DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TOPICAL ANALGESIC OINTMENT – FROM
LABORATORY TO PRODUCTION SCALE
NOOR ADIBAH BINTI MD ADIB
A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
The preparation containing methyl salicylate in an ointment dosage form, is available from various manufacturers throughout the world for the treatment of muscular pain.
The limitations of the active ingredients had restricted the use of the ointment only for muscular pain. A new combination of methyl salicylate is proposed with other four active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), formulated as an ointment, that is envisaged to give wholesome benefits to the patients as it contained contemporary APIs, combined with natural products. The APIs were methyl salicylates (MS), camphor and menthol, whereas the natural products were eucalyptus oil (EO) and peppermint oil (PO). Peppermint oil contains menthol as one of the components. A proper scale-up of an ointment is very essential due to high variability of characteristics of semisolid formulation from lab scale as compared to production scale. It was also reported that due to the complex nature of the bases present in the combination of some APIs, product stability may suffer. Hence the objectives of this study were to formulate and characterize the analgesic ointment containing five APIs and identifying its critical quality attributes (CQA), to scale-up the formula from lab size to a pilot size, to develop and validate quantitative analytical method quantifying the presence of the APIs from the dosage form, to identify and optimize critical processing parameters (CPP) for the scale-up batches and finally to conduct the accelerated and real-time stability studies for the scale-up batches. Briefly, the lab scale was formulated from 100g to 5kg batch size, consisting of 25% w/w MS, 5% camphor, 5% menthol, 5%
EO and 5% PO, by using the overhead stirrer (100 rpm and 15 mins of mixing time).
Different formulations were tested by varying the ratio between the two types of ointment bases, namely, petroleum jelly (PJ) and beeswax (BW). It was found that this lab scale gave the pH between 4.83 to 4.93, the hardness between 31.33 to 35.00g, the viscosity between 558 to 2803 mPa.s and the spreadability from 75 to 1947 mPa.s.
The ointment exhibited pseudoplastic behaviour with yield stress and was found to be thixotropic. Three formulations consisted of ratios PJ: BW 10:90 (FI), 30:70 (FII) and 50:50 (FIII) were selected to be scaled-up and characterized. The scaled-up was conducted using a vacuum homogenous mixer and automatic tube filling machine for 35kg batch size. It was identified at this stage that the CPPs of vacuum homogeneous mixer were temperature of mixing and cooling, speed of the agitator and the time of mixing. While, CPPs of automatic tube filling machine were dosage and speed.
Critical quality attributes (CQA) were identified as physical characteristic, minimum fill, content based on assay and microbial limit test. The formulations FI to FIII were characterized and exhibited pH range from 4.75 to 4.95, viscosity of 735 to 1670 mPa.s and spreadability of 735 to 1670 mPa.s. The ointment exhibited pseudoplastic behaviour with yield stress and found to be thixotropic. By using gas chromatography coupled with flame iodide detector (GC-FID), analytical method was developed and validated using the scale-up batches and all parameters namely specificity, limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity and range, precision and recovery, and intermediate precision fulfil the specification. After storage up to 6 months, the percentage content of MS, camphor, menthol, EO and PO were 24.6 to 25.9% w/w, 4.6 to 4.8% w/w, 6.8 to 7.5% w/w, 4.95 to 5.2% w/w and 6.85 to 7.1% w/w respectively. Hence, we conclude that a stable ointment consisted of five APIs had been successfully formulated and scaled-up. The predicted shelf life was 2.1 years.
ABSTRACT IN ARABIC
ملاآ جلاعل لماعلا ءانحأ عيجم في ةعنصلما تاكرشلا فلتمخ لبق نم حاتم مهرم لكش ىلع ليثيلما تلايسيلاس ىلع ةيوتلمحا تارضحتسلما تابيكرت ةساردلا هذه في تحترقا .تلاضعلا ملالآ طقف مهارلما مادختسا ةطشنلا تناوكلما ةيدودمح تديق .تلاضعلا تلايسيلاسل ةديدج
( ةطشن ةينلاديص تناوكم ةعبرأ عم ليثيلما
ىلع اهئاوتحلا ىضرملل ةيحص دئاوف يطعت نأ عقوتلما نم تيلاو ،مهرمك ةرضمح ،)
لوثنلماو ،روفاكلاو ،ليثيلما تلايسيلاس تناك ةطشنلا ةينلاديصلا تناوكلما .ةيعيبط تابكرم لىإ ةفاضلإبا ةثيدح ةطشن ةينلاديص تناوكم ،
ببسب يرورض رمأ مهرلما جاتنا ميخضت .تناوكلما دحأك لوثنلما عانعنلا تيز نمضي .عانعنلا تيزو ،روفاكلا تيز تناك ةيعيبطلا تابكرلماو ا ةعيبطلل ارظن هنأ اضيأ ريراقتلا تدكأ .يعانصلا جاتنلإبا ةنراقم يابرمخ ةعنصلما ةبلصلا هبشلا تارضحتسلما صئاصخ في يربكلا نيابتلا قعلم
ةطشنلا ةينلاديصلا تناوكملل تابيكترلا ضعب في ةدوجولما تياولقلل ةغايصل ةساردلا هذه تفده هلك كللو .رثأتي دق جتنلما رارقتساف
( ابه ةصالخا ةمالها ةدولجا تاسم ديدتحو ،ةطشن ةينلاديص تناوكم ةسخم ىلع يوتيح نكسم مهرم فيصوتو
قاطن ميخضتل ،)
خلما مجلحا نم رضحتسلما ةينلاديص تناوكم دوجو ليلحتل يمكلا ليلحتلل ةقيرط ةحص نم ققحتلاو ريوطتللو ،بييرجتلا مجلحا لىإ يبر
( ةمالها ةلجاعلما يرياعم ينستحو ديدحتلو ،يعرلجا لكشلا نم ةطشن
تاسارد ءارجلإ ةساردلا تفده ايرخأو ،ميخضتلا تاعفدل )
.ميخضتلا تاعفدل ةيلالحاو ةعراستلما رارقتسلاا مجح نم يابرمخ رضحتسلما دادعا تم ،راصتخبا
100 لىإ غ 5 تيلاو ةعفدلا مجلح غك
نم تفلتأ 25
،ليثيلما تلايسيلاس لئاس/لئاس % 5
،روفاكلا نم % 5
،لوثنلما نم % 5
و ،عانعنلا تيز تيز نم % 5
تيز نم %
( يولعلا بلاقلا مادختسبا سوتبلاكولأا 100
و ةقيقدلا في ةرود 15
ا تقو نم ةقيقد يريغت للاخ نم ةفلتمخ تابيكرت رابتخا تم .)طللخ
ينب ةضوحم ىوتسم ىطعأ يابرمخ دعلما رضحتسلما نأ دجو .لسعلا عشمو يطفنلا ملالها اهمو ،مهرملل ةيساسلأا ةدالما يعون ينب ةبسنلا 4.83 لىإ 4.93 ينب ةبلاصو ، 31.33
ينب ةجوزلو ، 558
لىإ 2803 م راشتناو ،لاكسبا لم ن
75 لىإ 1947
عشم :ةيتلآا بسنلبا تابيكرت ةثلاث رايخا تم .زلهبا اعيمتم ناكو ليصحتلا ىلع يرثتأ عم عم نيدل هبش اكولس مهرلما رهظأ .لاكسبا لم يطفنلا ملالهاو لسعلا 10:90
FI( ،) 30:70
FII( و ) 50:50
FIII( اذه ءارجإ تم .اهفينصت كلذ دعبو اهجاتنا ميخضتل )
ختسبا ميخضتلا مجح تاذ ةعفدل ةيئاقلت بوبنأ ءلم ةلآو سناجتم طفشم طلاخ ماد
35 يرياعم نأ ىلع ةلحرلما هذه في فرعتلا تم .مجك
ةمالها ةلجاعلما يرياعم امنيب .طللخا ةدمو ،زازلها ةعرسو ،ديبرتلاو طللخا ةرارح ةجرد تناك سناجتلما طفشلما طلاخلل ةمالها ةلجاعلما سبكل
ئاقلتلا ءللما بيبناأ ( ةمالها ةدولجا تاسم ديدتح تم .ةعرسلاو ةعرلجا ةيمك تناك ةي
،ءللم نىدلأا دلحاو ،ةيئيازيفلا صئاصلخبا )
تابيكرت تمستا .بيوركيلما دلحا رابتخاو صحفلا ىلع دمتعلما ىوتلمحا
FI FIIو نم تحوارت ةضوحم ةجرد ترهظأو 4.75
4.95 نم ةجوزلو ، 735
لىإ 1670 ناو ،لاكسبا لم نم راشت
735 لىإ 1670 يرثتأ عم نيدل هبش اكولس مهرلما رهظأ .لاكسبا لم
ويلأا بله فشاك عم ةيزاغلل ايفارغوتاموركلا مادختسبا اهتحص نم ققحتلاو ةيليلحتلا ةقيرطلا ريوطت تم .زلهبا اعيمتم ناكو جاتنلإا ىلع ديد
ا يهو تاملعلما عيجم تناكو ةمخضلما جاتنلإا تاعفد عم ( يمكلا ديدحتلا دحو ،ديدحتل
لىإ تلصو ةدلم نيزختلا دعب .تافصاوملل ةيفوتسم ةيطسولا ةقدلاو ،دادترسلااو ةقدلاو ،ىدلماو 6
تلايسيلاس ىوتمح ةبسن تناك ،رهشأ
ليثيلما 24.6 – 25.9 روفاكلاو ،و/و % 4.6
- 4.8 لوثنلماو ،و/و % 6.8
- 7.5 عانعنلا تيز ،و/و % 4.95
- 5.2 % تيزو ،و/و
- 7.1 ميخضتو هتغايص تتم دق ةطشن ةينلاديص تناوكم ةسخم نم فلأتي ارقتسم اهمرم نأ جتنتسا اماتخو .و/و %
لياوح ةعقوتلما هتيحلاص ةدم تناكو ،حاجنب هجاتنا 2.1
I certify that I have supervised and read this study and that in my opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master in Pharmaceutical Sciences (Pharmaceutical Technology).
Bappaditya Chatterjee Supervisor
Farahidah Mohamed Co-Supervisor
Uttam Kumar Mandal Co-Supervisor
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master in Pharmaceutical Sciences (Pharmaceutical Technology).
Kausar Ahmad Internal Examiner
Haliza Katas External Examiner
This thesis was submitted to the Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and is accepted as a fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master in Pharmaceutical Sciences (Pharmaceutical Technology).
Mohd Rushdi bin Haji Abu Bakar Head, Department of
This thesis was submitted to the Kulliyyah of Pharmacy and is accepted as a fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master in Pharmaceutical Sciences (Pharmaceutical Technology).
Juliana Md. Jaffri
Dean, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
I hereby declare that this dissertation is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degrees at IIUM or other institutions.
Noor Adibah Binti Md Adib
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA
DECLARATION OF COPYRIGHT AND AFFIRMATION OF FAIR USE OF UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TOPICAL ANALGESIC OINTMENT – FROM LABORATORY TO
I declare that the copyright holders of this dissertation are jointly owned by the student and IIUM.
Copyright © 2017 Noor Adibah Binti Md Adib and International Islamic University Malaysia. All rights reserved.
No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below
1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgement.
2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.
3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.
By signing this form, I acknowledged that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Right and Commercialization policy.
Affirmed by Noor Adibah Binti Md Adib
All thanks and praises to Allah, The Almighty for granting me life, good health and strength. Without His Will, I would not be able to complete my thesis successfully. This thesis represents the results of many experiences I have encountered at Kulliyyah of Pharmacy from dozens of remarkable individuals. I would like to offer my sincere thanks to all people that were involved in my research directly and indirectly, who enabled me to obtain quality data needed for my research. May Allah bless all of you till Jannah.
First and foremost, it is my utmost pleasure to dedicate this work and warmly thank and appreciate my husband, Muhammad Subri Bin Manaf, my daughter, Aisyah Damia and Sakinah Zinnirah, my son, Izz Emir Al-Furqan, who granted me the gift of their unwavering belief in my ability to accomplish this goal, thank you for your support and patience. To my dear parents, Hj Md Adib and Hjh Norsiah thanks to both of you for their material and spiritual support in all my life. To my dear father in-law and mother in-law, Manaf and Siti Fatimah thanks to both of you for their spiritual support during preparation of my thesis. I also would like to thank my sisters (Nor Ain and Nurul Nazirah) and brother (Mohd Nor Azra and Mohd Nor Salleh), they have aided in numerous ways. May Allah give you all the best in return.
I am most indebted to my supervisor, Asst. Prof. Dr. Bappaditya Chatterjee, whose enduring disposition, kindness, promptitude, thoroughness and friendship have facilitated the successful completion of my work. I put on record and appreciate his detailed comments, useful suggestions and inspiring queries which have considerably improved this thesis. His brilliant grasp of the aim and content of this work led to his insightful comments, suggestions and queries which helped me a great deal. Despite his commitments, he took time to listen and attend to me whenever requested. The moral support he extended to me is in no doubt a boost that helped in building and writing the draft of this research work. I am also grateful to my co-supervisor, Assoc.
Prof. Dr. Farahidah Binti Mohamed, to be a true mentor, sometimes leading, sometimes showing me the way, at other time giving me the freedom to explore, but always available with wisdom, advise and support. I would also like to express my gratitude to my co-supervisor, Asst. Prof. Dr. Uttam Kumar Mandal for his support, understanding and guidance into the world of research. Thank you for sharing your knowledge and experience.
I wish to express my appreciation and thanks to those who provided their time, effort and support for this project. To the members of my thesis committee, thank you for sticking with me.
May Allah grant us all success in the world and in the hereafter, amin.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ... ii
Abstract in Arabic ... iii
Approval page ... iv
Declaration ... vi
Copyright Page ... vii
Acknowledgements ... viii
Table of Contents ... ix
List of Tables ... xi
List of Figures ... xiv
List of Equations ... xvi
List of Symbols ... xvii
List of Abbreviations ... xviii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ... 1
1.1 Background of The Study ... 1
1.2 Problem Statement ... 2
1.3 Research Objectives... 3
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ... 4
2.1 Pain ... 4
2.1.1 Definition of Pain ... 4
2.1.2 Types of Pain ... 4
2.1.3 Management of Pain ... 5
2.2 Analgesics ... 6
2.2.1 Systemic Analgesic ... 6
2.2.2 Transdermal Analgesic ... 7
2.2.3 Topical Analgesic ... 7
2.3 Topical Dosage Form ... 8
2.3.1 Topical Analgesic Ointment ... 9
2.3.2 Drawback of Topical Analgesic Ointment... 11
2.4 Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients ... 11
2.4.1 Methyl Salicylate ... 11
2.4.2 Camphor ... 14
2.4.3 Menthol and Peppermint Oil ... 15
2.4.4 Eucalyptus Oil ... 19
2.4.5 Combination of API ... 20
2.5 Formulation of Analgesic Ointment ... 22
2.5.1 Formulation Principle ... 22
2.5.2 Selection of Permitted Level and Combination ... 23
2.6 Characterization ... 27
2.6.1 Quantitative Analysis of The Ingredients By GC-FID Methods .. 27
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 30
3.1 Materials/Apparatus/ Equipment/Chemicals ... 30
3.2 Methods ... 32
3.2.1 Pre-Formulation Studies ... 32
3.2.2 Formulation ... 32
3.2.3 Characterization of Laboratory Scale Trial Batches ... 34
3.2.4 Testing CQA for The Ointment ... 37
3.2.5 Scale-Up ... 37
3.2.6 Characterization of Scale-Up Batches ... 39
3.2.7 Critical Processing Parameter (CPP) ... 40
3.2.8 Development of Analytical Method for Estimation of Methyl Salicylate, Camphor, Menthol, Eucalyptus Oil, and Peppermint Oil ... 41
3.2.9 Analytical Method Validation (AMV) ... 43
3.2.10 Stability Study ... 51
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ... 53
4.1 Pre-Formulation Studies ... 53
4.1.1 Physical Characterization ... 53
4.1.2 Drug-Excipients Compatibility Study by ATR-FTIR ... 54
4.2 Formulation and Characterization of Laboratory Scale Trial Batches ... 60
4.2.1 Phase Separation ... 60
4.2.2 pH ... 60
4.2.3 Hardness ... 60
4.2.4 Rheological Parameters (Viscosity, Spreadability, Yield Stress, and Thixotropy)... 62
4.2.5 CQAs of The Ointment Derived by The Lab Scale Formulation ... 63
4.3 Scale-Up and Characterization of Scale-Up Batches ... 63
4.3.1 Characterization of Scale-Up Batches ... 65
4.3.2 CPP Derived by The Scale-Up Batches ... 69
4.3.3 CQA of Ointment Derived by The Scale-Up Batches ... 72
4.4 Development and Validation of Analytical Method ... 73
4.4.1 Analytical Method Validation ... 73
4.5 Stability Study ... 83
4.5.1 Characterization for Stability Studies of Ointments ... 83
4.5.2 Physical Stability... 83
4.5.3 Chemical Stability ... 83
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION ... 96
REFERENCES ... 99
APPENDIX I: LIST OF CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS ... 111
APPENDIX II: ABSTRACT APPEARED IN THE ABSTRACT BOOK OF ICIP 2016 − 2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY, KUANTAN, PAHANG, MALAYSIA ... 112
APPENDIX III: PUBLICATIONS APPEARED IN THE JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL INVESTIGATION, 2017 ... 113
LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Page No.
2.1 Methyl salicylate as sole counterirritant in some commercial products 13 2.2 Camphor as sole counterirritant in some commercial products 15 2.3 Menthol as sole counterirritant in some commercial product 18 2.4 External analgesic commercial product containing methyl salicylate,
camphor, menthol, eucalyptus oil and peppermint oil as API
2.5 Permitted combinations of API and their effects 24
2.6 Dose limitation of each Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) 24
2.7 Combination of APIs between groups 25
2.8 Monographs published in the British (BP), European (EP), and American (USP) Pharmacopoeias
3.1 Raw Materials 30
3.2 Reference Standard 30
3.3 Apparatus and equipment 31
3.4 Combined base formulation 33
3.5 Composition of trial formulations 33
3.6 Process parameter during lab scale 34
3.7 Base formulation A to C 38
3.8 Formulation code 38
3.9 Process parameter for scale-up use homogenize mixer 40 3.10 Process parameter for scale-up trial using automatic tube filling machine 41
3.11 GC-FID conditions fixed for analysis 43
3.12 Concentration of reference standard stock and mix standard solution 45 3.13 Concentration of sample stock and sample solution for each raw material
3.14 System suitability parameters for the developed GC method with acceptable values
3.15 Stability study sampling time points and condition 52 4.1 Physical characteristics of the ointment raw materials 53 4.2 Summary of the initial characterization for Formulation I to VI laboratory
scale batch (values are mean ± SD, n = 3)
4.3 CQA of analgesic ointment 63
4.4 Monitoring temperature during SC01 64
4.5 Summary of initial characterization for composition SC 01 to SC 03 scale- up batches (values are mean ± SD, n = 3)
4.6 Specification of content of each active (%) 69
4.7 Percentage content of each active 69
4.8 CPP during manufacturing process of ointment 71
4.9 CQA of analgesic ointment derived from scale up batches 72 4.10 System suitability parameters derived from the developed GC method 74 4.11 Predicted and confirmed values of LOQ (QL) of four analytes obtained by
the GC method
4.12 Linearity value of individual analyte derived by developed GC method 77
4.13 Concentration used in linearity study 77
4.14 Precision Percent recovery (accuracy) – precision values of individual analyte derived by GC method
4.15 Degradation of methyl salicylate in ointment prepared from base petroleum jelly and beeswax (50:50) containing 25% w/w methyl salicylate, 5% w/w camphor, 5% w/w menthol, 5% w/w eucalyptus oil, and 5% w/w peppermint oil stored inside aluminium collapsible tubes
4.16 Degradation of camphor in ointment prepared from base petroleum jelly and beeswax (50:50) containing 25% w/w methyl salicylate, 5% w/w camphor, 5% w/w menthol, 5% w/w eucalyptus oil, and 5% w/w peppermint oil stored inside aluminium collapsible tubes
4.17 Degradation of menthol in ointment prepared from base petroleum jelly and beeswax (50:50) containing 25% w/w methyl salicylate, 5% w/w camphor, 5% w/w menthol, 5% w/w eucalyptus oil, and 5% w/w peppermint oil stored inside aluminium collapsible tubes
4.18 Degradation of eucalyptus oil in ointment prepared from base petroleum jelly and beeswax (50:50) 25% w/w methyl salicylate, 5% w/w camphor, 5% w/w menthol, 5% w/w eucalyptus oil, and 5% w/w peppermint oil stored inside aluminium collapsible tubes
4.19 Degradation of peppermint oil in ointment prepared from base petroleum jelly and beeswax (50:50) containing 25% w/w methyl salicylate, 5% w/w camphor, 5% w/w menthol, 5% w/w eucalyptus oil, and 5% w/w
peppermint oil stored inside aluminium collapsible tubes
4.20 Parameters for calculation of shelf-life of each active (a) methyl salicylate, (b) camphor, (c) menthol, (d) eucalyptus oil, and (e) peppermint oil inside ointment inside aluminium collapsible tubes
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No. Page No.
2.1 Chemical structure of methyl salicylate 11
2.2 Chemical structure of camphor 14
2.3 Chemical structure of menthol 16
2.4 Chemical structure of eucalyptol 19
3.1 Texture analyser with the cylinder probe attached 35
3.2 Texture analyser with male cone probe attached 36
4.1 IR Spectra of (a) synthetic beeswax 1540 and (b) white petroleum jelly 54 4.2 IR Spectra of all APIs; (a) methyl salicylate, (b) camphor powder, (c)
menthol crystal, (d) eucalyptus oil, and (e) peppermint oil 50%
4.3 IR Spectra of analgesic ointment containing all raw materials 59 4.4 Forward and backward rheogram (thixotropic loop) for lab scale batch 62 4.5 Forward and backward rheogram (Thixotropic loop) for scale-up batches
4.6 Forward and backward rheogram (Thixotropic loop) for scale-up batches of analgesic ointment (base and API)
4.7 Representative chromatogram of 50% spiked sample of camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate (accuracy-precision study)
4.8 Representative chromatogram of 100% spiked sample of camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate (accuracy-precision study)
4.9 Representative chromatogram of 150% spiked sample of camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate (accuracy-precision study)
4.10 Representative chromatogram of 50% spiked sample of eucalyptus oil (accuracy precision study)
4.11 Representative chromatogram of 100% spiked sample of eucalyptus oil (accuracy-precision study)
4.12 Representative chromatogram of 150% spiked sample of eucalyptus oil (accuracy-precision study)
4.13 First order degradation kinetics of (a) methyl salicylate, (b) camphor, (c) menthol, (d) eucalyptus oil, and (e) peppermint oil in ointment stored in aluminium collapsible tubes at different temperatures
4.14 Arrhenius plot for optimized (a) methyl salicylate, (b) camphor, (c) menthol, (d) eucalyptus oil, (e) peppermint oil in ointment
LIST OF EQUATIONS
Resolution between an analyte peak and its
preceding peak (Rs) 𝑅𝑠 =2(𝑇𝑅1− 𝑇𝑅2)
(𝑊1+ 𝑊2) Number of theoretical plate (N)
N = 16 (𝑇𝑅 𝑊)
Retention factor (K´)
K´ =(𝑇𝑅 − 𝑇𝑂) 𝑇𝑂
Tailing factor (T)
T = 𝑊5.0 𝑇𝑤. 2 Reproducibility of peak area response (%
RSD) where n = 6 % RSD = 𝑆𝐷𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎
Limit of Quantitation (LOQ)
𝐿𝑂𝑄 = 10 σ 𝑆
% Recovery 𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 (𝑝𝑝𝑚)
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑑𝑑𝑒𝑑 (𝑝𝑝𝑚) × 100 First order reaction rate constant (K) per month
for each temperature Slope = −𝐾
Value of K at 25°C (K25) was extrapolated from the Arrhenius plot and shelf life of the formulation was calculated by substituting the value of K25
t90 = 0.1054/𝑘25
LIST OF SYMBOLS
°C degree Celsius
cm-1 per centimetre
g/mol Gram per mol
mg/kg Milligram per kilogram
mPa.s milipascal second
s-1 per second
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ALS Automatic liquid sampler
API Active pharmaceutical ingredient
ATR-FTIR Attenuated reflectance infra-red spectroscopy
BP British Pharmacopoeia
CNS Central nervous system CPP Critical processing parameter CQA Critical quality attribute
EO Eucalyptus oil
EP European Pharmacopeia
FDA/USFDA The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the
United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Formulation I Formulation II
FIII Formulation III
Short form for Banque des Donnes Automatise sur les Medications (word in French). One of the French data bases specialised in the cataloguing of drugs and substances that are created between French universities and the pharmaceutical industries and is used by
GC-FID Gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector
GMP Good Manufacturing Practice guideline
ICH International Conference on Harmonization of Technical
Requirements for Registration on Pharmaceuticals for Human Use ICH Q2 (R1) International Conference on Harmonisation of technical requirements
for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use (ICH) Validation of
xix Analytical Procedure
IR spectra Infrared spectra
IS Internal standard
IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
LC Liquid chromatography
LOD Limit of detection LOQ Limit of quantitation
MS Methyl salicylate
NPRA National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency in Malaysia NSAIDs Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
PEG Polyethylene glycol polymer
PJ Petroleum jelly
PO Peppermint oil
SHS-GC Static headspace-gas chromatography SST System suitability test
TGA Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration USA United States of America
USP United States Pharmacopoeia
WHO World Health Organization
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Pain is a condition that is experienced by human in any stage of life that gives stress to the sensory and an uncomfortable feeling to the body with possible tissue harm. It is not only a sensation, but it is an indication of a disease. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience.
The pain can be a warning signal, when the body has been damaged. In the lives of human, it plays an important role. The pain serves to protect us from harm and to alert us to diseases or conditions. Even though not all pains need treatment, the pains need to be attended to, in order to treat the actual diseases. Therefore, the management of pain is important to give relieve to the patient.
The pain can be managed by some medication as well as some supportive therapy. These medications can be a modern or a traditional one. The established medication or analgesics include ibuprofen and acetaminophen. The traditional management of pain include application of herbal medicines containing extracts, derived from parts of the plants or other plant materials as active ingredients. The supportive therapies include meditation, heat and cold therapy, massage, and relaxation technique. In addition, topical analgesic is one of the most common ways to get immediate relief from pain. There are a variety of topically available active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) which are formulated as ointment, cream, or spray.
They include diclofenac sodium, menthol. and methyl salicylate.
According to Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing (2012), the topical analgesic is a compound that can produce analgesia which acts as
pain-relieving drug without causing unconsciousness. One of the characteristics of these topical analgesics is responding to reduction of painful stimulation. Camphor, menthol, methyl salicylate, eucalyptus oil, and peppermint oil are some popularly known and well-established APIs for topical ointment.
The formulation of an ointment varies greatly from lab scale to large scale because of the possible variation process parameter due to the difference in the equipment. During the initial study, lab scale formula was applied to identify the critical quality attributes (CQAs) and during the initial scale-up, critical processing parameters (CPP) were identified. These two factors were essential to ensure appropriate manufacturing scale to be developed and to fulfil regulatory requirement.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Methyl salicylates (MS), camphor, menthol, eucalyptus oil (EO) and peppermint oil (PO) are commonly used ingredients in analgesic ointment. These ointments are used separately or combined as two to three ingredients of an ointment. However, till date, to the best of our knowledge, there is no such ointment that combines all these five ingredients together in one dosage form. There are high variability of characteristics of semisolid formulation prepared from lab scale to large scale. Proper scale-up of ointment is very essential in this respect. But there is not much work published on the scale-up considerations of ointment although it is a very common dosage form, perhaps owing to the trade secret. Combination of ingredients might lead to the difficulty in finding suitable formulation to ensure product stability, especially for semisolids due to the complex nature of the bases used. Therefore, imparting stability to the ointment containing large number of APIs is one of the major associated problems.
3 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The main aim of the research was to formulate and scale up an analgesic ointment containing camphor, menthol, methyl salicylate, eucalyptus oil and peppermint oil to produce it at commercial scale. To achieve this, the research was targeted to the fulfilment of the following objectives:
1- To formulate five APIs combination and characterize the ointment by identifying its CQA.
2- To scale up the ointment while identifying its CPP.
3- To develop and validate the analytical method to quantitatively analyse the five APIs using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionisation Detector (GC- FID).
4- To carry out the stability study of the developed and scaled-up ointment according to the ICH guidelines (ICH Q1A to ICH Q1F).
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.1 Definition of Pain
Pain often refers to unpleasantness and discomfort or any negative emotion and negative effect of a sensory experience. It can range from mild to extreme level. Pain can probably be resulting from an actual tissue damage to body or can occur even in the absence of any physical harm. Pain can be influenced by a various source variability that comes from nurture (environment) and nature (genes). Environmental factors include psychological and personality related factors such as previous pain experience, emotionality, anxiety, and fear. Molecular genetic of pain includes the identified genetic risk factors contributing to the pain in human (Atlas & Wager, 2012;
Belfer, 2013; National Institutes of Health [NIH], 2011).
2.1.2 Types of pain
One of the common classifications of pain is based on duration. It can distinguish pain into categories called acute and chronic pains. Acute pain lasts for a short time. The time frame is less than three months and maybe as brief as seconds (Radnovich et al., 2014). These include post-operative pain which requires only short-term care. Chronic pain, in contrast, lasts beyond the healing of an injury and can continue for a period of more than three months. It lasts longer due to the nature and symptoms of disease that requires multi-therapeutic activities and long term care management (Koneti & Jones, 2013; Radnovich et al., 2014; Swieboda, Filip, Prystupa, & Drozd, 2013).
5 2.1.3 Management of pain
Pain needs to be controlled as it can affect the quality of life. If pain is not treated, it can affect the individual’s sleep and decrease appetite. The comprehensive pain managements generally include pharmacologic intervention and non-pharmacologic intervention. Pharmacologic intervention is also known as pharmacologic therapy which is a type of medical care that involves medication either alone or in combination with other types of therapy. There is an alternative way to control pain without the use of medicines, which is known as non-pharmacologic therapy or non- pharmacologic intervention. This may include changes in life-style such as diet, exercise and control of smoking and alcohol consumption.
Pharmacologic therapies involve several classes of drug. The three categories that treat pain are acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and opioids. For neurological pain, pharmacological intervention includes anticonvulsant and gabapentin as recommended by WHO (Keskinbora, Pekel, &
Aydinli, 2007). But for severe neuropathic pain, local anaesthetics such as transdermal lignocaine and oral lignocaine analogue, Mexiletine is given to relieve the pain (Clancy, 2012). In addition, adjuvants may also be prescribed, those include muscle relaxants and anticonvulsants (Nalamachu, 2013). Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy usually have problems with cognitive alterations. These patients receive pharmacologic interventions including psychostimulants, epoetin alfa, and ginkgo biloba (Chan, McCarthy, Devenish, Sullivan, & Chan, 2015).
Generally, the non-pharmacological treatment that is used to control the pain includes application of heat, ice, massage, and physical therapies. In addition, aroma therapy, guided imagery, laughter, music, self-hypnosis, and acupuncture are commonly used. The types of non-pharmacological treatment methods, used to relieve