MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION PROCEDURE: CASE STUDY FOR KUCHING-SAMARAHAN ROAD

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A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF COMMON

MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION PROCEDURE: CASE STUDY FOR KUCHING-SAMARAHAN ROAD

Mike Jackson Tsai

Bachelor of Engineering with Honours (Civil Engineering)

2009

Faculty of Engineering

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UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA SARAWAK BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS

Judul: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF COMMON MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION PROCEDURES: CASE STUDY FOR

KUCHING-SAMARAHAN ROADS SESI PENGAJIAN : 2005/2009

Saya, MIKE JACKSON TSAI (HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan tesis * ini disimpan di Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

1. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

2. Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.

3. Membuat pendigitan untuk membanguankan Pangkalan Data Kandungan Tempatan.

4. Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi.

5. ** Sila tandakan (√) di kotak yang berkenaan.

SULIT (Mengandungi maklumat yand berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972).

TERHAD (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan).

TIDAK TERHAD

Disahkan oleh

_________________________ ___________________________

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS) (TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

Alamat tetap: No. 12 KPG Payau Sg Burus Mr. Ron Aldrino Chan @Ron Buking Jalan Mongkos, 94750 Tebakang

Serian, Sarawak.

Tarikh: __________ Tarikh: __________

CATATAN * Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah, Sarjana dan Sarjana Muda ** Jika tesis ini SULIT dan TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai

SULIT dan TERHAD.

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Laporan Projek Tahun Akhir berikut:

Tajuk: A Preliminary Survey of Common Maintenance and Rehabilitation Procedure: Case Study for Kuching-Samarahan Roads

Nama penulis: Mike Jackson Tsai Matrik: 14473

Telah dibaca dan disahkan oleh:

……… ……….

Mr. Ron Aldrino Chan @Ron Buking Tarikh

Penyelia

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A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF COMMON

MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION PROCEDURE: CASE STUDY FOR KUCHING-SAMARAHAN ROAD

MIKE JACKSON TSAI

This thesis submitted to

Faculty of Engineering University Malaysia Sarawak in partial fulfillment of the requirements for degree of Bachelor of Engineering with Honours

(Civil Engineering) 2009

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Especially to my beloved wife, Mariam Kapli, to abah and mama, Mr Tsai Ah Bang and Mrs Lusi Bihis, to my beloved siblings, Valancia, Erickson, Angelina and Valden

Thanks for all your support

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, I would like to give thanks to GOD for the continuous blessing and guidance that I have received throughout the completion of this final year project.

Secondly, I wish to express my greatest thanks and sincere appreciation to my supervisor, Mr. Ron Aldrino Chan for his advices guidance, supports and substantial contribution from the very beginning until the compilation of this thesis.

Million of thanks and special recognition are extended to JKR staff especially to Mdm Sharifah Noorzaimah. Thanks also to other supporting staff of CMS (Road) Sdn Bhd Serian, CMS (Road) Sdn Bhd Samarahan and PPES Works (Sarawak) Sdn Bhd for providing the resources, assistance, guidance, and opinion to enable this thesis to be carried out.

I also would like to thank all my supportive friends especially Walter Lawrence, Stephen Nyambar, Billy Shilton, Garet Jari, Edward, Nicholas and Mike Hudson for the valuable help, support, and companionship to get through my difficult moments during this study.

Last but not least, I would like to devote the utmost thankfulness to my loving family especially to my wife Mariam Kapli, my parents and to my parent in-law for their encouragement, supports and prayers during the whole process of learning in Unimas.

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ABSTRAK

Prosedur penyelenggaraan dan pemuliharaan jalan raya telah diwujudkan oleh Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) Malaysia. Prosedur tersebut mengandungi semua aspek yang perlu diambil kira ketika menjalankan kerja-kerja penyelenggaraan dan pemuliharaan jalan raya di Malaysia, seperti cara-cara kerja penyelenggaraan dan pengurusan penyelenggaraan jalan raya. Cara-cara kerja penyelenggaraan jalan raya adalah satu sistem yang digunakan, termasuk pengumpulan data semasa dan kaedah-kaedah melakukan kerja-kerja penyelenggaraan jalan raya menggunapakai piawai yang dikeluarkan oleh JKR. Teknik pengurusan penyelenggaraan jalan raya adalah proses merancang, mengatur, mengarah dan mengawal kerja-kerja penyelenggaraan dan pemuliharaan jalan raya. Kajian yang telah dijalankan ini akan memberi tumpuan kepada prosedur penyelenggaraan dan pemuliharaan di jalan Kuching-Samarahan terutama sekali di jalan Mongkos dan jalan Serian-Tebedu-Indonesia Border . Selain daripada itu, kajian yang dijalankan juga akan mengenalpasti kerja-kerja penyelenggaraan dan pemuliharaan yang dilakukan oleh syarikat konsesi yang terbabit dengan aktiviti tersebut. Perbandingan diantara piawaian JKR dan piawaian pembinaan juga akan dilakukan. Melalui kajian yang telah dijalankan ini, didapati terdapat beberapa kelemahan dalam kerja-kerja penyelenggaraan dan pemuliharaan di jalan Mongkos dan jalan Serian-Tebedu-Indonesia Border. Syarikat konsesi menghadapi beberapa masalah iaitu, kekurangan data, kekurangan peralatan kajian, kos penyelenggaran yang tinggi dan kekurangan tenaga kerja.

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ABSTRACT

A road maintenance and rehabilitation procedure was developed by Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) Malaysia. The procedure consists of all aspect that needs to take into account when conducting any road maintenance and rehabilitation in Malaysia, namely the road maintenance work methods and road maintenance management techniques.

Road maintenance work method is a system to carry out the work that includes collection of raw data and conducting maintenance work using standard guidelines that has been developed by JKR. A road maintenance management technique is a process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the road maintenance and rehabilitation activity. This study will focus on the road maintenance and rehabilitation procedures adopted in Kuching-Samarahan roads namely Mongkos road and Serian-Tebedu- Indonesian Border road. Apart from that, this study will also review maintenance and rehabilitation activities performed by the Concession Company that conduct these activities. Comparison between JKR standard and the construction standard were also carried out. The analysis conducted showed some of the weaknesses in road maintenance and rehabilitation activities in Mongkos road and Serian-Tebedu- Indonesian Border road. Lack of field data and test equipment, high maintenance cost and insufficient manpower are several problems faced by the Concession Company.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT PAGES

Dedication i

Acknowledgement ii

Abstrak iii

Abstract iv

Table of Contents v

List of Figure x

List of Table xiii

List of Symbols xiv

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.0 General 1

1.1 Problem Statement 2

1.2 Aim and Objective 3

1.3 Scope of Project 4

1.4 Thesis Structure 4

1.5 Benefit and Potential 5

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 General 6

2.1 Road Classification 6

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2.2 Flexible Road Pavements 9

2.2.1 Pavement Structure 9

2.3 Flexible Pavement Failure 11

2.3.1 Type of Failure 12

2.4 Pavement Evaluation 17

2.4.1 General Stages 19

2.4.2 Initial Assessment 19

2.4.3 Detailed Assessment 20

2.4.4 Pavement Management 23

2.4.5 Road Maintenance and Management System (RMMS) 27

2.4.6 Pavement Life Cycle 29

2.4.7 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis 31

2.5 Maintenance and Rehabilitation Method 33

2.5.1 Routine Maintenance 33

2.5.2 Periodic Maintenance 34

2.5.3 Emergency Maintenance 34

2.5.4 Rehabilitation 35

2.6 Preservation Method 37

2.6.1 Surface Dressing 38

2.6.2 Resealing 38

2.6.3 Overlaying 39

2.6.4 Reconstruction 40

2.6.5 Cement and Lime Stabilization 43

2.7 Summary 43

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vii CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

3.0 General 45

3.1 Data Collection 45

3.1.1 Preparation 45

3.1.2 Questionnaire Interview 46

3.1.3 Compilation of Data 48

3.2 Analysis Comparison 48

3.3 Conclusion and Recommendations 49

3.4 Summary 49

CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS

4.0 General 50

4.1 Introduction 50

4.1.1 Flexible Pavement Structure 51

4.1.2 Common Pavement Failure 52

4.2 Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation Procedure Adopted in

Kuching-Samarahan Roads 53

4.3 Evaluation Process 54

4.4 General Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation 55

4.4.1 Planning Stage 58

4.4.2 Organizing Stage 59

4.4.3 Directing Stage 59

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viii

4.4.4 Controlling Stage 60

4.5 Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation 61

4.5.1 Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation Perform by JKR 62 4.5.2 Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation Perform by PPES 63 4.5.3 Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation Perform by CMS 64

4.6 Road Maintenance Rehabilitation Activities 66

4.6.1 Routine Maintenance Activities 67

4.6.2 Periodic Maintenance Activities 70

4.6.3 Emergency Maintenance Activities 73

4.6.4 Rehabilitation Activities 75

4.7 Cost Assessment for Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation 75

4.8 Summary 77

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION

5.0 Introduction 78

5.1 Jabatan Kerja Raya Standards 78

5.1.1 Flexible Pavement Evaluation 79

5.1.2 Pavement Design 80

5.1.3 Maintenance Technique and Procedures 80

5.2 Construction Standard 81

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5.3 Comparison of JKR and Concession Company Standards 82

5.3.1 Assessment Technique 82

5.3.2 Maintenance and Rehabilitation Procedures 83

5.4 Summary 86

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.0 Conclusion 87

6.1 Recommendations for Future Works 89

REFERENCES 90

APPENDIX

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x

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURES TITLE PAGES

2.1 Road categories (source: Arahan Teknik (Jalan), 8/86) 7 2.2 Flexible pavement structures (source: IKRAM, 1994) 11 2.3 Type of surface deformation (source: IKRAM, 1992) 13 2.4 Rutting on an asphalt street (source: Smith, 2006) 14

2.5 Type of cracks (source: IKRAM, 1992) 15

2.6 Fatigue cracking 16

2.7 Flowchart of pavement evaluation process

(source: IKRAM, 1994) 18

2.8 Surface condition surveys on crack pavement

Surface (source: IKRAM, 1992) 20

2.9 Schematics of the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer

(source: IKRAM, 1994) 21

2.10 Falling Weight Deflectometer (source: IKRAM, 1994) 22 2.11 Schematics of the Benkelman Beam (source: IKRAM, 1994) 23 2.12 Pavement Maintenance Management systems versus

Pavement Management System

(source: Abo-Hashema Mostafa A. et. al) 26

2.13 Pavement condition illustration (source: Muench, S, 2008) 30

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2.14 Maintenance strategies (source: Transport Scotland, 2007) 32

2.15 General process of selecting appropriate

Rehabilitation work. (source: IKRAM, 1994) 36 2.16 Section of road with overlay ( source: IKRAM, 1992) 39

2.17 Reconstruction option (source: IKRAM, 1994) 42

3.1 Flow chart of Methodology study 46

4.1 Pavement structure 51

4.2 Flows of Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation 54

4.3 Objective of road maintenance and rehabilitation.

(source: Jabatan Kerja Raya Sarawak) 56

4.4 Basic road maintenance and rehabilitation practice.

(source: Jabatan Kerja Raya Sarawak) 57

4.5 JKR road maintenance section in Sarawak 63

4.6 Placing safety devices at the work place

(source: CMS ROADS, 2009) 67

4.7 Placing the premix in layer

(source: CMS ROADS, 2009) 68

4.8 Compacting premix using small vibratory roller

(source: CMS ROADS, 2009) 68

4.9 Grass cutting using hand tools

(source: CMS ROADS, 2009) 69

4.10 Replacement of running planks on a bridge

(source: CMS ROADS, 2009) 71

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xii

4.11 Excavated ditch to 50-60mm depth using excavator

(source: CMS ROADS, 2009) 72

4.12 Reshaping of unpaved shoulder at Mongkos Road

(source: CMS ROADS, 2009) 73

4.13 Slope failures at KM5 Mongkos road 74

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xiii

LIST OF TABLES

TABLES TITLE PAGES

2.1 Malaysia roads design standard

(source: Arahan Teknik (Jalan), 8/86) 8

2.2 Roads in Malaysia (source: JKR Cawangan Jalan, 1995) 9

2.3 Routine Maintenance 27

2.4 Periodic Maintenance 28

2.5 Other Maintenance 28

4.1 Common pavement failures 53

4.2 Road condition ranking 55

4.3 Road Maintenance payment done by JKR Samarahan 76

5.1 Pavement evaluation and thickness design 82

5.2 Maintenance technique and work procedures. 83

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

CMS - Cahaya Mata Sarawak (Roads) Sdn Bhd

PPES - Perbadanan Pembangunan Ekonomi Sarawak (Works) Sdn Bhd km/h - kilometer per hour

mm - milimeter km - kilometer

% - percentage RM - Ringgit Malaysia

m - meter

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.0 General

Roads are one of the most importance aspects in movement, which directly affect the movement of people and goods throughout the world. Roads are essential to a country’s economic and social development. According to Kristy (1990), the importance of transportation in world development is multidimensional. One of basic function of transportation is to link residence with employment and produces of goods to their users (Kristy, 1990). Most activities such as personal economies, business economies, public economies, health and social services and education to the local society are also the result of this road system.

Roads play a major role as the main mode of transport for freight and passengers in any country. Therefore, there is a constant increase of traffic volume and utilization of roads. When the number of road users increase, the potential of road damage is very high. Therefore, road maintenance and rehabilitation activities are used to protect and control road damages.

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Standards policy of road maintenance and rehabilitation procedures needs to be applied so that whatever processes and work undertaken are successful and long-lasting.

The purpose of maintenance and upgrading of road pavement is to ensure the smooth operation of a road network. However, to ensure the road is well maintain, there needs to be a study of problems that generally occur based on the particular road conditions, suitable types of maintenance to be carried out and proper record keeping. Currently, in Malaysia most maintenance and upgrading works are designed using methodologies from western countries or not designed at all (IKRAM, 1994). A systematic approach to the maintenance and rehabilitation of a road network needed to ensure they are able to satisfy the increasing demand placed on a road network due to increased traffic.

1.1 Problem Statement

Whenever utilization of a road increases, it will directly affect the condition of the road pavement. Hence, when the pavement deteriorates to certain levels, it must be improved to raise it serviceability standard. The maintenance and rehabilitation methods depend on the type of distress placed on the particular pavement.

Common factors affecting the rate of pavement deterioration are traffic flow at that area, the surrounding environment of the road, pavement layer thickness, construction practices and maintenance of the road. Road maintenance and rehabilitation are one of the most important aspects that will guarantee the comfort of road users. Hence, road maintenance practices must be effective, to ensure effective solutions to road damage.

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However, conflicts often arise over several factors that will have a major impact on realizing the most effective procedures of road maintenance and rehabilitation.

Budgeting, resources, technology and human factor constraints are crucial determinants on proper maintenance and rehabilitation. User expectation on the standards of road maintenance and rehabilitation are very high from the public, especially in rural areas at Sarawak. As relatively new users of a modern road system, these communities may sometimes unknowingly set unrealistic standards as they are not fully aware of the extent of work required for road maintenance. Their evaluation on the standards of roads is one of the conditions with which they measure the government agencies’ performance on delivering services to the public.

1.2 Aim and Objective

The aim of this study is to identify the effectiveness of road maintenance and rehabilitation practice and standard adopted by the Concession Company in Kuching- Samarahan roads. The objectives of this study are:

1. To review the current standard and practise of road maintenance and rehabilitation adopted by Jabatan Kerja Raya and the Concession Company.

2. To compile some maintenance and rehabilitation activities performed by Concession Company on Mongkos road (State road) and Serian-Tededu- Indonesian Border road (Federal road).

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4 1.3 Scope of Study

This study will focus on a case study of the Kuching-Samarahan roads especially road maintenance and rehabilitation procedure adopted for Mongkos road and Serian- Tebedu-Indonesian Border road. A systematic method of study will be carried out, divided into several parts as follows:

a.) Identify common pavement failures on Kuching-Samarahan roads.

b.) Obtain information commonly used for road maintenance and rehabilitation procedures from JKR Samarahan and the Concession Company.

c.) Identify the road maintenance and rehabilitation activities performed by the Concession Company.

d.) Performed a comparison between Jabatan Kerja Raya Standards and Concession Company Standards.

1.4 Thesis Structure

Chapter 1 is the introduction of this study, which consists of the problem definition, aim and objectives, scope of project, thesis structure in addition to the benefits and potential of the study that has been made.

Chapter 2 presents the literature review of the maintenance and rehabilitation of roads in Malaysia and other countries. Supplementary information of road pavements and other relevant subject matters are also included.

Chapter 3 describes the project methodology used for this study at the selected site. The study is based on interviews and questionnaires conducted in Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) and private agencies, document study and traffic volume study.

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Chapter 4 presents the analysis of the relevant data gets from the agencies that conduct road maintenance work in Kuching-Samarahan roads especially at Mongkos road and Serian-Tebedu-Indonesian Border road.

Chapter 5 presents the detail discussion on the Jabatan Kerja Raya standard procedures and construction standard adopted. A comparison between Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) Standards and the construction standards used by the Concession Company also performs in this chapter.

Chapter 6 presents the conclusion and recommendations for future works.

1.5 Benefit and Potential

Findings from this study may contribute to the improvement of road maintenance and rehabilitation work, especially on Kuching-Samarahan roads. By applying the right type of maintenance and rehabilitation methods, future costs may be reduce and road user comfort will increase. Besides that, this study can help the local authorities, especially Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) Sarawak and the Concession Company to further improve road maintenance and rehabilitation work in Sarawak.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 General

Road networks are the predominant mode of transportation facility in Malaysia as well as in most other countries around the world. Therefore road networks must be maintained to a high standard to ensure continuous efficiency and accessibility. But many of our roads lack proper maintenance due to financial restrictions and poor knowledge. Accordingly, the impact of road works on the commerce of a country has make road maintenance and rehabilitation to become a high profile topic; to be treated as an important consideration especially when the road condition very poor and have a lot of failure.

2.1 Road Classifications

Roads in Malaysia can be classified into two broad categories, namely Federal roads and State roads. Federal roads are roads under the Federal Road Ordinance (1959).

These roads include the National expressway, highways under the Malaysia Highway Authority, Toll Expressway and other roads under the administration of Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR).

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