MEDIATING EFFECT OF MALAY VALUES ON MEDIA EXPOSURE TO IDEAL BODY IMAGES AND MODEST
R SS N V OUR MOUN M L UN V RS T STU NTS
AYAN ISSE WEHELIE
A dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Human Sciences in Communication
Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study looks at modest dressing behaviour of female university students in Malaysia. The main purpose of the study is to identify the modest dressing behaviour in terms of their exposure to media and values. Using andura‟s Social Learning Theory, the objectives of the study are; (1) to investigate the relationship between respondents‟ media exposure to ideal female body images and their modest dressing behaviour; (2) to investigate the relationship between respondents‟ Malay values concerning dressing and their attitude towards modest dressing behaviour; (3) to investigate the relationship between respondents‟ media exposure to ideal female body images and their Malay values concerning dressing; and (4) to determine if their Malay values concerning dressing mediate the relationships between their media exposure to female body images and respondents‟ modest dressing behaviour. Social Learning Theory by Bandura (1971) is used to describe the effects of media exposure and Malay values on the respondents dressing behaviours. This study employs quantitative research design using self-administrated survey questionnaire for data collection, distributed to a total of 400 respondents were collected in the International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM). The study found that the modest dressing behaviour are significantly related to exposure to media as well as values. In addition, the respondents‟ Malay values concerning dressing fully mediates the relationship between the exposure to media and modest dressing behaviour of the female students in Malaysia.
ABSTRACT IN ARABI
لما ءادترلاا كولس في ةساردلا هذه ثحبت ضرلا لايزللع في لاعلجاا لبللا ن ي عاوتو
ملاعلإا لئلسول مهعضات ثزح نع عاوتولما ءادترلاا كولس دادتح وه ةساردلا نع سزئضلا ( :يه ةساردلا فادهأ ّنإف ،ارودنلي ّيعلمتوجلاا ملاتولا ةاضظن مادختوسلي مزقلاو 1
ا دسجاا روصل ملاعلإا لئلسو ّضات ن ي ةقلاالا في نهكولسو لبزجتوسملل ةزللثلما ةاوثنلأ
( سيلالما ءادترا في عاوتولما نأشي لبزجملل ةّاوالالما مزقلا ن ي ةقلاالا في قزقحتولا ) 2
( عاوتولما ءادترلاا كولس ونح نههلتجاو سيلالما ءلسنلا ءادترا 3
ن ي ةقلاالا في قزقحتولا )
ةزللثلما ةاوثنلأا دسجاا روصل ملاعلإا لئلسو ّضات ةقلاتولما ةّاوالالما نهمزقو لبزجتوسملل
( سيلالما ءادترلي طسوتوت سيلالما ءادترلي ةقلاتولما ةّاوالالما مهمزق تنلك اذإ لع دادحتول ) 4
لبزجتوسملل عاوتولما ءادترلاا كولسو ةاوثنلأا دسجاا روصل ملاعلإا ضات ن ي لقلاالا ( ارودنلي نع يعلمتوجلاا ملاتولا ةاضظنو 1791
توست ؛)م لئلسول ضاتولا رلثآ فصول مدخ
مزمصت ةساردلا هذه مدختوست لكرلشلما لاف ّدرو ، لزكولس في ةّاوالالما مزقلاو ،ملاعلإا ددع ىلع لهاازوت تيلاو ، لنلزبلا مجا ةزتاذلا ةرادلإا ةنلبتوسا مادختوسلي ّيمكلا ثحبلا 444 ( لايزللع ،ةزلملالا ةزعلاسلإا ةاعلجاا في لهاجمو ةبزجتوسع IIUM
ةساردلا دجوو )
مزقلا لىإ ةفلعلإلي طئلسولل ضاتوللي يربك لكشي طبتضع عاوتولما ءادترلاا كولس ّنأ
لكشي طسوتوت ءادترلالي قلاتوا لمزف لبزجتوسملل ةّاوالالما مزقلا ّنإف ،كلذ لىإ ةفلعلإليو
ايزللع في لبللطلل عاوتولما ءادترلاا كولسو ملاعلإل ضاتولا ن ي ةقلاالا لعلك
I certify that I have supervised and read this study and that in my opinion; it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Master of Human Sciences in Communication.
Norbaiduri Ruslan Supervisor
Aida Muktar Co-Supervisor
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Master of Human Sciences in Communication.
Shafizan Mohamed Examiner
Aini Maznina A. Manaf Examiner
This dissertation was submitted to the Department of Communication and is accepted as a fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Human Sciences in Communication.
Aini Maznina A. Manaf Head, Department of Communication
This dissertation was submitted to the Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences and is accepted as a fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Human Sciences in Communication.
Mohammad Abdul Quayum Dean, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
I hereby declare that this dissertation is the result of my own investigation, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degrees at IIUM or other institutions.
Ayan Isse Wehelie
Signature………....………. ate …….……….
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA
DECLARATION OF COPYRIGHT AND AFFIRMATION OF FAIR USE OF UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH
MEDIATING EFFECT OF MALAY VALUES ON MEDIA EXPOSURE TO IDEAL BODY IMAGES AND MODEST DRESSING BEHAVIOUR AMOUNG FEMALE UNIVERSITY
I declare that the copyright holders of this dissertation are jointly owned by the student and IIUM.
Copyright © 2018 Ayan Isse Wehelie and International Islamic University Malaysia. All rights reserved.
No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below
1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgement.
2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.
3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.
By signing this form, I acknowledged that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Right and Commercialization policy.
Affirmed by Ayan Isse Wehelie
This dissertation is dedicated to my beloved parents
Praise be to Allah S.W.T. that with His Blessing have enabled me to brave my journey. Peace be upon Prophet Muhammad S.A.W., His family and His companions whose unwavering faith and sacrifices had safely conveyed to us the light of Islam and the importance of knowledge in pursuing our lives; and ultimately sustaining our relationships with the Almighty.
First and foremost, it is my utmost pleasure to dedicate this work to my dearest parents and siblings; whose boundless and endless love, prayers and support have motivated me to overcome every challenge that comes into my way.
Towards finishing this dissertation, I would like to express my endless appreciation and gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Norbaiduri Ruslan and my co- supervisor, Dr. Aida Muktar for their guidance, feedbacks, assistance and moral support throughout this research. The same degree of gratitude I present to the Chairperson of the Postgraduate (PG) Committee, Dr. Zeti Azreen and the Head of the Communication Department, Dr. Aini Maznina for their consistent commitment in assisting me and my fellow PG friends to fulfil our Graduate on Time (GOT) mission.
Also, to my lecturers in Communication Department; Prof. Dr. Syed Arabi Idid, Prof.
Dr. Saodah Wok, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Che Mahzan, Dr. Aisha, and Dr. Rizalawati for teaching and educating me about communication. Before this, I was a novice in the field. Not forgetting the administrative staff who have helped me in many ways throughout this journey.
Finally, I wish to thank every single person who has been directly or indirectly involved in the process of completing this dissertation. To the lecturers who are generous with their inspiring words and thoughts; my fellow PG friends; my friends, classmates, and anyone whom I have encountered but can vaguely recall their faces and names. To all of them, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude for making this journey joyful, colourful, and meaningful.
I am thankful to Allah for giving me this grand opportunity and to the university for accepting me. Thank you.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ... ii
Abstract in Arabic ... iii
Approval Page ... ivi
Declaration ... v
Copyright ... vi
Dedication ... vii
Acknowledgements ... vviii
Table of Contents ... iix
List of Tables ... xi
List of Figures ... xii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION ... 1
1.1 Introduction ... 1
1.2 Background of the Study ... 1
1.3 Statement of Problem ... 4
1.4 Research Questions ... 5
1.5 Research Objectives ... 6
1.6 Significance of The Study ... 6
1.7 Chapter Summary ... 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW ... 9
2.1 Introduction ... 9
2.2 Young Women ... 9
2.3 Clothing ... 10
2.3.1 Dressing Behaviour Through the Years in Media... 11
2.3.2 Modest Dressing Behaviour ... 13
2.3.3 Malay Women‟s Dressing Behaviour ... 15
2.3.4 Media Influence on Female Dressing Behavior ... 16
2.4 Women in Media ... 17
2.4.1 Ideal Body Images in the Media ... 18
2.5 Exposure to Media ... 20
2.6 Malaysian Culture ... 21
2.6.1 Islamic Values ... 23
2.6.2 Malay Values and Culture ... 26
2.7 Theoretical Framework ... 30
2.8 Conceptual Framework ... 33
2.9 Hypothesis ... 33
2.10 Chapter Summary ... 34
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY ... 35
3.1 Introduction ... 35
3.2 Research Design ... 35
3.3 Population of the Study ... 36
3.3.1 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria ... 38
3.4 Sampling Procedure ... 38
3.5 Research Instrumentation ... 40
3.5.1 Operationalization of Variables ... 43
3.6 Pilot Study ... 45
3.7 Reliability and Validity ... 46
3.8 Research Procedure ... 48
3.9 Data Analysis ... 48
3.10 Chapter Summary ... 49
CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS ... 50
4.1 Introduction ... 50
4.2 Descriptive Statistics ... 51
4.2.1 Media Exposure to Ideal Female Images ... 53
4.2.2 Malay Values concerning dressing ... 55
4.2.3 Modest Dressing Behaviour ... 56
4.2.4 Activity Pattern ... 57
4.3 Reliability and Validity of Actual Test ... 59
4.4 Inferential Statistic: Hypothesis Testing ... 60
4.4.1 Significance of the Scales ... 61
22.214.171.124 Media Exposure to Ideal Female Images 61
126.96.36.199 Malay Values concerning dressing 62
188.8.131.52 Modest Dressing Behaviour 63
4.4.2 Relationship Among the Given Variables... 64
4.4.3 Mediating Effects of Malay Values Concerning Dressing ... 66
4.5 Chapter Summary ... 69
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ... 70
5.1 Introduction ... 70
5.2 Discussion ... 70
5.3 Limitation ... 73
5.4 Recommendation for Future Study ... 74
5.5 Implications of The Study ... 75
5.5.1 Contribution to Theory ... 76
5.5.2 Contribution to the Field of Study ... 76
5.6 Chapter Summary ... 77
REFERENCES ... 78
APPENDIX A: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 102
APPENDIX B: SPSS OUT PUT FOR DESCRIPTIVE AND ON SAMPLE T- TEST 109
APPENDIX C SPSS OUTPUT: RELIABILITY 124
APPENDIX D SPSS OUTPUT: CORRELATION 132
APPENDIX E SPSS OUTPUT: REGRESSION 134
LIST OF TABLES
Table No Page No
3.1 Stratified Sample of the Population and Estimated Sample Size
for the Study 40
3.2 Summary of the Constructed Instrument for the Survey
3.3 Alpha coefficient of reliability in the pilot study analysis 47
4.1 Demographic characteristics of respondents 53
4.2 Descriptive Analysis on Media Exposure to Ideal Female
4.3 Descriptive Analysis on Malay values concerning dressing 55 4.4 Descriptive Analysis on Modest Dressing Behaviour 56 4.5 Descriptive on Media Exposure activity pattern of respondents 58
4.6 Reliability of all scales 60
4.7 One sample t-test Analysis on Media Exposure to Ideal Female
4.8 One sample t-test Analysis on Attitude to Malay Values 62 4.9 One sample t-test Analysis on Modest Dressing Behaviour 63
4.10 Pearson‟s correlation for given variables 65
4.11 Partial Correlations for given variables 66
4.12 Regression for modest dressing behaviour with exposure to
media and values 68
4.13 Hypotheses summary result 69
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No Page No
2.1 Theoretical Framework of the Study 33
4.1 Regression for modest dressing behaviour with exposure to
media and values 68
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
This section will give an overview of the proposed topic to set the tone of the subsequent sections. The arrangement of is chapter is as follows: 1) background of the study; 2) problem statement; 3) research question; 4) research objective; and 5) significance of the study. The main purpose of this proposed study is to investigate the relationship between media exposure, body images, and modest dressing behaviour among young Malaysian female university students. In particular, this study examines the mediating effect of values pertaining to culture and Islam on the relationship.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
n the modern era, people‟s minds are overloaded with information from many sources including traditional media channels such as newspapers, magazines, television commercials, and billboard advertisements as well as social media networks such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Media users are exposed to many media contents and one of them is the portrayal of how women should look and dress. In fact, many of the media contents on women, especially in fictional portrayals such as in drama and movies (Sarkar, 2014), and in promotional and marketing context (Sheehan, 2013; Das & Sharma, 2016), often show women who have ideal body images such as being slim and slender (Calado et al, 2012).
The media constantly promote idealised female images in popular television programmes, magazines, advertisements, and movies (Borzekowski et al, 2000; Çiftçi,
2014; Taylor et al, 1998; Tiggemann et al, 2000). Traditional media, such as magazines, have been found to increase body image concerns in young women (Groesz et al., 2002; Halliwell, Malson, & Tischner, 2011; Knobloch-Westerwick &
Crane, 2012; Tiggemann & McGill, 2004; Tiggemann & Polivy, 2010). As argued by Hera (2014), people would try to alter their physical appearance using cosmetic and dressing style, which indicates the lack of satisfaction that they have over their own body images. Weber (2008) argued that changes to dressing style because of exposure to idealised images of women in the media is a tool of self-expression. Twiggs (2009) further stated that our identity is intimately linked to dressing choices, which embody our personality, emotions, and individual style.
Even though media is argued as having a profound influence on audience‟s beliefs, perceptions, attitude, and behaviour (Arias, 2016), other factors such as values may be mediating the relationship (Albrecht, 2014). Values are a manifestation of culture in which religion is a significant subset (Edara, 2017). Hence, it is important to understand whether values mediate exposure to media images in the context of Malaysian. In particular, the values under investigation are Malay values, in which it is argued that Islam informs Malay values (Norhasniah et al., 2013) regarding the expectations of modest dressing (Bigger, 2006).
In the context of this study, Malay values are the focus besides modest dressing behaviour. It is interesting to study the extent of influence and significance of Malay values over dressing behaviour amid the blossoming of new trends emanating from every day media access and consumption. Having said that, it is important to note that media portrayals of ideal body images is a by-product of commodification and commercialisation while the ideal female body images from the viewpoint of Malay values constitute an expression that is deeply rooted in tradition and customs. Due to
that, it is argued that the difference between the two is quite evident. The ideal female body image in the media is argued to be very flexible, fluid and always in the state of rapid evolution (Jan & Abdullah, 2015). Such state is understandable as fads and fashion evolve and are very much driven by the market. In contrast, Malay values are argued to be more stable and resistant to drastic change as it is deeply rooted in the religion of Islam (Sani, 2010). Having said that, however, challenges that come from our social environment tend to influence and add on to the pressure set by the media to conform and or follow what media considers to be ideal (Hogan, 2012). It may to some extent influence the values deemed important in Malay culture (Ahmad, et al., 2012).
The media is known to have an influence on youth behaviour, particularly on their dressing style such as what they wear and use to adorn themselves (Apuke, 2016;
Markei & Appiah, 2016; Wok & Mohd, 2008). Globalisation and modernisation have brought about mainstream global culture through the mass media (Matos, 2012).
Researchers have also found that media carries many idealistic images and representations which are not representative of the reality (Clark, Ghosh, Green &
Shariff, 2008; Van der Spuy, 2008). Hence, there is a possibility that the audience would be aspired by the images that they see in the media. Furthermore, beauty may be defined from the media frame of reference (Yan & Bissell, 2014). When countries such as Malaysia have become more industrialised, it led to the increase in contact with Western nations. According to Strelitz (2004), local values and traditional norms such as adornment and habits shall begin to fade away due to such contact. The people of such countries are exposed to rapid social change, especially in terms of the changing roles for women and an increase to exposure to Western media‟s and their portrayals of what women look like.
As these changes progress, eventually, these countries could lose some of the social norms that have primarily protected and preserved the traditional and religious women leadimg them to experience dissatisfaction (Becker, 2004; Silverstein &
Perlick, 1995; Thompson & Heinberg, 1999; Wolf, 1991). As a result, it is quite important to study the effects of Western ideal expectations of the female image on local culture. Therefore, it is the intent of this study to find out the influence of media exposure on modest dressing behaviour among Malaysian female students of the International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM).
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Television, advertisement, and magazines are found to be the most influential means in exposing young girls to fashion trends and dressing preferences (Apuke, 2016; Wok
& Mohd, 2008). Recently, new media such as online and social media have also been argued to be influential (Derani & Naidu, 2016; Fardouly, Diedrichs, Vartanian, &
Halliwell, 2015; Halpern & Gibbs, 2016). According to Best (2002), fashion trends have shown to indicate a drop in the level of cultural and religious values including beliefs and practices. Specifically, the fashion trends in recent years have grown to include provocative and revealing dressing styles. Although, it may be positive to self- express through dressing behaviour, the concern is its effect on the dressing behaviour of young women, which reflects whether the upholding of values and policies are deemed important in the society and the institutions (Shorter, 2015).
Media is said to have set the standard of beauty (Levine & Chapman, 2011).
Therefore, there is a likelihood of distorted expectations of beauty among girls (Berk, 2000). Furthermore, women and young girls may suffer from the pressures of different quarters including themselves through self-objectification (Fredrickson & Roberts,
1997), peers pressure (Khor, Zalilah, Phan, Ang, Maznah & Norimah, 2009) and family expectations, which include cultural values, (Xu, Mellor, Kiehne, Ricciardelli, McCabe & Xu, 2010) in order to look right.
Over the years, many Asian countries such as Malaysia have changed gradually in terms of their lifestyle. Malaysia has become more westernized in their habits in addition to their outlooks especially among the youth (or the millennials), in that they have adapted their need for a certain body image as not necessarily being inspired by their own culture (Kamaria, Vikram, Ayiesah, 2016; Strelitz, 2004;). This study is not about changing one‟s loyalty to national character, values, and norms. Rather, it is an investigation aiming to better understand how young women feel about themselves in the context of mediated images of idealised women in the media and whether modesty in dressing, which is argued to be deep-rooted in one‟s culture, may be compromised, in the whole nexus.
Very few studies have been conducted on the relationship of media influence on values concerning dressing style and modest dressing behaviour in the Muslim society (Kamaria, Vikram, Ayiesah, 2016; Wok & Mohd, 2008) specifically on female students in higher learning institutions. Hence, this study will contribute to enrich and fill the gap in the literature in this area.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the relationship between respondents‟ media exposure, ideal female body images, and their modest dressing behaviour?
2. What is the relationship between respondents‟ attitude towards Malay values and their modest dressing behaviour?
3. What is the relationship between respondents‟ media exposure to ideal female body images and their attitude towards Malay values?
4. Does attitude towards Malay values mediate the relationships between respondents‟ media exposure to female body images and respondents‟
modest dressing behaviour?
1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1. To investigate the relationship between respondents‟ media exposure to ideal female body images and their modest dressing behaviour.
2. To investigate the relationship between respondents‟ attitude towards Malay values and their modest dressing behaviour.
3. To investigate the relationship between respondents‟ media exposure to ideal female body images and their attitude towards Malay values.
4. To determine if respondents‟ attitude towards Malay values concerning dressing mediate the relationships between respondents‟ media exposure to female body images and respondents‟ modest dressing behaviour.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Even though, media has influenced women of many cultures in terms of behaviour such as dietary, exercise, cosmetic and dressing style (Britton, 2012; Harrison, 2003;
Hendriks, 2002; Klein, 2013; LeGrange, Telch, & Agras, 1997; Sander, 2009; Strelitz, 2004), many of the studies focused on Caucasian and African-American women or women in Western societies. There are limited study in Malaysia that have been conducted on how media influences behaviour in Malaysia. This is perhaps due to the fact that the phenomenon of westernisation is fairly new among Malaysian youth
(Kamaria, Vikram & Ayiesha, 2015). Nevertheless, the researcher is taking this topic and studying it empirically so as to illuminate the role and influence of media and values on young Malay women. For this reason, the results of this study may contribute to the gap and give some insights into understanding the influence of media exposure on the behaviour of modest dressing style among female university students in Malaysia.
Any institute of education will have guidelines that convey specific shared expectations. This, in turn, means that rules, regulation, and standard of behaviour, such as the appropriate or suitable attire, must be set (Weber, 2008). However, with modern influences, standards tend to change. Even though change is inevitable, it is potentially indicative of the inclination of the young generation towards adopting change, which may be observed in the way they project the image of themselves through their dressing style. To some extent, the media may be factored into the phenomenon.
In the same way, by considering attitude towards Malay values concerning dressing style, this research would add to the literature on behaviour in terms of dressing style and media influence. Practically, the findings from this study could be used as references for future researchers in investigating topics on culture/ religion and influence in behaviour such as dressing style. It can also be argued that this study would shed light into creating and enhancing society‟s awareness, especially the Muslim society, over the impact of the ideal image of media‟s influence on the young people and their proclivity towards maintaining their culture and values.
Apart from that, this study may help in putting policies and regulation in terms of exposure of the ideal female image and anything that may compromise the Islamic values of the young audience. It has been argued that such images (ideal) could lead to
the altercation of how dressing code is observed and thus dampening the faith of Muslims (Schall & Appiah, 2016; Winnail, 2003).
Finally, this study may contribute to provide a better understanding of the dressing behaviour of female university students in Malaysia. This study aims to explore a larger scope that considers the dynamics of culture and values concerning dressing style and the influence of media and behaviour of young women in Malaysia to understand the impact of the ideal images perpetuated by the media.
1.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY
The first chapter presents the background information that is important towards setting the tone of the study in particular the significance of conducting such study. This study includes the discussion on the portrayal of women in the media and in relation to Malay and Islamic values, and how these two variables contribute towards behaviour in modest dressing style for Malay women. This chapter also discusses the possible risk that the relationship could have on values that are held dear by the community, necessitating this study. The problem statement is followed by the research questions and research objectives of the study, which include the investigation of the relationships between the variables as well as the mediating effect of the related variables for the study. This chapter also discusses the significance of this study as it provides first-hand data about the behaviour of young people in Malaysia, generating an understanding on the effects of media on values, religion, and tradition. In the following chapter, the researcher discusses the literature and theory related to this research as well as the hypothesis of the study.
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
This section will discuss the literature review relevant to the topic of the study which may inform the research on the important aspects of the field. This chapter is organised according to the following topics: 1) young women; 2) clothing items that constitute modest dressing behaviours; 3) women in the media and ideal images; 4) exposure to the media; 5) Malay values and culture and Islamic values; 6) the theoretical framework; and finally 7) the conceptual framework and hypothesis. It will also discuss the literature review concerning the variables being studied.
2.2 YOUNG WOMEN
There is a long history of using body images that are linked to female beauty to sell products such as clothes or to increase the rating of television shows or magazines resulting in an obvious increase in dissatisfaction of physical appearance (Meehan, 2009). Compared to boys, young girls have been known to express more dissatisfaction with how their body looks in certain clothes (Lawler & Nixon, 2011;
Makinen et al., 2012; Wang, Liang & Cheng, 2009). Social judgement by peers is said
to be having effects on young girls (Krayer, Ingledew & Iphofen, 2008). Furthermore, young women especially university students are argued as being confronted with the pressure to be socially accepted, where consequently, they have become more self- aware and self-conscious of their own image (Earl, n.d.; Twigg, 2009).
A few studies have found that the media has a significant impact on college girls‟ perceptions of their own body image (Hawkins, Richards, Granley & Stein 2004; Levitt, 2004), including negative effects in emotion and behaviour such as a declined in body satisfaction, self-esteem and modesty (Bearman, Presnell &
Martinez, 2006; Hawkins et al., 2004; Smeet et al., 2010).
Therefore, it could be argued that young women are at the stage where they are looking at representations that are ideal for them. Somehow when they compare themselves against the ideal images presented in the media it could affect their self- esteem.
According to research, human behaviour in adornment through time have been found to be of three distinct purposes which are protection, modesty, and decoration or ornamentation (Flugel, 1930; Horn & Gurel, 1981; Ross, 2008). Others would argue that the need for protection is different from region to region and culture to culture, sometimes even within the same culture. Thus, how modesty is defined and stressed upon is very much dependent on one‟s culture (Cai, rown, eng & Oakes, 2007;
Now and again, people use their clothing and fashion to communicate their wealth and social standing. t is ordinary for people to pass judgement on others‟
statue based on what they wear. Veblen (1953) is one of the very first scholars to note that the function of clothing is beyond just protection for the body and that it can also be used to attract attention to the body. In his early, he noticed the fact that consumption of fashionable clothes symbolises core values such as social one‟s (Veblen, 1953) status.
owever, clothing is beyond just indicating status. t can signal one‟s belonging to certain cultural or religious group (Larsson, 2014). For instance, wearing of the head scarf for Muslim girls can represent her belonging to the Muslim community.
Clothing can be explained as a vital social process that facilitates the creation of important messages and meaning which are significant for communication in social settings.
Clothing is symbolic and can be combined with styles, brands, and trends. It can also be symbolic as it adds to membership in certain cultures and communities. With clothing and our personal style, we can communicate a great deal about ourselves non- verbally (Larsson, 2014). Although fashion slightly differs from clothing as it merges with our emotional and personal needs, it helps conveying a message of who we are and our personalities through the external surface of our clothes.
Beyond being vital to an extension of one‟s self, our preference in clothing can also enhance our self-development. Our dressing and clothing manners can help build and contribute to our self-esteem as well as our self-acceptance in a positive way.
One‟s clothing choices can reflect a sense of individuality and aid in understanding one‟s self and how they feel about others ( ngerosa, 2014; Kwon, 1991). ashions and different types of clothes have effects on one‟s feeling both internally and externally as well as our self-concept (Tombs, 2010). fter all, according to Maslow‟s hierarchical order of needs, clothing ranks in the basic needs in the physical category alongside shelter and nutriment (Maslow, 1943).
2.3.1 Dressing Behaviour Through the Years in Media
The media is the main platform for spreading of information on the development fashion and new trends (Ahmad, 2011). When used for this purpose, media change
ways of living in society by promoting labels and branded items such as footwear and clothes, thus making us fashion conscious. Young girls adopt these styles to look as beautiful as those in the media (Brandon, 2011). According to Wok and Mohd (2008), about a decade ago, magazine and television have been found to be the most influential media in this area. Magazines are widely known to have a dedicated section for women and their fashion. Nowadays, the same could be said about advertisement, online media and television. In addition to displaying women in the current fashion adorning the current fashion trends in all means dramas, advertisements and music videos, there are programmes specifically on fashions and beauty. umans tend to conform. Women, especially, young adults are bound to like and follow the current and new trendy fashions ( peagyei, 2007; Swiatkowski, 2016).
According to Hoffner and Buchanan (2005), the attractive appearance of characters in TV is correlated to the ideal identification of the image. This may lead to the modelling effect in terms of appearance, which is the application of what they have observed, and is in line with the as postulation of the social learning theory. This theory posits the audience as trying to achieve an appearance similar to images portrayed by media. Thus, it is logical when young females modelled themselves after the image of the ideal models they see in the media, thereby making fictional characters or famous people on screen or any form of media the role model for girls of all ages. This relationship emphasises the unique connection between the audience and figures in the media. Based on the literature review, it could be summarised that since women are exposed to desirable images portrayed by current fashion trends, female viewers are likely to model after the images with which they identify.