this study. The recapitulation of the outcomes based on the research objectives is as state below:. 52. FYP FHPK. sports tourists have a high budget for travel costs and may have enough charge only for ticket.
(62) Table 5.1: Discussion on IV 1 (Attractiveness of Sports Tourism) Research Objective 1 To examine the perception of participants towards Sports Tourism. Research Question 1. What is the perception of participants towards Sports Tourism?. Hypothesis 1. There is a positive relationship between Attractiveness of Sports Tourism and Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism among participants.. In Chapter 1, it is stated that the three objective of this study which is to examine the perception of participants towards Sports Tourism, to identify what are the antecedents that may influence the Participants to Participate in Sports Tourism, and to identify what are the relationships between the antecedents that influence Sports Tourism and the Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism. Based on the collection data in Chapter 4, it is shows that there is a significant relationship between Attractiveness of Sports Tourism and the Intention of Participants to Participate. The first independent variable has provided an impetus towards the participation among participants to participate in Sports Tourism. The result of relationship between dependent variable and independent variable is indicated by the reflection of Hypothesis 1. Based on the data collection, most of the respondents agree that the attractiveness of sports tourism influences their intention to participate in sports tourism as they intend to participate in Sports Tourism because of the event's excitement. Respondents also agree that they intend to participate in Sports Tourism because additional tourism activities have related. 53. FYP FHPK. 5.3.1 Discussion on IV 1: Attractiveness of Sports Tourism.
(63) participants to partake in sporting activities that inspire them to visit a tourist destination.. 5.3.2 Discussion on IV 2: Travel Experience. Table 5.2: Discussion on IV 2 (Travel Experience) Research Objective 2. To identify what are the antecedents that may influences participants to participate Sports Tourism.. Research Question 2. What are the antecedents that affect Intention to Participate in Sports Tourism?. Hypothesis 2. There is positive relationship between Travel Experience and Intention to Participate of Sports Tourism.. The second objective aims in identify what are the antecedents that may influences participants to participate in Sports Tourism. The data analysis results in Chapter 4 show that the travel experience are positively relates to the intention of participate in Sports Tourism. The outcome of the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variables indicates the reflection of the H2. From the result above, it can see that the majority of the responses agree that participants intend to participate in sports tourism because of the Travel Experience. Besides that, participants also agree that they will participate in a Sports Tourism because of the availability of transportation infrastructure and the service. Participants also will participate in a Sports 54. FYP FHPK. to sports tourism. As a result, Sports Tourism with attractions has encouraged.
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