INFLUENCING FACTORS TO VISIT DARK TOURISM PLACES
Academic year: 2022
(2) FYP FHPK INFLUENCING FACTORS TO VISIT DARK TOURISM PLACES. By. NUR FATIN HAMIZAH BINTI MD NORMAN. (H18A0381). NUR RUSFADILAH BINTI RUSLAN. (H18A0405). NOR AZWANI BINTI ANUAR. (H18B0316). NUR ATHIRA BINTI AZMAN. (H18B0359). Supervised by:. Dr. Aifa Rozaini Binti Mohd Radzol. A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Entrepreneurship (Tourism) with Honors. Faculty of Hospitality, Tourism & Wellness UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA KELANTAN.
(3) I hereby certify that the work embodied in this thesis is the result of the original research and has not been submitted for the higher degree to any other university or institution.. OPEN ACCESS. I agree that my report is to be made immediately available as hardcopy or on-line open access (full text). CONFIDENTIAL. (Contains confidential information under the Official Secret Act 1972). RESTRICTED. (Contains restricted information as specified by the organization where research was done). I acknowledge that Universiti Malaysia Kelantan reserves the right as follow:. The report is the Property of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan The library of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan has the right to make copies for the purpose of research only The library has the right to make copies of the report for academic exchange. Certified by. Signature Group Representative: NUR. Signature of Supervisor Name: DR. AIFA ROZAINI. ATHIRA BINTI AZMAN. BINTI MOHD RADZOL. Date: 19 June 2021. Date: 19 June 2021. FYP FHPK. THESIS DECLARATION.
(4) Many thanks to the Almighty for his blessings on the successful completion of our last assignment. Our sincere gratitude to our supervisor for sharing knowledge and assisting us in finishing our project. Apart from that, we are very thankful to our loving family members especially our parents who has helped us in terms of money and also being a pillar of our strength while carrying out the project. A big thank you and sincerely appreciation to our friends and also respondents who are very united in spending their time helping us to answer the questionnaires in order for us to carry out our study. Not forgetting to thank to our honorable supervisor Dr Aifa Rozaini binti Mohd Radzol guidances, suggestions and tolerance in completing this project successfully. Finally, our gratitude and appreciate go out to all those who had been involved in preparing this research directly or indirectly.. Thank you.. iii. FYP FHPK. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.
(5) Page TITLE PAGE. i. CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION. ii. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. iii. TABLE OF CONTENTS. iv-vi. LIST OF TABLES. vii-viii. LIST OF FIGURES. ix. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. x. ABSTRACT. xi. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction. 1. 1.1 Research Background. 1-3. 1.2 Research Problem. 3-4. 1.3 Research Questions. 4. 1.4 Research Objectives. 5. 1.5 Significance of the Research. 5-6. 1.6 Definition of Terms. 7. 1.7 Chapter Summary. 8. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEWS 2.0 Introduction. 9. 2.1 Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). 9-11. 2.2 Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. 11-12. 2.3 Emotional Experience. 12-14 iv. FYP FHPK. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
(6) 14-15. 2.5 Learning Benefits. 15-18. 2.6 Research Framework. 18. 2.7 Chapter Summary. 19. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction. 20. 3.1 Research Design. 20. 3.2 Population. 21. 3.3 Sample Size. 21-22. 3.4 Sampling Method. 23. 3.5 Data Collection Procedure. 23-25. 3.6 Research Instrument. 26. 3.7 Data Analysis. 27-28. 3.8 Research Summary. 28. CHAPTER 4: RESULTS & DISCUSSION 4.0 Introduction. 29. 4.1 Descriptive Analysis. 29-38. 4.2 Reliability Test. 39-41. 4.3 Inferential Analysis. 41-44. 4.4 Discussion Based on Research Objectives. 45. 4.5 Summary. 45. CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 5.0 Introduction. 46. 5.1 Recapitulation of the Finding. 46-49. 5.2 Limitation. 49-50. 5.3 Recommendation. 50 v. FYP FHPK. 2.4 Cultural Acceptance.
(7) 50-51. REFERENCES. 52-57. APPENDICES. 59-65. vi. FYP FHPK. 5.4 Summary.
(8) Table 1.1. Definition of Terms. Table 3.1. Table of Krejcie & Morgan. Table 3.2. Relationship between Mean and Level of Agree. Table 3.3. Coefficient Correlation and Strength of Relationship. Table 4.1. Gender of Respondent. Table 4.2. Age of Respondents. Table 4.3. Race of Respondents. Table 4.4. Status of Respondents. Table 4.5. Occupation of Respondents. Table 4.6. Do you know what is Dark Tourism?. Table 4.7. Have you ever visited Dark Tourism Places?. Table 4.8. If you have a chance to visit or revisit Dark Tourism Places, what. would be the main first emotion you get? Table 4.9. What appealed to you visit Dark Tourism Places?. Table 4.10. Descriptive Statistic of Independent Variables and Dependent. Variables Table 4.11. Descriptive Analysis Statistic (Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places). Table 4.12. Descriptive Analysis Statistic (Emotional Experience). Table 4.13. Descriptive Analysis Statistic (Cultural Acceptance). Table 4.14. Descriptive Analysis Statistic (Learning Benefits) vii. FYP FHPK. LIST OF TABLES.
(9) Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient Values (Lee Cronbach, 1951). Table 4.16. Result of Reliability Coefficient Alpha (Lee Cronbach, 1951). Table 4.17. Emotional Experience positively influences Intention to Visit Dark. Tourism Places. Table 4.18. Relationship between Cultural Acceptance and Intention to Visit Dark. Tourism Places. Table 4.19. Relationship between Learning Benefits and Intention to Visit Dark. Tourism Places Table 4.20. Overall of Influencing Factors to Visit Dark Tourism Places. Table 5.1. Research Objective 1 & Research Question 1. Table 5.2. Research Objective 2 & Research Question 2. Table 5.3. Research Objective 3 & Research Question 3. viii. FYP FHPK. Table 4.15.
(10) Figure 2.1. Theory of Planned Behaviour Model. Figure 2.2. Framework. Figure 3.1. Formula Sample Size. Figure 3.2. Steps in Research. Figure 4.1. Correlation between Emotional Experience, Cultural Acceptance, Learning Benefits, and Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. ix. FYP FHPK. LIST OF FIGURES.
(11) RO. Research Objective. RQ 1. Research Question 1. RQ 2. Research Question 2. RQ 3. Research Question 3. IV. Independent Variable. DV. Dependent Variable. IV 1. Independent Variable 1. IV 2. Independent Variable 2. IV 3. Independent Variable 3. SPSS. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. H1. Hypothesis 1. H2. Hypothesis 2. H3. Hypothesis 3. TPB. Theory of Planned Behaviour. DV DTP. Dependent Variable Dark Tourism Places. EE. Emotional Experience. CA. Cultural Acceptance. LB. Learning Benefits. x. FYP FHPK. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.
(12) Dark Tourism is known as a term which involved places and locations of crime, assassination, holocaust, genocide that served in order to attract the visitors. This study discusses the factors that influence Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. This study adopted three independent variables namely Emotional Experience, Cultural Acceptance, and Learning Benefits that influence Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. It is supported with Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between Emotional Experience, Cultural Acceptance, and Learning Benefits towards Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. The data were analyse using SPSS version 21. The researchers adopted a quantitative design with three hypotheses were introduced. Three types of analysis have been conducted namely Descriptive analysis, Reliability analysis and Pearson Correlation. The nonprobability sampling using convenience sampling technique were adopted and 393 respondents were analysed. All hypothesis introduced in this study were supported.. Keywords: Dark Tourism, Intention, Emotional Experience, Cultural Acceptance, Learning Benefits, Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). xi. FYP FHPK. ABSTRACT.
(13) Introduction. 1.0 Introduction. In first section of this chapter discusses the research background to support this study followed by Section 1.2 discusses the research problem to answer question and research objective in Section 1.3 and 1.4. Lastly, the definition of terms is presented in Section 1.6 and followed by a summary in Section 1.7.. 1.1 Research Background. Visitors are now constantly searching for the latest trends which exciting travel strategies and some adrenaline rush experiences. One of the examples of tourism products that can fulfil the needs of the visitors is Dark Tourism. In fact, Malaysia has several Dark Tourism Places, however these places are still not globally known and can attract international tourist as a tourism commodity, including domestic tourists (Jamin, 2020). This is due to the lack of government appreciation of the new tourism prospect which is Dark Tourism and the supporting services of the agencies. In addition, both the government and tourism companies need to encourage more visitor’s awareness campaigns. Besides, the development of custom Dark Tourism Places packages could help indirectly boost and increase the demand, which can contribute to the tourism economy (Salehuddin, 2016). Dark Tourism is known as a term which designate those places and locations of crime, assassination, holocaust, genocide that served in order to attract the visitors. It is also known as Thanatourism. Thus, it was existing across the global destinations including demonstrates the commonality also the elements across political regimes and societies. Hence, the interpret 1. FYP FHPK. Chapter 1.
(14) be able to function as a meeting place for history including visitation. However, Dark Tourism attractions not only illustrate demand but also constitute vital values in recognizing a common history in such cases (Lennon, 2017). According to some researchers, claim that Dark Tourism is related to ghosts and death (Fonseca, 2015). Besides, Dark Tourism carries a variety of labels which being a new phenomenon in the tourism and academic industry. Other than that, it also as an expanding resources of tourism revenues to be a social interest due to the peoples who growing fascination in death (Legault, 2011). Moreover, it is about more than a mere death obsession, it is also like a strong mirror that allows witnessing of the story of life and death. In fact, the connections with broad societies are also recognized by cultural (Stone, 2013). Dark Tourism also can be referred as a multi-layered mixture of history and heritage also tourism and tragedies (Niemela, 2010). In reality, in the sense of Dark Tourism, Malaysia has numerous Dark Tourism Places such as cemeteries, museums and war relics. Over the years, there has a few of these places have become more famous due to their dark past or history such as Kellie’s Castle in Perak. In fact, there has few examples of a Dark Tourism Places that have the potential in Malaysia which are The Penang War Museum in Pulau Pinang, Kellie's Castle in Perak, Villa Nabila in Johor Bahru, Memorial of the Kundasang War, Pulau Bidong, Batu Lintang, Ranau Death March and Jerajak Island (Loke, 2013). However, among the countries in Southeast Asia, Malaysia still very careful on branding and promoting Dark Tourism Places as a potential attraction (Masant, 2015). In fact, Malaysia has many Dark Tourism Places, however they are not yet internationally recognized even though it might able to attract more international tourists (Braithwaite & Lee, 2006). The possibility to establish a Dark Tourism Places in Malaysia is culturally a bit sensitive among the local community and the ability to tap it as an additional product of tourism revenue in Malaysia remains possible. Thus, through recognizing visitors’ motivation and the purpose of visitors to visit Dark Tourism Places, may help them to understand on how to grow, manage and present it, indirectly might extend the Dark Tourism industry in Malaysia with the right marketing strategies for Malaysia and the international market (Chong, 2018). In general, the visitors who visit the Dark Tourism Places can be classified into three groups. These three people are those who had the connection to the tourist, local community and past event. In fact, the understanding and analysis the characteristics or behaviour of those visitors is important 2. FYP FHPK. of all those places have the potential to be the product of ideology, dominant belief systems also.
(15) research problem of Dark Tourism Places is presented.. 1.2 Research Problem. A study finds that Dark Tourism industry in Malaysia is still not well-known compared to the other type of tourism industry. Dark Tourism products in Malaysia have not aggressively promoted in this country (Zahari, 2016). Not so many people in Malaysia have acknowledged about Dark Tourism itself. Visiting death and history place is still mild level in this society as they have no awareness and knowledge about Thanatourism. According to Aziean (2020) in the sense of Dark Tourism, Malaysia has numerous Dark Tourism Places, such as cemeteries, museums and relics of war. Yet, the acknowledgement of these areas is still mild. However, this research found that Dark Tourism demolishes the simplistic definition of tourism as 'traveling for pleasure'. Over the years due to their dark past or history, many of these locations have become more popular. Thus, encouraging more awareness campaigns is extremely necessary for both the government and tourism agencies or industry. In reality, the development of personalized packages for Dark Tourism sites could also help to boost the tourism economy's demand for Dark Tourism. Paper recorded only a few researches conducted on visitors' Intention to Visit the Dark Tourism Places (Biren, 2014; Nawijin, 2015). This show that the intention to visit is still under research since it is one of the fundamental parts in Thanatourism. Visitors’ intention to visit Dark Tourism destination was investigated and correlates with other key dimensions which is motivation, emotions and constraints. The intention in Dark Tourism observed visitors' level of intention to revisit, visit similar destination and recommendation of destination to others. In recent times, Dark Tourism has witnessed rising popularity, particularly within Western travelers. It is thus not uncommon to find several Dark Tourism Places in Europe and North America. In addition, Dark Tourism Places as a home of various historical events and visitors are drawn to such places which are tourists' attraction to misfortune, death and macabre themes have transformed Dark Tourism into a growing area of visitor interest (Miller, 2013; Podoshen, 2015). A substantial amount of theoretical literature on topics related to Thanatourism and Dark Tourism is currently available, but there are very few scholarly papers contain any 3. FYP FHPK. and indirectly may help develop Dark Tourism Places (Ramlee, 2018). In the next section, the.
(16) motives of visitors to dark sites, but no observational study to verify these hypotheses has been performed (Allman, 2017). Researchers are not aware what the driving intentions are for visitors to choose to visit such areas after considering the lack of observational study. This analysis offers a bridge to the existing awareness void linked to customer intention and Dark Tourism. In addition, to identifying the intentions of visitors to different dark tourist destinations, the consideration of current cultural factors such as television and film also been taken as the Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. It is claimed that the media has caused an uptick in interest of Dark Tourism Places associated with increased paranormal activity. In conclusion, due to not many scholars has made a study on the Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. The researcher has decided to choose this title for the research project. This study can increase the understanding and attract researchers to study more deeply about the Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places.. 1.3 Research Questions. This study explored about the Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. Drawing from the problem highlighted from the previous section, the study raises a few questions to be investigate. Generally, this study would like to know ‘What are the factors’ that drive one's to have an Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places? Thus, it requires a vast review of papers on this issue. Specifically, this study would like to investigate the variable of Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. RQ1: What is the relationship between Emotional Experience and Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places? RQ2: What is the relationship between Cultural Acceptance and Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places? RQ3: What is the relationship between Learning Benefits and Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places? 4. FYP FHPK. scientific research on the subject. Most currently available literature identifies potential.
(17) The purpose of this study is to investigate the Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. Therefore, the three research objectives have been formulated. The research objectives are:. a). To examine the Emotional Experience that positively influences Intention to. Visit Dark Tourism Places. b). To examine the Cultural Acceptance that negatively influences Intention to Visit. Dark Tourism Places. c). To examine the Learning Benefits that positively influences Intention to Visit. Dark Tourism Places. The study has identified three independent variables namely Emotional Experience, Culture Acceptance and Learning Benefits with a relationship with Intention to visit Dark Tourism Places. The justification of these variables explained in Chapter 2 (Literature Review). 1.5 Significance of the Research. In this era globalization, many visitors have a lot of doubts about Dark Tourism. Visitors tend to think the negative and positive sides of Dark Tourism Places while heard and visiting those places. In fact, the link arises from the reality that, according to their design, Dark Tourism Places can trigger strong and complex reactions. (Buda, 2015; Seaton, 2009). The ‘uniqueness’ about these places is the ability to connect with pictures of death. This may bother visitors by causing shock, anger and also a sense of wonder and joy. A large number of deaths at those places and disaster negotiate painful histories, ethical problem situations, politically oriented discourses on memory and heritage (Godis & Nilsson, 2016), with strong emotional and affective reactions such as discomfort, frightfulness, pity, purification from locals and even visitors. Besides, war museum uses language to present past conflicts to the visitors and help to trigger emotional responses from individuals who have not been through the war personally. (Nahima, 2011) stated that the memorial parks, monuments, historical buildings, and museum 5. FYP FHPK. 1.4 Research Objectives.
(18) 'death' and 'disaster' because of the emotional after the experience and curiosity of the unknown. In addition, Dark Tourism arouses lots of visitors who wants to go exploring the adventure life. Thus, Dark Tourism Places offers the experience in terms of cathartic education and understanding by engaging them meaningfully with the emotional breakdown for those visitors. Furthermore, (Biran, 2011) found that visitors to Dark Tourism Places may enrich their knowledge of the heritage and could feel relevant to the clarification. In recent time, Dark Tourism has seen the rising of recognition, especially among Western tourists. In fact, since 11th century, the action of travelling to Dark Tourism Places that associate to death in order to gaining knowledge has already taken over by the visitors (Dale and Robinson, 2011). Therefore, it is not unusual to find a few of Dark Tourism Places in Europe and North America. Besides, Dark Tourism Places which had a various historical event may attract the visitors to go for it. It has attracted visitors to death, tragedy, and terrible themes that have transform Dark Tourism into a growing visitor interest (Miller & Gonzalez, 2013; Podoshen, 2015). In addition, the history of those places offers a link to the past that may allow people to comprehend their own lives. Dark Tourism Places also are considered and to be classified as cultural heritage sites and visitors indirectly may gaining more knowledge behind it. Every generation constructs the social recollections through a complex process that involve the selection and formulation of information such as those visitors who visit to the Dark Tourism Places such as disasters and war sites to create social recollections (Kang, 2018). Dark Tourism Places such as Penang War Museum in Pulau Pinang or Fukushima in Japan, paired with fact and visual evidence, can give a valuable lessons and knowledge for new generations (Lennon, 2018; Winter, 2009).. 6. FYP FHPK. visit encourage tourists to visualize the site’s history. The visitors are often mesmerizing by.
(19) This section discusses about the definition of terms of dependent variable (Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places) and independent variable (Emotional Experience, Cultural Acceptance and Learning Benefits). Table 1.1: Definition of Terms TERM Intention to Visit Dark. AUTHOR(YEAR) DEFINITION Allman (2017). Tourism Places. “Intention” can be meant by a determination to act in a certain way. An act of visiting cemeteries, crash sites and death camps. Visitors were determined to satisfy the curiosity of certain places about the natural disaster at those places.. Emotional Experience. Wilson & Sperber (2003). Emotional Experience can be referred for certain. people. who. are. consciously. experiencing the emotions which refer to the people who have a mental representation of emotion:. past. feelings. (memories),. hypothetical feelings (imaginings), or feelings that are arise in the moment (on-line experiences). Cultural Acceptance. Hofstede, Minkov (2010). “Culture” can be referred as the collective programming of the mind that successful or distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others.. Learning Benefits. Houwer, Moors (2013). “Learning” also can be defined as a change of behavior that came from the experience or mechanistically that change in the due to their experiences. 7. FYP FHPK. 1.6 Definition of Terms.
(20) Generally, this study consists of five chapters. In the Introduction part, this study discusses the Background of the research relating to Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places in Malaysia. Besides the background of the study, the problem statement has also been highlighted which discussed on few issues related. Other than that, Research Objective, Research Question, Significance of the Research also has been reviewed in Chapter 1.. 8. FYP FHPK. 1.7 Chapter Summary.
(21) Literature Review. 2.0 Introduction. This chapter represents the variables have adopted for this study. Section 2.1 discusses the underpinning theory to supports this study. Next, Section 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, and 2.6 discusses the variables been used in this study namely Emotion Experience, Cultural Acceptance, and Learning Benefits. Lastly, the research framework is presented in Section 2.7 and followed by a chapter summary in Section 2.8.. 2.1 Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is an expansion of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to predict deliberate behavior (Ajzen, 1998, 1991). TRA was developed in order to deal explicitly with purely volitional behaviors; TPB is to be used to predict behaviors that are not entirely voluntary control (Ajzen, 1998). The major difference between the models is that TPB integrated an additional dimension of perceived behavioral influence to be a central determinant of behavioral intention (Han, 2010). There are three variables in Behavioral Intention which is Attitude, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control. Attitude is known as an individual’s cognitive and affective evaluation or appraisal of a behavior that determines the favorability or unfavorability of performing the behavior in question (Ajzen, 1991). Subjective Norms is defined as pressures on a person feels to perform a particular behavior and the motivation of a person to comply with that pressures (Ajzen, 1991) and Perceived Behavioral Control is specified in the form of self-efficacy is a condition where people believe that behavior is easy or difficult to do by (Cruzet, 2015). Figure 2.1 illustrates 9. FYP FHPK. Chapter 2.
(22) Attitudes. Behavioral Intention. Subjective Norms. Perceived Behavioral Control Figure 2.1: Theory of Planned Behavior Model (Ajzen, 1991) In this study, the Attitude refers to the interpretation of the visitor’s attitude and their evaluation of Dark Tourism Places such as The Penang War Museum in Pulau Pinang, Kellie’s Castle in Perak and Villa Nabila in Johor Bharu. While visiting the Dark Tourism Places, visitors may experience a feel of danger, panic and mixed with excitement (Buda, 2015; Yankowska, 2014). Tourists will feel the Emotional Experiences that can make people feel alive, and as tourists engage with death and fear from a safe space, they can aﬀectively sense the magniﬁcence of what happened, which can show in emotion such as enjoyment or purification (Causevic, 2011). In Subjective Norms refer to any sort of pressure that will allow or prevent tourist from wanting to visit a Dark Tourism Places. Tourists will decide whether to revisit Dark Tourism Places or not because they can experience a new experience by visiting different Dark Tourism Places. From visiting to a new places’ tourists get a Learning Benefits which they will get more knowledge and learn more deeper about the history of the places. Visitors were there for educational purpose and might not be involved with the site as a cemetery, usually they typically differentiate emotionally and return only visit for a pleasurable experience (Raine, 2013). The Perceived Behavioral Control is what affects the tourists' intention and their perceptions of their ability to conduct certain behavior. With the idea that many people are fascinated or intrigue by places regarded as paranormal activities. It can enhance certain behaviors in tourists leading to whether individuals who are curious or intrigue by paranormal activity be more likely have an Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places than individuals who are not interest in paranormal activity. These are tourist’s behavior to decide 10. FYP FHPK. the TPB..
(23) and wants (Cohen, 2013). 2.2 Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Place. Individual Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places depends on the one’s interest. People who appreciate history would understand the value of visiting Dark Tourism Places. When visiting Dark Tourism Places, what is causing the rise of people who are interested in visiting places that in some way have a dark history connected with death must be though. This study has identified several reasons for visiting Dark Tourism Places. The first reason is according to the researcher (Allman, 2017), explain that the increased of curiosity about death-related locations can perhaps be attributed to the medicalization of death. The second reason is the Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places also influenced by the subjects of Dark Tourism which present anxiety and doubt of an individual itself. The urge to get an actual answer is by visiting the place. The fact that the sites have become commodified triggered the curiosity of an individual to have an Intention to visit Dark Tourism Places. The distinction between natural and man-made disasters in Dark Tourism Places must also be understood (Ryan, 2006). Some areas became known as a Dark Tourism Places such as Beichuan County in Sichuan, China became popular after a natural disaster hit that region causing death as an example of earthquakes. Locations that attract tourist's interest because of death triggered by man-made events are somewhat different. The third reason is the intention to visit is not always because of the interest in history and death but also because of the art of photography and tragic sceneries for social media contents. Thus, with a large amount of knowledge that TV shows, including social media, are being pushed to the masses via the news outlets, tourists flock to the places behind them that are mainly recognized of their ghoulish past (Allman, 2017). According to Hohenhaus (2014), one reason people might choose to visit such sites is the confrontation that provides with their nightmares. It makes them think about how they would behave in a catastrophe. People will observe death to a small degree nowadays. Many are sightseers who flock to sites of tragedy or pause their vehicles to stare on the highways at road collisions (Seaton, 1996). This act is often referred to as "rubbernecking," gazing around and staring with great. 11. FYP FHPK. making decision to experiences the activities that can intend to satisfy the consumer’s needs.
(24) Places is visiting sites of mass or individual deaths is the second and most common method of tourist travel. The fundamental part of all is to fulfil the curiosity of an individual. Therefore, this study has selected Emotional Experience, Cultural Acceptance and Learning Benefits to be tasted with intention to visit.. 2.3 Emotional Experience. Emotional Experience can be referred for certain people who are consciously experiencing the emotions, to say that people have a mental representation of emotion: past feelings (memories), hypothetical feelings (imaginings), or feelings that are arise in the moment (on-line experiences). The most direct way to measure the contents of a mental representation of emotion is to examine people's verbal behaviors regarding their own mental state (Wilson, 2003). LeDoux (2000) stated that a long history of the basic emotion’s human growth, and they have developed in large part to help make a sudden judgment about motivation and guide human behavior quickly. Emotional Experience is the feeling visitor felt while visiting Dark Tourism Places. Once visiting Dark Tourism Places, a visitor will experience the emotion part of human consciousness life would be without experiences as joy, anger, fear, disgust, pity, anxiety, and embarrassment (Tye, 2008). According to Zheng (2019) the ‘emotional’ turn into mixed feelings and emotions when visiting Dark Tourism Places. Indeed, a visitor who has an Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places with a complex emotion, it is necessary to investigate unenthusiastic or doubtful towards Emotional Experience which can do or to bring about Dark Tourism Places. Emotional experience also defined as a feeling, personalized the experience that is characterized in the first place by mental state, psychophysiological expressions, and biological reactions (Turner, 2009). Tarlow (2011) introduces that are part of “the dark tourist’s psychological state” when visiting Dark Tourism Places or appealing in Dark Tourism Places activities. These emotions include a sense of insecurity, a feeling of humanity, a feeling of leadership, and a sense of gratitude. While Yan (2016) suggested that visitor experience assume as a spiritual procedure through phenomenological approach, which means that tourists look for spiritual satisfaction and symbolic meaning in Dark Tourism Places. For example, earthquake relics, such as 12. FYP FHPK. curiosity (Merriam-Webster, n.d.). The fourth reason of the Intention to Visit Dark Tourism.
(25) ‘the Significant Other Dead’ (Walby, 2011).. Plutchik (1980); Nawijn (2015) analyzed motion and categorized Dark Tourism Places into four pairs of positive and negative emotions that can be described in the emotional wheel. The four pairs are joy vs. sadness, trust vs. disgust, fear vs. anger, and surprise vs. anticipation. The role of emotion in Dark Tourism Places is paramount and worthy of investigation (Austin, 2002; Li-Hui Chang, 2017). As mentioned, there are various types of Dark Tourism Places such as Battlefield Tourism, Holocaust tourism, Cemetery Tourism, Prison Tourism, SlaveryHeritage Tourism, Monument Tourism, and Black Spot Tourism which means that emotional response to each type is likely to be different. However, for some people, these Dark Tourism Places may also reminiscent of someone’s trauma about those historic events (Zheng, 2017) and bad feelings such as unhappiness or sorrow. There is a natural war between bad feelings towards society and Dark Tourism Places. The negative affect of experience strength to increase the rational limitation that discourage people from revisit Dark Tourism Places (Zhang, 2016). This way, the place of darkness will face a limitation site in attracting visitors while to maintaining their blessed trustworthiness (Virgili, 2018). Furthermore, review of the improper behaviors among Generation Y at Dark Tourism Places turn out endless in recent years. However, most important consideration is to negotiate negative emotional experience of visitors and create a meaningful place in their minds, so that visit Dark Tourism Places become be fit a compulsory (Hyde & Harman, 2011), and at the same time, visitors are pleased to re-explore as well as suggest Dark Tourism Places in any secular humanism places to future generation. Contrast to positive emotion, negative emotion is the solution of emotional experience (Isaac, 2015; Nawijn, 2015) though, positive emotion is dominant in leisure tourism experiences (Isac, 2015; Mitas, 2012). Lee (2014) observes that visitors to the museum has a positive emotion such as delighted, entertain, happy, pleased, and satisfied feeling while (Miles, 2002; Krakover, 2005) indicated that Dark Tourism Places revoke negative emotion including depression, desire for vengeance, fear, empathy, and sadness. Several studies indicate that visitors are intends to get rid of sad emotion experiences which indicate the perceptive of Dark Tourism Places. Visitors intend to attract and have an interest of visiting Dark Tourism Places (Miles, 2014). For example, a visitor may have experience history through the environment of Dark Tourism Places and Dark Tourism Places. 13. FYP FHPK. destroyed buildings, act as a symbolic and emotional space where tourists can empathize with.
(26) Lee, 2006) suggested that visitors may have an Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places to experience strong emotion and learn war history of the battlefield site. Therefore, this study proposes the first hypothesis as below: H1: Emotional Experience positively influences Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. 2.4 Cultural Acceptance. In this study, Shih (2003) “culture” can be defined as a unique way of life among people, including past or present, regardless of their socioeconomic status. Next, “Culture” can be referred as the collective programming of the mind that successful or distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others (Hofstede & Minkov, 2010). Accordingly, MKecher & Cros (2002), "Culture is not a static concept" and as time goes on, every culture changes. Sometimes it may be imperceptibly and sometimes radically. However, culture is not something unchangeable. As the life of human beings that develop, culture and norms can also be increasingly changed, the change of values, norms and views of a given society (Hunde & Gonfa, 2018). For example, Sabah in Malaysia that is known as one of the countries who live harmoniously with various culture, tradition, and custom with 31 diverse or different ethnic groups and Kadazandusun is one of the biggest group ethnics in Sabah. Kadazandusun tribe is the indigenous group and lives together with the Bajau, Murut, Rungu, Lotud, Brunei, Orang Sungai, Kadayan, Bisaya, and many other subgroups (Masant, 2015). According to the Shih (2003), personality is particularly required in the initial stages of life to embrace one's own culture as a structuring factor. In fact, it is a universal experience that is importance and can hardly to be overestimated. However, there are significant factors that influence the change of culture, due to some action that is taken by the local community of the country. For example, judging someone by looking at their appearance of individuals that is out of their regular cultural circle. Besides that, tourism may become the tool to altered social perception among the community which they should not be pushed to despair their cultural belief (Masant, 2015) There is one belief among Kadazandusun tribe which is called as “Bobohizan". It is one of the ancient rituals and well known among Kadazandusun for the unique customs priestesses that are some of them who are still practicing these ancestral beliefs until today. Most of these 14. FYP FHPK. can bring about emotional experiences among visitors (Walsh, 1992) while (Braithwaite and.
(27) local community in Sabah has shared values and beliefs toward death, the spirit world, shamans, and deeds of respecting the deceased. Their spectrum of beliefs had formed an intersection when various of ethnic group cultural belief assimilated among them and interracial marriage also be the factor of the cultural assimilation happen. Usually, the local community of Sabah sees tragedy, death, the open exhibition and any activity related to darkness, ghost, and tragedy of it as taboo. Besides, fear of ghost and spirit world had been passed from one generation to another (Masant, 2015). From a young age, children have been taught with the idea of a ghost and scaring element as tools to discipline and behave them. Certainly, the community avoids visiting and experiencing a place associated with darkness, death, and tragedy such a dark site for them is not for attraction, and one should not attempt to participate (visit) or else a tragedy, dark fate, and death follow. Some of them also believe that visiting such place will disturb the dead spirit and "they" will follow visitors to home. In addition, some survivors and family victims may feel uneasy towards the idea of memorializing their past death and disaster, let alone become a platform for tourism (Masant, 2015). The intention of this study is to know the relationship between Cultural Acceptance and Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places in Malaysia. The uniqueness of Malaysia can be seen through many cultural integrations (also known as Culture of Malaysia), in which it represents the ideal culture of Malaysia, without compromising the ethnic group cultural belief and stepping the boundaries of religion. This uniqueness of Malaysia gives better prospect and future for Dark Tourism industry to grow and get attention from visitors. This is that Cultural Acceptance may influence the Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. This justifies the adoption of this variable into this study. Therefore, the second hypothesis is formulated as below: H2: There is negative relationship between Culture Acceptance and Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places.. 2.5 Learning Benefits. Referring from the previous researcher Thakkar (2007), Learning Benefits can be. 15. FYP FHPK. tribes had practice Christianity and Islamity. In addition, various ethnicity and religions, the.
(28) knowledge acquisition that result from the participation of individuals in daily activities. Learning also can be defined as a change of behavior that came from the experience or mechanistically that change in the due to their experiences. In fact, among of these definitions have the similarity of assumption which involves some kind of changes in the organism which this change was necessary but not sufficient for observing (Houwer & Moors, 2013). Furthermore, learning can be referring as a change in what they know because of the experience and the meaningful of learning is a generative activity (Fiorella & Mayer, 2015). Thus, learning also can be defined as a process of individual construction of knowledge ‘from within’ through assimilation and accommodation of ideas (Piaget, 2016). Learning elements also related to the definition of experience. In particular, learning elements are prevalent, involving an individual feeling that is emotional, involving the acquisition of information that is learning elements, arising from engaging in activities that are personal involvement, and subjectivity variations from each other. Moreover, learning also seen as a foundation and source of knowledge. Informal learning is important through exposure to one's environment or day to day experience whether involve incidentally or unintentionally (Jamin, 2020). Some of the historical sites such as the museum of war tragedies that stored old stories or things, locations with bad tragedies and many untold stories were known as Dark Tourism Places. The truth of the histories or tragedy behind, only can be known by heard and learning from their children or relatives. It indirectly will help to promote Dark Tourism Places involving cultural society. Besides that, the international community also can be educated about the progress that has been made and the true identity of the country by introducing individuality to the display including the tradition of the local community that may utilize the tragic history indirectly will promote the Dark Tourism Places. Dark Tourism has been used as the one of the ways for an educational purpose which may create the happiness and encouragement among visitors. It is found that the Dark Tourism may guide the younger generations or visitors to be more understanding about the world that we live on by increasing the awareness of the horrific events on the past (Deutsch, 2014). For example, the rising number of visitors to Kundasang War Memorial make the younger generation or visitors become more appreciated and take a positive lesson from history (Chong, 2018). Indirectly, the local community and tourist also receive a lot of advantages by explore. 16. FYP FHPK. defined as the act of acquiring knowledge, skills and innovation also refers to any sensation or.
(29) memorable knowledge and experience to the visitors. Indeed, the younger generation or visitors claims that the understanding of history will increase. This is because, some of them enjoy the experience and find the Dark Tourism places was fascinating (McIntosh, 1999). Besides, visitors can hear about historical tragedies or stories that have occurred in detail of the Dark Tourism Places. For example, warriors who sacrificed their lives, stand for the nation’s justice will have the visitors that display their love towards their families. Next, visitors also may be impressed with the old equipment that used during the previous war such a bomb, scary hallway, weapons. Visitors may also feel more related to their awareness of how to battle the enemy by using an efficient way or methods to strengthen it (Jamin, 2020). In this study, (Niemela, 2010) states that wars are too difficult to remember in the past. However, it represents the great histories for today's generations. Apart from that, visitors can learn and take it as a good value in life about the past punishment behind it and found the guiltiness and grateful in certain cases including those rules are that are no longer applicable and available with more harmoniously today. In addition, Jamin (2020) state that visitor also able to learn about the fascinating geopolitical and strategic growth of security assets and forces. Next, by visiting Dark Tourism Places, it can influence or encourages more visitors to learn the history behind it. To ensure that it does not repeat itself, the dark tours are built in such a way so that the story can be experienced by the visitors with the intention of learning purpose. Besides, (Niemela, 2010) also mentions that Dark Tourism is the history of the tragedies that will bring in life. In addition, by discussed the darker side of history and humanity, indirectly will create the largest history in the world.. The intention of this study is to know the relationship between Learning Benefits and Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Place in Malaysia. The knowledge of the history behind it, was precious and interesting to learn indirectly may be spread by the visitors. By learning, it gave a lot of benefits, also may help the visitors to be more understanding the history behind it. Even though, Dark Tourism is something that most cannot be seen, however, the presence of it need to be felt by the visitors who choose to gain knowledge, understand and experience of it by learning what Dark Tourism it is. It represents that there has a positive relationship between Learning Benefits towards the Intention of Visitors to Visit the Dark Tourism Places. For education purpose, Learning Benefits may be the one of the reasons or factors that may. 17. FYP FHPK. the background of death, violence, and ghost tours. In fact, the local societies may share the.
(30) variable into this study. Therefore, the third hypothesis is formulated as below: H3: There is a positive relationship between Learning Benefits and Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places.. 2.6 Research Framework Drawing from the past literature review in the previous section, this study depicted a research framework in figure 2.2. Independent Variable (IV). Dependent Variable (DV). Emotional Experience. Cultural Acceptance. H2. Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. Learning Benefits. Figure 2.2: Framework. The adopted independent variables for this study are IV1, IV2, IV3, and the DV is the Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. This study intends to investigate relationships between IV1 and DV, IV2 and DV and IV3 and DV.. 18. FYP FHPK. influence the Intention to Visit the Dark Tourism Places. This justifies the adoption of this.
(31) Generally, this study consists of seven chapters. In the introduction, this proposal discusses the background of the research relating to Intention to Visit Dark Tourism in Malaysia. Besides the background of the research, the intention to visit Dark Tourism has also been highlighted which discussed on few issues related. Other than that, the Emotional Experience, Cultural Acceptance and Learning Benefits also have been reviewed in chapter one as a definition of the term.. 19. FYP FHPK. 2.7 Chapter Summary.
(32) Research Methodology. 3.0 Introduction. This chapter describes the research methodology that will be used in this research. It contains 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 sampling, data collection method, research instrument and research summary. To conduct a research methodology, must meet the criteria which are methodologies should be best suited to achieve the objectives of the investigation and it should be possible to replicate the methodology used in others similar research.. 3.1 Research Design. Research design is the framework for a study that is referred as a guide for data collection and analysis. As mentioned by (Tobi, 2018) a research design can be categorized in term of the purpose of the study exploratory, hypothesis or descriptive testing. Based on the study has been stated in Chapter 1 and 2, Research Objective, Framework and Hypothesis, a quantitative approach is used in this research. The purpose of using quantitative approach is to investigate the relationship between antecedents of intention and visit intention. The purpose using this quantitative research is to quantifying and analyzing variables in to get the results. Involving the utilization and analysis numerical data that use specific statistical techniques to answer questions such as gender, ages, status, have you ever visited a Dark Tourism Places and what appealed to you about this places or attraction (Apuke, 2017). This study used cross-sectional survey design to collect the data. Generally, in a crosssectional survey, data collected to make inferences about a population of variable of the research at one point in time (Lavrakas, 2011).. 20. FYP FHPK. Chapter 3.
(33) In statistics, a population is a set of similar items or events which is of interest for some question or experiment. A statistical population can be a group of existing objects or a hypothetical and potentially infinite group of objects conceived as a generalization from experience. A common aim of statistical analysis is to produce information about some chosen population. The population also can be defined as to include all persons or objects wishing to understand their characteristics. Population sampling mentions the process of choosing the respondent group of individuals from the mass for statistical analysis (Kelly, 2000). The population of this study is closely related to the Intention to Visit the Dark Tourism Places which includes Emotional Experience, Cultural Acceptance and Learning Benefits towards the visitors. From the definition, the population can be understood as the targeted community or group of people who is involved or selected by the research for the proposal. The sampling that simply includes the individuals who happen to be most accessible to the researcher. In a convenience sampling, every individual of the population has an equal chance of being selected. The target population for this research defined to include pick a random visitor of Dark Tourism Places as a population.. 3.3 Sample Size. Lee (2016) stated that the respondents were inform that the information given would be used only for academic purpose and strictly confidential. Sample size is the subset of population (Kumar, 2013). The sample of this study is the visitors who has Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places and who does not yet have an Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. The locally survey with the self-manage questionnaire was conducted at our own state. The survey conducted on weekdays and weekends and at several times of the day to get a comprehensive sample of visitors. Refer to the sample size table by Krejcie & Morgan (1970), 384 respondents has been chosen from the population of Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places to provide adequate level of confidence to this study.. 21. FYP FHPK. 3.2 Population.
(34) The formula of the sample size according to Krejcie & Morgan (1970) is shown in figure 3.1. 𝑋 2 𝑁𝑝(1 − 𝑝) 𝑛= 2 𝑒 (𝑁 − 1) + 𝑋 2 𝑝(1 − 𝑝) n= Sample Size N= Population Size e= Acceptable Sampling Error X2= Chi-Square of degree of freedom 1 and confidence 95% = 3.841 p= Proportion of population (if unknown, 0.5) Figure 3.1: Formula Sample Size. 22. FYP FHPK. Table 3.1: Table of Krejcie & Morgan.
(35) Sampling is the procedure of choosing an adequate number of rudiments from population. A study of the sample and understanding of its properties or description is able for the researchers to simplify the properties or features of the population rudiments. In the method of sampling, the researchers select some rudiments of population as the subjects of the sample (Kumar, 2013). The sampling method can be categorized into two types which are probability sampling technique and non-probability sampling technique. In this study, the researchers selected non-probability sampling technique. Nonprobability sampling technique where the samples are collects during a process. Therefore, each element of the population has not known chance of being selected. In a simple word that can be describe is the level of tendency in selecting the sample is not known. In consequence, the researcher used convenient sampling technique to carry out this study which is likely the most common of all sampling technique to cover the large number of surveys quickly and cost effectively. The sample is chosen because it is able for researcher to access it. The researcher can randomly pick up any available respondent convenient for the researcher to use.. 3.5 Data Collection Procedure. The procedure is one of the steps found in the research process. A survey questionnaire distribution is a process of how the step-by-step research process is carried out in given time. Researchers need to do preliminary research to identify visitor who has an Intention to visit the Dark Tourism Places in Malaysia. After that, the researcher designed the questionnaire to be distributed to the respondents. Then, the questionnaire was reviewed by the supervisor. After the supervisor agrees on the questionnaire, the researcher distributed the questionnaire to the respondents through the google form method to know the purpose of knowing what is the intention of travelers to visit Dark Tourism Places and does travelers could enhance Emotional Experience, Cultural Acceptance and Learning Benefits of Dark Tourism Places.. 23. FYP FHPK. 3.4 Sampling Method.
(36) analysis. The information obtained is presented in the form of percentages and mean scores for the data obtained. All data obtained for the study conducted.. 24. FYP FHPK. Once the questionnaire is complete, the researcher collects the questionnaire for data.
(37) Setting Objective. Methodology. Analyze Data and Information. Findings. Conclusions and Suggestion Figure 3.2: Steps in Research. 25. FYP FHPK. Identify Problem.
(38) Research instruments are measurement tools such as questionnaire, test or scales that designed to help researcher obtained data on the topic of importance from research subjects. Research instrument including information for example the population addressed, the purpose of the instrument and the variables measured. There are different types of measurement such as survey, case study or questionnaire that can be used by researchers for their study depends on the nature of research that been carried out (Umoh, 2019). Researcher uses a questionnaire as a method of data collection that involve the respondent to answer the question either by written or verbal. In this research, the questionnaire used to collect the data to gather all the required input needed to complete this research. The questionnaire is a data collection method that involves the respondents to answer a series of the question either by written or verbal. Besides that, this type of research usually cheaper compared to other method and easy to monitor because it has a standardized. In addition, this research involved in many respondents so that researchers use this method because it is an efficient way of collecting data and information. The questionnaires consist of two parts. The first part is section A, questions about the respondent’s demographic information such as gender, age, race, status, have you ever visited a Dark Tourism Places? and what appealed to you about this attraction? In section B part, consist of questions related to the independent variable. The structure of the questionnaires in section A using nominal and interval scale while in section B using the Likert Scale. The 5-Likert Scale being used in this study because the reactions are effectively quantifiable and abstract to the calculation of some scientific investigation. In addition, measurement on the 5-Likert Scale is 1- Strongly Disagree, 2- Disagree, 3- Neither Agree nor Disagree, 4- Agree, 5- Strongly Agree. The data obtained through questionnaires. The researchers distributed questionnaires among the people in Malaysia.. 26. FYP FHPK. 3.6 Research Instrument.
(39) In the end of the study, the data analyzed by using two methods which are descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The descriptive used to describe the demographic profile such as percentage, frequency, mean and average mean of the respondents while inferential analysis used to describe or examine the relationship between dependent variables and independent variables by using Pearson Correlations Coefficient to measure the strength of the relationship between it. The range of mean are used to measure the level of agree among respondents with the questionnaires. Based on the table 3.2, if the range of mean between (4.51-5.00), the level of agree shows strongly agree. As for (3.51-4.50) means agree, (2.51-3.50) means neither agree nor disagree, (1.51-2.50) means disagree and (1.00-1.50) means strongly disagree. Table 3.2: Relationship between Mean and Level of Agree Range of Mean. Level of Agree. 4.51-5.00. Strongly Agree. 3.51-4.50. Agree. 2.51-3.50. Neither Agree nor Disagree. 1.51-2.50. Disagree. 1.00-1.50. Strongly Disagree. Inferential analysis used to describe or examine the relationship between dependent variables and independent variables by using Pearson Correlations to measure the strength between it. Pearson Correlation Coefficient analysis is one of the important analyzes which can measure the strength of the linear relationship between the independent variables (IV) and dependent variable (DV). This analysis is to identify if the correlations exist between the independent variables (IV), which are Emotional Experience, Cultural Acceptance and Learning Benefits and dependent variable (DV) which is Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. If the correlation is existed, the researchers must decide the strength and direction of association between the independent variables (IV) and dependent variable (DV). Table 3.3 shows the coefficient correlation and strength of relationship used by researchers. If the value correlation 27. FYP FHPK. 3.7 Data Analysis.
(40) to .90) or (-.71 to .90) means strong, (.51 to .70) or (-.51 to -.70) means medium, (.31 to .50) or (-.31 to -.50) means weak, (.01 to .30) or (-.01 to -.30) means very weak and .00 means no correlation. Table 3.3: Coefficient Correlation and Strength of Relationship (Karl Pearson, 1948) Correlation Coefficient (r). Strength of Relationship. (.91 to 1.00) or (-.91 to 1.00). Very high positive (negative) correlation. (.71 to .90) or (-.71 to .90). High positive (negative) correlation. (.51 to .70) or (-.51 to -.70). Moderate positive (negative) correlation. (.31 to .50) or (-.31 to -.50). Low positive (negative) correlation. (.01 to .30) or (-.01 to -.30). Negligible correlation. The researchers also used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to analyze the collected data. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) is software, which is designed for interactive, or batched, statistical analysis. This software is oneof the most famous statistical systems which could highly present difficult data manipulation and testing with simple procedure. Meanwhile, it is user friendly software. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) could collect almost any kind of folder to create tabulated reports including charts and plots of distribution.. 3.8 Research Summary. This chapter discussed the main issues regarding the research methodology that is applied in this study. The sampling, data collection method and research instrument were explained and justified.. 28. FYP FHPK. coefficient (.91 to 1.00) or (-.91 to 1.00), the strength of relationship is very strong. As for (.71.
(41) FYP FHPK. Chapter 4 Results & Discussion. 4.0 Introduction. This chapter discussed the results and the findings based on the analysis of the data collection. In total, 393 respondents responded to the survey. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data obtained from the questionnaires. This study adopted SPSS to analyze the data.. 4.1 Descriptive Analysis. Descriptive analysis can refer and used to describe the demographic profile that has been stated in section A of the questionnaire and to describe the mean and average mean of dependent and independent variable stated in the section B of the questionnaire. Descriptive analysis involves a simple quantitative summary of a date set that has been collected and it indirectly helps the researchers to understand the experiment or data sent in details and tells all about the required details that help put the data in perspective.. 4.1.1 Demographic Profile. Table 4.1: Gender of Respondents Gender. Frequency. Percent (%). Male. 163. 41.5. Female. 230. 58.5. Total. 393. 100 29.
(42) 393 respondents, 163 respondents which 41.5 percent are male while 203 respondents which 58.5 percent are female who involved in this survey.. Table 4.2: Age of Respondents Age. Frequency. Percent (%). 18 years old – 21 years old. 39. 9.9. 22 years old – 25 years old. 266. 67.7. 26 years old – 30 years old. 67. 17. 31 years old and above. 21. 5.3. Total. 393. 100. Table 4.2 shows the frequency and percentage by age of the respondent. Out of 393 respondents, 39 respondents (9,9 percent) are between 18 years old to 21 years old, 266 respondents (67.7 percent) are between 22 years old to 25 years old, 67 respondents (17 percent) are between 26 years old to 30 years old and 21respondents (5.3 percent) are between 31 years old and above.. Table 4.3: Race of Respondents Race. Frequency. Percent (%). Malay. 347. 88.3. Indian. 18. 4.6. Chinese. 19. 4.8. Others. 9. 2.3. Total. 393. 100. Table 4.3 shows the frequency and percentage by race of respondents which are categorized into 4 different races of respondents which are Malay, Indian, Chinese and others. Based on the table, the highest number of respondents is Malay with total number of 347 (88.3 percent) and this follow up by Chinese which 19 (4.8 percent, Indian with 18 (4.6 percent) and 30. FYP FHPK. Table 4.1 shows the frequency and percentage by gender of the respondent. Out of.
(43) Table 4.4: Status of Respondents Status. Frequency. Percent (%). Single. 339. 86.5. Married. 53. 13.5. Total. 393. 100. Table 4.4 shows the frequency and percentage of respondents by their status. According to the data collected, majority of the respondents are single with the total number of respondents is 339 respondents (86.5 percent) meanwhile the numbers of married are 53 respondents (13.5 percent) out of 393 respondents. Table 4.5: Occupation of Respondents Occupation. Frequency. Percent (%). Employed. 134. 34.1. Unemployed. 28. 7.1. Freelance. 12. 3.1. Student. 219. 55.7. Total. 393. 100. Table 4.5 shows the frequency and percentage of respondents by their occupation. According to the data collected, majority of the respondents are the students with the total number of respondents is 219 respondents (55.7 percent), follow up by employee with 134 respondents (34.1 percent), unemployed with 28 respondents (7.2 percent) meanwhile the lowest numbers is freelancer with 12 respondents (3.1 percent) out of 393 respondents for this survey.. 31. FYP FHPK. Others achieve the lowest number which 9 respondents (2.3 percent) out of 393 respondents..
(44) Do you know what is Dark Tourism? Frequency. Percent (%). Yes. 250. 63.6. No. 143. 36.4. Total. 393. 100. Table 4.6 shows the frequency and percentage of respondents by the question given which is “Do you know what Dark Tourism?”. According to the data collected, majority of the respondents was agreed by choose “Yes” with the total number of respondents is 250 respondents (63.6 percent) meanwhile the numbers of respondents disagree by choose “No” are 143 respondents (36.4 percent) out of 393 respondents.. Table 4.7: Have you ever visited Dark Tourism Places? Have. you. ever. visited. Dark Frequency. Percent (%). Tourism Places? Yes. 112. 28.5. No. 281. 71.5. Total. 393. 100. Table 4.7 shows the frequency and percentage of respondents by the question given which is “Have you ever visited Dark Tourism Places?”. According to the data collected, majority of the respondents does not yet visit the Dark Tourism Places by choose “No” with the total number of respondents is 281 respondents (71.5 percent) meanwhile the numbers of respondents who have been visit to Dark Tourism Places by choose “Yes” are 112 respondents (28.5 percent) out of 393 respondents.. 32. FYP FHPK. Table 4.6: Do you know what is Dark Tourism?.
(45) revisit Dark Tourism Places, what would be the main first emotion you get? Scary. 200. 50.9. Uncomfortable. 53. 13.5. Neutral. 68. 17.3. Passionate. 54. 13.7. Others. 18. 4.6. Total. 393. 100. Table 4.8 shows the frequency and percentage of respondents by the question given which is “If you have a chance to visit or revisit Dark Tourism Places, what would be the main first emotion you get?”. According to the data collected, out of 393 respondents, majority of the respondents get a scary emotion with the total number of respondents is 200 respondents (50.9 percent), follow up by Neutral emotion with 68 respondents (17.3 percent), passionate emotion with 54 respondents (13.7), uncomfortable feeling with 53 respondents (13.5 percent) and the lowest respondents is others emotion with 18 respondents (4.6 percent).. Table 4.9: What appealed to you visit Dark Tourism Places? What appealed to you visit Dark Frequency. Percent (%). Tourism Places? History. 142. 36.1. Education. 35. 8.9. Interest of Dark Tourism Places. 94. 23.9. Entertainment. 102. 26. Involvement in activity. 20. 5.1. Total. 393. 100. 33. FYP FHPK. Table 4.8: If you have a chance to visit or revisit Dark Tourism Places, what would be the main first emotion you get? If you have a chance to visit or Frequency Percent (%).
(46) which is “What appealed to you visit Dark Tourism Places?”. According to the data collected, out of 393 respondents, majority of the respondents choose history as the appealed to visit the Dark Tourism Places with 142 respondents (36.2 percent), follow up by entertainment with 102 respondents (26 percent), interest of Dark Tourism Places with 94 respondents (23.9 percent), education with 35 respondents (8.9 percent) and the lowest the lowest respondents choose involvement in activity as the appealed to visit the Dark Tourism Places with 20 respondents (5.1 percent).. 4.1.2. Mean and Average Mean of Independent and Dependent Variable. Descriptive analysis has been used to describe the mean and the average mean of each statement in dependent and independent variable. Mean and average mean is used to identify the level of agree of respondents towards the statements. Refer to the table 3.2 shows that how the range of mean and level of agree relate.. Based on table 3.2, it shows that range of mean for strongly disagree is between 1.001.50. The range of mean between 1.51-2.50 is in the level of disagree. The range of mean between 2.51-3.50 is the level of neither agree nor disagree. The range of mean between 3.514.50 is in the level of agree. The range of mean between 4.51-5.00 is in the level of strongly agree.. Table 4.10: Descriptive Statistic of Independent Variables and Dependent Variables Variable. N. Mean. Standard Deviation. Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. 393. 11.96. 2.017. Emotional Experience. 393. 15.40. 2.718. Cultural Acceptance. 393. 19.40. 3.115. Learning Benefits. 393. 15.81. 2.521. 34. FYP FHPK. Table 4.9 shows the frequency and percentage of respondents by the question given.
(47) independent variables and dependent variables. For the independent variables, Cultural Acceptance has the highest mean value (19.40) with the highest value standard deviation (3.115), followed by Learning Benefits with the second highest mean value of (15.81) with the standard deviation (2.521). the mean value of Emotional Experience was (15.40) with the second highest value of standard deviation (2.718). For the dependent variable, Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places has the lowest mean value (11.96) with the lowest value of standard deviation (2.017). Table 4.11 below shows the mean and average mean of the dependent variable (Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places) whereas table 4.13, 4.14 and 4.15 shows the mean and average of independent variable (Emotional Experience, Cultural Acceptance and Learning Benefits).. Table 4.11: Descriptive Analysis Statistic (Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places) No. Item Description. N. Mean. Std.. Level of Agree. Deviation 1.. I am curious to know about the 393. 4.17. .799. Agree. 3.83. .912. Agree. 3.96. .891. Agree. background of Dark Tourism Places. 2.. I want to visit a visitor attraction of 393 Dark Tourism Places that involve death location.. 3.. I will suggest and recommend 393 those Dark Tourism Places which mostly visited by visitor.. Table 4.11 shows the mean and the average mean of dependent variable which is Intention to Visit Dark Tourism Places. Statement “I am curious to know about the background of Dark Tourism Places” has the mean of 4.17 which is in the agree level with standard deviation is 0.799. Statement “I want to visit a visitor attraction of Dark Tourism Places that involve death location” has the lowest mean of 3.83 which is in the level of agree as well and. 35. FYP FHPK. Table 4.10 showed the number of respondents, mean and standard deviation of.
(48) Tourism Places which mostly visited by visitor” has the mean of 3.96 which is in the level of agree with standard deviation is .891.. Table 4.12: Descriptive Analysis Statistic (Emotional Experience) No.. 1.. Item Description. N. By visiting a Dark Tourism Places, 393. Mean. Std.. Level. Deviation. Agree. 3.95. .814. Agree. 3.86. .873. Agree. 3.75. 1.002. Agree. 3.84. .900. Agree. of. it develops a nostalgic feeling. 2.. By visiting a Dark Tourism Places, 393 it effects my positive emotional experience.. 3.. By visiting a Dark Tourism Places, 393 it gives a good time with my family and relatives.. 4.. I. have. a. fun,. exciting. and 393. meaningful day out when visiting Dark Tourism Places.. Table 4.12 shows the mean and the average of independent variable which is Emotional Experience. Statement “By visiting a Dark Tourism Places, it develops a nostalgic feeling” has the highest mean, 3.95 which is in the agree level with standard deviation is .814. Statement “By visiting a Dark Tourism Places, it effects my positive emotional experience” has the mean of 3.86 which is in the agree level with standard deviation is .873. Statement “By visiting a Dark Tourism Places, it gives a good time with my family and relatives” has the lowest mean, 3.75 which is the agree level also with standard deviation is 1.002. The last statement “I have a fun, exciting and meaningful day out when visiting Dark Tourism Places” has the mean of 3.84 which is in the agree level with standard deviation is .900.. 36. FYP FHPK. standard deviation is .912. The last statement “I will suggest and recommend those Dark.
(49) No. Item Description. 1.. N. It is important to learn about the 393. Mean. Std.. Level. Deviation. Agree. 4.01. .813. Agree. 3.97. .814. Agree. 3.81. .958. Agree. 3.80. .832. Agree. 3.87. .794. Agree. of. collective artifacts and archaeology by visiting the Dark Tourism Places. 2.. I understand and learn about the brutal 393 history of the convict settlement by visiting the Dark Tourism Places.. 3.. I challenge others when the make the 393 offensive comments while visiting the Dark Tourism Places.. 4.. I speak up if I witness another person 393 being discriminated by their own culture while visiting the Dark Tourism Places.. 5.. I able to improve myself after visit the 393 Dark Tourism Places.. Table 4.1 shows the mean and the average mean of independent variable which is Cultural Acceptance. Statement “It is important to learn about the collective artifacts and archaeology by visiting the Dark Tourism Places” has the highest mean 4.01 which is in the level of agree with standard deviation is .813. Statement “I understand and learn about the brutal history of the convict settlement by visiting the Dark Tourism Places” has the mean 3.97 which is in the level of agree with standard deviation is .814. Statement “I challenge others when the make the offensive comments while visiting the Dark Tourism Places” has the mean 3.81 which is in the agree level with standard deviation is .958. Statement “I speak up if I witness another person being discriminated by their own culture while visiting the Dark Tourism Places” has the mean 3.80 which is in the agree level with standard deviation is .832. The last statement “I able to improve myself after visit the Dark Tourism Places” has the mean 3.87 which is in the level of agree also with standard deviation is .794.. 37. FYP FHPK. Table 4.13: Descriptive Analysis Statistic (Cultural Acceptance).
(50) No. Item Description. 1.. N. Mean. I able to understand how the Dark 393. Std.. Level. Deviation. Agree. 3.91. .784. Agree. 4.01. .732. Agree. 3.92. .828. Agree. 3.97. .770. Agree. of. Tourism Places had erupted. 2.. I able to understand the issues of 393 ideological conflict and human rights by visiting Dark Tourism Places.. 3.. I carried out the obligation to visit 393 the Dark Tourism Places as a local community.. 4.. As a tourist, I carried out the 393 obligation to show respect towards victims by visit the Dark Tourism Places.. Table 4.14 shows the mean and the average mean of independent variable which is Learning Benefits. Statement “I able to understand how the Dark Tourism Places had erupted” has the lowest mean, 3.91 which is in the level of agree with standard deviation is 0.784. Statement “I able to understand the issues of ideological conflict and human rights by visiting Dark Tourism Places” has the highest mean, 4.01 which is in the level of agree with standard deviation .732. Statement “I carried out the obligation to visit the Dark Tourism Places as a local community” has the mean 3.92 which is in level of agree with standard deviation .828. The last statement “As a tourist, I carried out the obligation to show respect towards victims by visit the Dark Tourism Places” has the mean of 3.97 which is in the level of agree with standard deviation is .770.. 38. FYP FHPK. Table 4.14: Descriptive Analysis Statistic (Learning Benefits).
(51) Reliability analysis is an indication of the stability and consistency without bias and helped assessed the “goodness” of the measure (Sekaran, 2003). The reliability analysis evaluated by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient value. It is a measure of the internal consistency of a study which express as the number between 0 and 1. From the value result, researchers are able to define and determine whether the questionnaire was valid, reliable and understand by the respondents.. Table 4.15: Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient Values (Lee Cronbach, 1951) Cronbach’s Alpha. Internal Consistency. α ≥ 0.9. Excellent. 0.9 > α ≥ 0.8. Good. 0.8 > α ≥ 0.7. Acceptable. 0.7 > α ≥ 0.6. Questionable. 0.6 > α ≥ 0.5. Poor. 0.5 > α. Unacceptable. From the table 4.15 shows, it can observe that the Cronbach’s Alpha is closer to 1 (α ≥ 0.9), internal consistency considered as excellent meaning the more reliable of the items in a survey meanwhile if the Cronbach’s alpha is less than 0.5 (0.5 > α), it will consider as unacceptable internal consistency. In fact, the Cronbach’s alpha is 0.7 (0.8 > α ≥ 0.7, 0.9 > α ≥ 0.8, α ≥ 0.9) and above was an acceptable and good reliability coefficient.. 39. FYP FHPK. 4.2 Reliability Test.
(52) Item. N. No. of Items. description. Reliability. Result. Cronbach’s Alpha. Emotional. 393. 4. 0.749. Acceptable. 393. 5. 0.791. Acceptable. 393. 4. 0.828. Good. to 393. 3. 0.665. Questionable. Experience Cultural Acceptance Learning Benefits Intention Visit. Dark. Tourism Place. The table 4.16 shows the result of reliability coefficient alpha based on dependent variable and each independent variable. The first independent variable is Emotional Experience with 4 questions that show the Cronbach’s Alpha value 0.749 which range as good and acceptable internal consistency also good reliability coefficient and Likert-Scale question is considered as more reliable. (Acceptable). The second independent variable is Cultural Acceptance with 5 questions are used to test the reliability and validity. The Cronbach’s Alpha result of it is 0.791 which range as good and acceptable internal consistency and the Likert-Scale question is considered as more reliable. (Acceptable). The third independent variable is Learning Benefits within 5 questions is used to test the reliability and validity. The Cronbach’s Alpha result is 0.828 which range as good and acceptable in term of internal consistency and the coefficient that obtained in the Likert-Scale question is considered as more reliable. (Good). For measuring the dependent variable, with 3 questions about the intentions to visit Dark Tourism Places used to test the reliability and validity. The Cronbach’s Alpha result is. 40. FYP FHPK. Table 4.16: Result of Reliability Coefficient Alpha (Lee Cronbach, 1951).
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