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AWARENESS ON CONTENT OF AQAD IN ISLAMIC FINANCIAL CONTRACTS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN PADANG

TERAP, KEDAH

BY

NOR AMIRA SHAFINAZ BINTI MUSHADDAD

Researcher paper submitted to Othman Yeop Abdullah School of Business

Universiti Utara Malaysia Master in Islamic Finance and Banking

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i

PERMISSION TO USE

In presenting this research paper in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Post Graduate Degree from Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), I agree that the library of this university may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for copying of this project paper in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly purposes may be granted by my supervisor or, in their absence, by the Dean of Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business. It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this research paper or parts of it for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. It is also understood that due recognition given to me and to the Universiti Utara Malaysia in any scholarly use which may be made of any material for my research paper.

Request for permission to copy or to make other use of materials in this research paper, in whole or in part should be addressed to:

Dean of Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business Universiti Utara Malaysia

06010 UUM Sintok Kedah Darul Aman

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ii ABSTRACT

This research focuses on the awareness on content of aqad in Islamic financial contracts among secondary school teachers. It is intended to measure the factors that might affect the teachers‟ awareness which include knowledge and religious obligation towards content of aqad in Islamic financial contracts. This study examines the relationships between the awareness with all the mentioned factors earlier. A purposed theoretical framework has been developed in this study in order to illustrate the whole research area.

Hypothesized relationships are tested using survey responses from a sample of 260 respondents which consist of the Muslim teachers that teach at secondary school in Padang Terap district. Results revealed a positive relationship between all the independent variables with the awareness. In addition, all of the variables also had given influenced towards the awareness. The results reported in this research are useful to both industry and academics by providing relevant exploratory data about the awareness. The result should be able to recommend some suggestion on how to improve the awareness among secondary school teachers.

Keywords: Awareness, Content of Aqad, Secondary School Teachers, Islamic Financial Contracts

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iii ABSTRAK

Kajian ini memfokuskan kepada kesedaran tentang kandungan aqad dalam kontrak kewangan Islam di kalangan guru sekolah menengah. Ia bertujuan untuk mengukur faktor-faktor yang mungkin mempengaruhi kesedaran guru yang termasuk pengetahuan dan kewajipan keagamaan terhadap kandungan aqad dalam kontrak kewangan Islam.

Kajian ini mengkaji hubungan antara kesedaran dengan semua faktor yang yang telah dinyataka. Rangka teori yang dicadangkan telah dibina dalam kajian ini untuk memberi gambaran bagi keseluruhan penyelidikan. Perhubungan yang dihipotesiskan diuji menggunakan maklumbalas kaji selidik daripada sampel 260 responden yang terdiri daripada guru-guru Islam yang mengajar di sekolah menengah di daerah Padang Terap.

Analisis mendapati bahawa terdapat hubungan yang positif diantara semua semua faktor yang dinyatakan dengan kesedaran. Selain daripada itu, kesemua faktor tersebut mempengaruhi kesedaran. Hasil kajian yang dibentangkan ini adalah berguna untuk kegunaan industri serta akademik dengan menyediakan data yang relevan mengenai kesedaran. Hasilnya kajian juga mengutarakan beberapa cadangkan tentang bagaimana untuk meningkatkan kesedaran di kalangan guru sekolah menengah.

Kata kunci: Kesedaran, Kandungan Aqad, Guru Sekolah Menengah, Kontrak Kewangan Islam

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iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, I would like to thank to Allah for the blessing and giving me strength of mind, spirit, ability and guidance for me to go through all the journeys in completing this research paper. With the help and permission of Allah, I succeeded in finishing this research paper. Working for this Master‟s degree is a journey towards accomplishing on of my lifetime objectives, which has been made possible by direct and indirect assistance from various parties.

Many thanks must first go to my supervisors, Dr Ahmad Khilmy Abdul Rahim for giving me the unwavering guidance, insights, moral support and the direction throughout the whole process of completing this research paper. Secondly, my appreciation is also due to my respected advisor, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abu Bakar Hamed for his professional and untiring guidance. I am very indebt to their patience and unwavering advices that inspired me to think positively to finish my research paper. Without their understanding, consideration and untiring advice this research paper would not have been completed successfully. May Allah compensate all of them for sacrificing time and sharing their knowledge.

Special dedicated to my beloved parents, Mushaddad bin Daud and Pauziyah binti Yahya for their endless support, loves and cares. To my sister, Nor Amira Syuhada and to all my brothers, Muhammad Ikhwan Solihin, Muhammad Noor Iman and Muhammad Irfan Solehan who understands my passions and financially supports my duty from the starts till the end.

Last but not least to all my dearest fellow friends who never give up giving me support, information and assistance to settle up this research paper. Thank you very much for all and best of luck. A word of thank also extends to all respondents of this study. Any other individual whom I have not mention or recognized by name but who gave their support and cooperation, I give my sincere thanks.

May Allah S.W.T reward the kindness to everyone that I mentioned above.

Nor Amira Shafinaz binti Mushaddad Master of Islamic Finance and Banking Universiti Utara Malaysia

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v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PERMISSION TO USE ... i

ABSTRACT ... ii

ABSTRAK ... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... iv

LIST OF TABLE ... ix

LIST OF FIGURE... x

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ... x

CHAPTER ONE ... 1

1.0 Introduction ... 1

1.1 Background of study ... 1

1.2 Research problem... 1

1.2.1 Research question ... 6

1.2.2 Research objective... 7

1.3 Significant of the study ... 8

1.4 Scope of the study ... 9

1.5 Organization of study ... 9

1.6 Summary ... 10

CHAPTER TWO ... 12

2.0 Introduction ... 12

2.1 Theoretical framework ... 12

2.2 Awareness of content of aqad in Islamic financial contracts ... 14

2.3 Knowledge towards the content of aqad in Islamic financial contracts ... 16

2.4 Religious obligation towards the content of aqad in Islamic financial contracts ... 17

2.5 Hypotheses development ... 19

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vi

2.5.1 Selected demographic factors... 19

2.5.2 Correlation between dependent and independent variable ... 22

2.5.3 Influence of independent variable and dependent variable ... 23

2.6 Summary ... 23

CHAPTER THREE ... 24

3.0 Introduction ... 24

3.1 Research design ... 24

3.2 Sampling design ... 25

3.2.1Population... 25

3.3 Measurement of variable... 26

3.3.1 Awareness on content of aqad in Islamic financial contracts ... 27

3.3.2 Knowledge ... 28

3.3.3 Religious Obligation ... 29

3.4 Question development ... 31

3.5 Pilot study ... 33

3.6 Factor analysis ... 34

3.6.1 Factor analysis for awareness variable ... 35

3.6.2 Factor analysis for knowledge variable ... 36

3.6.3 Factor analysis for religious obligation ... 37

3.7 Data collection method ... 38

3.8 Data analysis ... 39

3.8.1 Reliability test ... 39

3.8.2 Normality ... 41

3.9 Descriptive statistics ... 41

3.9.1 T-test... 42

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vii

3.9.2 ANOVA ... 43

3.9.3 Correlation ... 43

3.9.4 Regression ... 44

3.10 Conclusion ... 44

CHAPTER FOUR ... 45

4.0 Introduction ... 45

4.1 Responds rate ... 45

4.2 Demographic profile of respondent ... 45

4.3 Descriptive Statistic for Each Variable ... 47

4.3.1The difference between gender and awareness ... 48

4.3.2 The difference between age group and awareness ... 50

4.3.3 The difference between marital status and awareness ... 51

4.3.4 The difference between highest educational level and awareness ... 52

4.3.5 The difference between monthly income and awareness ... 53

4.3.6 The difference between experience dealing with Islamic banking and awareness ... 54

4.3.7 The difference between pillar of aqad and awareness ... 55

4.4 Correlation between awareness and factors affecting awareness ... 57

4.5 The influence of determinant factors on awareness ... 58

4.6 Conclusion ... 60

CHAPTER FIVE ... 62

5.0 Introduction ... 62

5.1 Discussion ... 62

5.2 The differences between the demographic factors towards awareness on content of aqad... 62

5.3 Relationship between the determinants factors towards awareness ... 64

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viii

5.4 Contribution of the study ... 64

5.5 Limitation of study ... 66

5.6 Recommendation ... 66

5.7Conclusions ... 67

REFERENCES ... 68

APPENDIX A ... 73

APPENDIX B ... 79

APPENDIX C ... 86

APPENDIX D ... 94

APPENDIX E ... 98

APPENDIX F... 108

APPENDIX G ... 121

APPENDIX H ... 123

APPENDIX I ... 129

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ix

LIST OF TABLE

Table 3.3.1 List of Questions for Awareness 28

Table 3.3.2 List of Questions for Knowledge 29

Table 3.3.3 List of Questions for Religious Obligation 30

Table 3.3.4 List of Author for each variable 31

Table 3.4 Question Development 32

Table 3.8.1 Results of Reliability Test 40

Table 4.2 Results Demographic Profile 46

Table 4.3 Results for each variable 48

Table 4.3.1 The results between Gender and Awareness

Table 4.3.2 The results between Age Group and Awareness 50 Table 4.3.3 The results between Marital Status and Awareness 51 Table 4.3.4 The resulst between Highest Educational Level and Awareness 52 Table 4.3.5 The results between Monthly Income and Awareness 53 Table 4.3.6 The results between Experience dealing with Islamic banking 54 and Awareness

Table 4.3.7 The results between Pillar of aqad and Awareness 55

Table 4.4 Results of Correlation 57

Table 4.5 Results of Influence 59

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x

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 2.1 Theoretical Framework 13

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xi

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ANOVA Analysis of Variance BIMB Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad CLJ Current Law Journal

MLJ Malaysia Law Journal

SMK Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan DV Dependent Variable

IV Independent Variable KMO Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin

MIFB Master of Islamic Finance and Banking SPSS Statistical Package for Social Science UUM Universiti Utara Malaysia

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1

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

This research paper will discuss the awareness of content of aqad in Islamic financial contract among the secondary school teachers. This chapter includes the background of the study, the problem statement of this research, the research question, the research objective, potential significant of this study, the scope of the study, and the limitation of this study. The organization of this dissertation is also included in this chapter.

1.1 Background of study

Islamic law covers the whole of the principles of social justice including legal aspects, rules and regulations that are in line with Islamic law. All elements contrary to syarak must be avoided. Profit gain through legal sale is kosher and instead gains earned through usury and haram. The establishment of Lembaga Urusan Tabung Haji (now known as Lembaga Tabung Haji) in 1963 was the first step in the development of Islamic Financial institutions in Malaysia. In essence, the institution is to provide convenience for Muslims to make savings in the provision of pilgrimage. In fact, this institution is the first step in the implementation of the Islamic financial system in Malaysia (Ibrahim, 2000).

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68 REFERENCES

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73 APPENDIX A

APPENDIX A

(QUESTIONNNAIRE)

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74

1.

AWARENESS ON CONTENT OF AQAD IN ISLAMIC FINANCIAL CONTRACTS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS Dear Sir/Madam,

TO WHOM IT MAY BE CONCERN

I am a postgraduate student on University Utara Malaysia, and currently conducting a survey on awareness on content of aqad in Islamic financial contracts among secondary school teachers. The questionnaire is divided into two sections and you are kindly requested to answer the question in all of the sections. Kindly, help by completing this questionnaire as accurately as possible. Please note that your responses will be treated with utmost confidentiality and would be used purely for academic purposes.

We highly appreciate your co-operations. Thank you in participation of your response.

Yours sincerely,

Nor Amira Shafinaz Binti Mushaddad Master Islamic Finance and Banking Islamic Business School

Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010 sintok,Kedah.

noramirashafinaz@gmail.com

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75 Section A

Instruction: Please tick ( / ) that best describing you.

Arahan: Sila tandakan ( / ) yang terbaik menggambarkan anda.

2. Gender/Jantina

Male/Lelaki Female/Perempuan

3. Age/Umur :___________________________( please state/nyatakan) 4. Marital Status/Status Perkahwinan

Single/Bujang Married/Berkahwin 5. Highest Educational Level/Tahap Pendidikan Tertinggi:

STPM/Diploma

Bachelor‟s Degree/Ijazah

Master‟s Degree/Sarjana PhD/ Ijazah Kedoktoran 6. Monthly Income/Pendapatan Bulanan

< RM 3,999 RM 4,000 – RM 4,999

RM5,000 –

RM 5,999 RM 6,000 –

RM 6,999

>RM 7,000 7. Experience Dealing With Islamic Banking/ Pengalaman Berurusan Dengan Perbankan

Islam:

< 5 years/5 tahun

6 years – 10 years/6 tahun- 10 tahun

11 years – 15 years/11 tahun- 15 tahun

>16 years/16 tahun 8. Contract Ever Filled/Kontrak Pernah Diisi:

Personal

financing/Pembia yaan peribadi Home

financing/Pembia yaan rumah

Vehicle

financing/Pembia yaan kenderaan Credit card/Kad kredit

Term financing/

Pembiayaan janka panjang

9. Pillar of aqad has six consist of offer (ijab), acceptance (qabul), seller, buyer, subject matter, and price.

Rukun aqad mempunyai enam terdiri daripada tawaran (ijab), penerimaan (qabul) penjual, pembeli, hal perkara, dan harga.

True/Benar Not sure/Tidak pasti Not true/Tidak Benar

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76 THANK YOU

Strongly disagree

Sangat tidak setuju Disagree

tidak setuju Not sure

Tidak pasti Agree

setuju Strongly agree Sangat setuju

1 2 3 4 5

No. Statement/Kenyataan 1 2 3 4 5

10. I know that there must be aqad in Islamic banking transactions.

Saya tahu bahawa mesti ada aqad dalam urus niaga perbankan Islam.

11. I am aware that aqad only have in Islamic transaction not in conventional transaction.

Saya sedar bahawa aqad hanya terdapat dalam urus niaga Islam tidak dalam urus niaga konvensional.

12. I am aware that aqad not only for Muslim.

Saya sedar bahawa aqad bukan sahaja untuk Muslim.

13. I am aware that Islamic bank has many different of aqad based on type of transactions.

Saya sedar bahawa bank Islam mempunyai banyak jenis aqad berdasarkan jenis transaksi.

14. I am aware of Islamic partnership–based contract such as Musharakah.

Saya sedar kontrak berasaskan perkongsian Islam seperti Musharakah.

15. I am aware of Islamic sales–based contract such as Murabahah.

Saya sedar kontrak berasaskan jualan Islam seperti Murabahah.

16. I am aware of Islamic lease–based contract like Ijarah.

Saya sedar kontrak berasaskan sewa Islam seperti Ijarah (Sewaan) 17. I am aware of Islamic safekeeping–based contract like Wadiah.

Saya sedar kontrak berasaskan simpanan Islam seperti Wadiah (Akaun Simpanan).

18. I am aware of Islamic security–based contract like Rahn.

Saya sedar kontrak berasaskan gadaian Islam seperti Rahn (Pajak Gadai).

19. I am aware of aqad are enshrined in the Contracts Act 1950.

Saya sedar bahawa aqad termaktub dalam Akta Kontrak 1950.

20. I know the concept of aqad in transaction.

Saya tahu konsep aqad dalam transaksi.

Section B

Instruction: please tick ( / ) the appropriate answer.

Arahan: sila tandakan ( / ) jawapan yang sesuai.

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77 21. I know my rights in the contract.

Saya tahu hak saya dalam kontrak.

22. I make sure I understand the contract first before signing the contract.

Saya pastikan saya memahami kontrak terlebih dahulu sebelum menandatangani kontrak.

23. I know that the contracts offered by Islamic banks are easy to understand.

Saya tahu bahawa kontrak yang ditawarkan oleh perbankan Islam mudah difahami.

24. I know about Islamic financial contracts through education.

Saya tahu mengenai kontrak kewangan Islam melalui pendidikan.

25. I know the aqad can only happen if both sides are perfectly minded, baligh or independent.

Saya tahu aqad yang hanya boleh berlaku jika kedua-dua pihak dengan sempurna akal, baligh atau merdeka.

26. I know the aqad requires a witness.

Saya tahu aqad memerlukan saksi.

27. The contract will be void if either party is in coercion state.

Kontrak itu akan menjadi tidak sah jika mana-mana pihak berada dalam keadaan paksaan.

28. I know willingness (ijab-qabul) is very important in the aqad.

Saya tahu kerelaan (ijab-qabul) sangat penting dalam aqad.

29. I know "I sell" or "I buy" is a verbal aqad.

Saya tahu "saya jual" atau "Saya beli" adalah aqad lisan.

30. I know that transactions with aqad will bring justice and honest based on the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

Saya tahu bahawa transaksi dengan aqad akan membawa keadilan dan jujur berdasarkan Al-Quran dan Sunnah.

31. I know that aqad is a parameter that causes a transaction to be valid according to Islam.

Saya tahu bahawa aqad adalah parameter yang menyebabkan transaksi menjadi sah menurut Islam.

32. I know the item in the aqad must be halal.

Saya tahu barang dalam aqad mestilah halal.

33. Aqad are free from doubtful transactions.

Aqad adalah bebas dari transaksi ragu.

34. Regulations practices in Islamic financial contract do not give burden to

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78

40. Is it very

important to understand the contract

for both parties either bank or you in dealing the any transaction before signing the contract. Give your opinion?

Adalah

sangat penting untuk memahami kontrak

bagi kedua-dua pihak sama ada bank atau anda dalam menangani apa-apa urus niaga sebelum menandatangani kontrak. Berikan pendapat anda?

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

THANK YOU customers.

Peraturan amalan dalam kontrak kewangan Islam tidak memberi beban kepada pelanggan.

35. The aqad will be void if one of the pillars is absent.

Aqad tersebut akan menjadi tidak sah jika salah satu rukun tidak hadir.

36. I believe that Islamic financial contract must be operated based on Shariah.

Saya percaya kontrak kewangan Islam mesti dikendalikan berdasarkan Syariah.

37. I believe that all the transaction with aqad is mandatory in Islam transaction.

Saya percaya bahawa semua transaksi dengan aqad adalah wajib dalam transaksi Islam.

38. I believe that aqad is a bind to legitimate ownership of Islam

saya percaya bahawa aqad adalah pengikat kepada pemilikan yang sah disisi islam

39. I agree that aqad are important in human life.

Saya bersetuju bahawa aqad adalah penting dalam kehidupan manusia.

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79 APPENDIX B

APPENDIX B

(FACTOR ANALYSIS)

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80 (A) Factor Analysis For Awareness

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .632

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square 44.037

df 36

Sig. .168

Total Variance Explained

Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadingsa Total % of

Variance

Cumulative

%

Total % of Variance

Cumulative

%

Total

1 3.463 38.473 38.473 3.463 38.473 38.473 2.926

2 1.948 21.650 60.123 1.948 21.650 60.123 2.420

3 1.056 11.738 71.861 1.056 11.738 71.861 1.692

4 .911 10.121 81.982

5 .533 5.920 87.902

6 .466 5.177 93.079

7 .269 2.991 96.070

8 .208 2.311 98.381

9 .146 1.619 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

a. When components are correlated, sums of squared loadings cannot be added to obtain a total variance.

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81

Component Matrixa Component

1 2 3

A14 .878

A15 .714

A13 .684 -.455

A12 .609 -.378 .516

A19 .394 .379 -.378

A16 .495 .721

A11 .583 -.612

A18 .602 .602

A10 .490 .367 .716

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

a. 3 components extracted.

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82 (B) Factor Analysis For Awareness

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .659

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square 97.752

df 45

Sig. .000

Total Variance Explained

Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadingsa Total % of

Variance

Cumulative

%

Total % of Variance

Cumulative

%

Total

1 5.199 51.986 51.986 5.199 51.986 51.986 4.380

2 1.559 15.586 67.572 1.559 15.586 67.572 2.384

3 1.120 11.198 78.770 1.120 11.198 78.770 3.113

4 .752 7.524 86.294

5 .634 6.340 92.634

6 .360 3.601 96.235

7 .175 1.751 97.985

8 .105 1.055 99.040

9 .073 .731 99.771

10 .023 .229 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

a. When components are correlated, sums of squared loadings cannot be added to obtain a total variance.

(31)

83

Component Matrixa Component

1 2 3

K22 .857

K29 .831 -.356

K21 .829

K28 .828 -.339

K27 .811

K34 .789 .508

K25 .665 .500

K20 .593 -.512

K26 .489 -.469 .434

K23 .798

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

a. 3 components extracted.

(32)

84 (C) Factor Analysis For Awareness

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .672

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square 66.689

df 36

Sig. .001

Total Variance Explained

Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadingsa Total % of

Variance

Cumulative

%

Total % of Variance

Cumulative

%

Total

1 4.647 51.628 51.628 4.647 51.628 51.628 3.642

2 1.331 14.792 66.419 1.331 14.792 66.419 3.182

3 1.097 12.188 78.607 1.097 12.188 78.607 2.513

4 .656 7.294 85.901

5 .445 4.946 90.847

6 .368 4.091 94.938

7 .268 2.981 97.919

8 .133 1.476 99.395

9 .054 .605 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

a. When components are correlated, sums of squared loadings cannot be added to obtain a total variance.

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85

Component Matrixa Component

1 2 3

R32 .848

R38 .839 -.426

R36 .816 .433

R35 .786 -.338

R30 .723 .377

R34 .676 .524 -.304

R31 .588 .336 -.493

R39 .605 -.627

R37 .498 .768

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

a. 3 components extracted.

(34)

86 APPENDIX C

APPENDIX C

(DESCRIPTIVE STATISTIC)

(35)

87 (A) Frequency Table For Gender

gender

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid

Male 86 37.4 37.4 37.4

Female 144 62.6 62.6 100.0

Total 230 100.0 100.0

(36)

88 (B) Frequency Table For Age Group

agegroup

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid

1.00 36 15.7 15.7 15.7

2.00 89 38.7 38.7 54.3

3.00 81 35.2 35.2 89.6

4.00 24 10.4 10.4 100.0

Total 230 100.0 100.0

(37)

89 (C) Frequency Table For Marital Status

maritalstatus

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid

single 22 9.6 9.6 9.6

married 208 90.4 90.4 100.0

Total 230 100.0 100.0

(38)

90

(D) Frequency Table For Highest Educational Level

highesteducational

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid

STPM/Diploma 19 8.3 8.3 8.3

degree 192 83.5 83.5 91.7

master 19 8.3 8.3 100.0

Total 230 100.0 100.0

(39)

91 (E) Frequency Table For Monthly Income

monthlyincome

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid

<RM3,999 46 20.0 20.0 20.0

RM4,000-RM4,999 45 19.6 19.6 39.6

RM5,000-RM5,999 75 32.6 32.6 72.2

RM6,000-RM6,999 37 16.1 16.1 88.3

>RM7,000 27 11.7 11.7 100.0

Total 230 100.0 100.0

(40)

92

(F) Frequency Table For Experience Dealing With Islamic Banking

experience

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid

< 5 years 53 23.0 23.0 23.0

6 years-10 years 73 31.7 31.7 54.8

11 years-15 years 48 20.9 20.9 75.7

> 16 years 56 24.3 24.3 100.0

Total 230 100.0 100.0

(41)

93 (G) Frequency Table For Pillar of Aqad

pillarofaqad

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid

true 170 73.9 73.9 73.9

not sure 55 23.9 23.9 97.8

not true 5 2.2 2.2 100.0

Total 230 100.0 100.0

(42)

94 APPENDIX D

APPENDIX D

(RELIABILITY TEST)

(43)

95 (A) Reliability Test For Awareness

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's

Alpha

N of Items

.851 9

Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if

Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item- Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item

Deleted

A10 32.0783 21.007 .549 .838

A11 32.5609 20.719 .388 .858

A12 32.7783 20.173 .470 .848

A13 32.5783 20.437 .579 .834

A14 32.7087 19.360 .714 .820

A15 32.6391 19.315 .728 .819

A16 32.6000 19.927 .673 .825

A18 32.3478 20.568 .644 .829

A19 33.1348 20.449 .494 .843

(44)

96 (B) Reliability Test For Knowledge

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's

Alpha

N of Items

.894 10

Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if

Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item- Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item

Deleted

K20 37.2304 25.969 .627 .885

K21 37.1783 26.662 .633 .884

K22 37.2696 26.093 .626 .885

K23 37.0261 26.279 .650 .883

K24 37.2696 25.892 .586 .888

K25 36.8739 25.901 .686 .881

K26 37.1826 25.870 .609 .886

K27 37.0304 26.449 .606 .886

K28 36.8304 26.491 .682 .882

K29 36.9087 26.520 .708 .880

(45)

97 (C) Reliability Test For Religious Obligation

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's

Alpha

N of Items

.921 9

Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if

Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item- Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item

Deleted

R30 33.6130 26.011 .744 .910

R31 33.8435 25.792 .679 .915

R32 33.5826 25.397 .826 .905

R34 33.7957 26.041 .695 .913

R35 33.8174 25.608 .718 .912

R36 34.0174 26.471 .555 .924

R37 33.8087 25.605 .731 .911

R38 33.7043 25.668 .793 .907

R39 33.5739 25.870 .757 .909

(46)

98 APPENDIX E

APPENDIX E

(NORMALITY TEST)

(47)

99 (A) Normality Test For Awareness

Descriptives

Statistic Std. Error

Awareness

Mean 4.0870 .03486

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound 4.0183 Upper Bound 4.1556

5% Trimmed Mean 4.0955

Median 4.0000

Variance .279

Std. Deviation .52861

Minimum 2.78

Maximum 5.00

Range 2.22

Interquartile Range .78

Skewness -.081 .160

Kurtosis -.634 .320

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

Awareness .085 230 .000 .976 230 .001

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

(48)

100

(49)

101

(50)

102 (B) Normality Test For Knowledge

Descriptives

Statistic Std. Error

Knowledge

Mean 4.1200 .03729

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound 4.0465 Upper Bound 4.1935

5% Trimmed Mean 4.1432

Median 4.1000

Variance .320

Std. Deviation .56556

Minimum 2.40

Maximum 5.00

Range 2.60

Interquartile Range .90

Skewness -.400 .160

Kurtosis -.164 .320

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

Knowledge .063 230 .028 .971 230 .000

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

(51)

103

(52)

104

(53)

105 (C) Normality Test For Religious Obligation

Descriptives

Statistic Std. Error

Religiousobligation

Mean 4.2488 .03655

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Lower Bound 4.1768 Upper Bound 4.3208

5% Trimmed Mean 4.2754

Median 4.2222

Variance .307

Std. Deviation .55433

Minimum 2.56

Maximum 5.00

Range 2.44

Interquartile Range .89

Skewness -.366 .160

Kurtosis -.540 .320

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

Religiousobligation .117 230 .000 .946 230 .000

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

(54)

106

(55)

107

(56)

108 APPENDIX F

APPENDIX F

(TEST OF DIFFERENCES)

(57)

109

(A) Test of Differences Between Gender And Awareness

Group Statistics

gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Awareness

male 86 4.0956 .53982 .05821

female 144 4.0818 .52363 .04364

Independent Samples Test Levene's

Test for Equality of

Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig.

(2- tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the

Difference Lower Upper

Awareness Equal variances assumed

.252 .616 .191 228 .848 .01382 .07219 - .12843

.15606

Equal variances not assumed

.190 174.599 .850 .01382 .07275 - .12977

.15740

(58)

110

(B) Test of Differences Between Marital Status And Awareness

Group Statistics

maritalstatus N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Awareness

single 22 3.9798 .61304 .13070

married 208 4.0983 .51928 .03601

Independent Samples Test Levene's

Test for Equality of

Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig.

(2- tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the

Difference Lower Upper

Awareness Equal variances assumed

.782 .377 - 1.000

228 .318 -.11849 .11851 - .35201

.11502

Equal variances not assumed

-.874 24.294 .391 -.11849 .13557 - .39812

.16113

(59)

111

(C) Test of Differences Between Age Group And Awareness

Descriptives Awareness

N Mean Std.

Deviation

Std.

Error

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Minimum Maximum

Lower Bound Upper Bound

1.00 36 3.9414 .64978 .10830 3.7215 4.1612 2.89 5.00

2.00 89 4.0699 .50011 .05301 3.9646 4.1753 2.89 5.00

3.00 81 4.1605 .50918 .05658 4.0479 4.2731 2.78 5.00

4.00 24 4.1204 .47584 .09713 3.9194 4.3213 3.22 5.00

Total 230 4.0870 .52861 .03486 4.0183 4.1556 2.78 5.00

Test of Homogeneity of Variances Awareness

Levene Statistic df1 df2 Sig.

1.953 3 226 .122

ANOVA Awareness

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Between Groups 1.254 3 .418 1.506 .214

Within Groups 62.735 226 .278

Total 63.989 229

(60)

112

Multiple Comparisons Dependent Variable: Awareness

Tukey HSD

(I) agegroup (J) agegroup Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error Sig. 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound

1.00

2.00 -.12855 .10407 .605 -.3979 .1408

3.00 -.21914 .10554 .164 -.4923 .0540

4.00 -.17901 .13884 .571 -.5384 .1803

2.00

1.00 .12855 .10407 .605 -.1408 .3979

3.00 -.09058 .08091 .678 -.3000 .1188

4.00 -.05046 .12118 .976 -.3641 .2632

3.00

1.00 .21914 .10554 .164 -.0540 .4923

2.00 .09058 .08091 .678 -.1188 .3000

4.00 .04012 .12245 .988 -.2768 .3570

4.00

1.00 .17901 .13884 .571 -.1803 .5384

2.00 .05046 .12118 .976 -.2632 .3641

3.00 -.04012 .12245 .988 -.3570 .2768

(61)

113

(D) Test of Differences Between Highest Educational Level And Awareness

Descriptives Awareness

N Mean Std.

Deviation

Std.

Error

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Minimum Maximum

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

STPM/Diploma 19 3.9006 .44274 .10157 3.6872 4.1140 3.33 4.78

degree 192 4.0880 .54181 .03910 4.0108 4.1651 2.78 5.00

master 19 4.2632 .41773 .09583 4.0618 4.4645 3.44 5.00

Total 230 4.0870 .52861 .03486 4.0183 4.1556 2.78 5.00

Test of Homogeneity of Variances Awareness

Levene Statistic df1 df2 Sig.

1.996 2 227 .138

ANOVA Awareness

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Between Groups 1.250 2 .625 2.261 .107

Within Groups 62.739 227 .276

Total 63.989 229

(62)

114

Multiple Comparisons Dependent Variable: Awareness

Tukey HSD (I)

highesteducational (J)

highesteducational

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std.

Error

Sig. 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound

Upper Bound STPM/Diploma

degree -.18738 .12644 .301 -.4857 .1109

master -.36257 .17057 .087 -.7650 .0398

degree STPM/Diploma .18738 .12644 .301 -.1109 .4857

master -.17519 .12644 .350 -.4735 .1231

master

STPM/Diploma .36257 .17057 .087 -.0398 .7650

degree .17519 .12644 .350 -.1231 .4735

(63)

115

(E) Test of Differences Between Monthly IncomeAnd Awareness

Descriptives Awareness

N Mean Std.

Deviation

Std.

Error

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Minimum Maximum

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

<RM3,999 46 4.0386 .56131 .08276 3.8720 4.2053 3.00 5.00 RM4,000-

RM4,999

45 3.9309 .55165 .08223 3.7651 4.0966 2.89 5.00

RM5,000- RM5,999

75 4.0830 .48744 .05629 3.9708 4.1951 2.78 5.00

RM6,000- RM6,999

37 4.2943 .50186 .08251 4.1270 4.4616 3.00 5.00

>RM7,000 27 4.1564 .51313 .09875 3.9534 4.3594 3.22 5.00

Total 230 4.0870 .52861 .03486 4.0183 4.1556 2.78 5.00

Test of Homogeneity of Variances Awareness

Levene Statistic df1 df2 Sig.

.562 4 225 .691

ANOVA Awareness

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Between Groups 2.926 4 .731 2.695 .032

Within Groups 61.064 225 .271

Total 63.989 229

Figure

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References

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