THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTICIPATORY DECISION MAKING AND JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: A CASE STUDY
AT INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERISTY OF MALAYSIA
ABDULMAJID MOHAMED ABDULWAHAB AL-DABA
A dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the Degree of Master of Education (Educational
Institute of Education
International Islamic University Malaysia
The relationship between participatory decision-making (PDM) and job satisfaction has attracted the attention of not only business researchers but also learning researchers as well. However, the issue has not been given noteworthy attention in the educational administration research field. This correlational study is conducted to investigate the relationship between (PDM) and job satisfaction in an educational organization, a case study at International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM).
This study is carried out on the positivism approach to research. The study utilized a descriptive survey research method. The population of the study was all administrative staff at the International Islamic University of Malaysia. An adapted questionnaire was administered and distributed to 400 administrative staff in all the faculties, centers, divisions and offices of IIUM; however, 255 questionnaires were returned, representing a return rate of 63%. The study comprised of two major variables, namely PDM, which was the independent variable and job satisfaction which was the dependent variable. A five point scale was used to collect data and analysis was based on averages, percentage, correlation coefficient and independent T-test. The descriptive statistics indicated a very high level administrative staff’s participation in PDM and high level of job satisfaction. The correlational analysis found that PDM and Shura have significant impact on administrative staff’s satisfaction. Also, this finding implies that involving administrative staff in educational decision-making would be useful to improve not only their satisfaction but also organizational production. In the research findings, there were some implications for administrative staff and some recommendations made for future researches on the relationship between participation decision-making and job satisfaction in educational organizations.
ﻲﻔﻴﻇﻮﻟﺍ ﻰﺿﺮﻟﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣﻭ ﺭﺍﺮﻘﻟﺍ ﺫﺎﲣﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﰲ ﺔﻛﺭﺎﺸﳌﺍ ﲔﺑ ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﺖﻴﻨﻋ ﺪﻘﻟ ﲔﺜﺣﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﲑﺜﻜﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻤﺘﻫﺈﺑ ﺐﺴﺤﻓ ﻱﺭﺎﺠﺘﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﺎﺑ ﻪﻠﺼﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺫ ﺙﻮﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺲﻴﻟ ،
ﺓﺍﺭﺩﻹﺍ ﰲ ﻝﺎﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﻥﺇ ﻻﺇ ، ﻚﻟﺍﺬﻛ ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﳌﺍ ﺙﻮﺤﺒﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻦﻜﻟﻭ ﺔﻴﻓﺎﻜﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﳘﻻﺍ ﻰﻄﻌﻳ ﱂ ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ .
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﻮﻫ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﻦﻣ ﻑﺪﳍﺍ ﻥﺎﻓ ﻚﻟﺍﺬﻟﻭ
ﰲ ﲔﻳﺭﺍﺩﻹﺍ ﲔﺑ ﻲﻔﻴﻇﻮﻟﺍ ﻰﺿﺮﻟﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﲟ ﺎﻬﺘﻗﻼﻋﻭ ﺭﺍﺮﻘﻟﺍ ﺫﺎﲣﺇ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﰲ ﺔﻛﺭﺎﺸﳌﺍ ﲔﺑ ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺳﺆﳌﺍ .
ﻰﻠﻋ ﻪﻌﻳﺯﻮﺗ ﰎ ﻥﺎﻴﺒﺘﺳﺍ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﺖﻣﺪﺨﺘﺳﺇ ﺪﻗﻭ ﻒﻇﻮﻣ 400
ﺀﺎﻳﺰﻴﻟﺎﲟ ﺔﻤﻴﻟﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻣﻼﺳﻻﺍ ﺔﻌﻣﺎﳉﺍ ﰲ ﺔﻳﺭﺍﺩﻹﺍ ﻡﺎﺴﻗﻷﺍﻭ ﺰﻛﺍﺮﳌﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻜﻟﺍ ﻞﻛ ﻦﻣ ﻱﺍﺭﺩﺍ ،
ﺓﺩﺎﻌﺘﺳﺇ ﰎ ﺓﺩﺎﻌﺘﺳﻹﺍ ﺔﺒﺴﻧ ﺖﻐﻠﺑ ،ﻪﻧﺎﺒﺘﺳﺇ 255
. % 63 ﺕﺍﺀﺎﺼﺣﻹﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﺷﺍ ﺪﻗﻭ
ﺩﻮﺟﻭ ﱃﺍ ﺔﻴﻔﺻﻮﻟﺍ ﻚﻟﺍﺬﻛﻭ ،ﺭﺍﺮﻘﻟﺍ ﺫﺎﲣﺇ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﰲ ﲔﻳﺭﺍﺩﻹﺍ ﺔﻛﺭﺎﺸﳌ ﱄﺎﻋ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣ
ﻯﺭﻮﺸﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ ﺭﺍﺮﻘﻟﺍ ﺫﺎﲣﺇ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﰲ ﺔﻛﺭﺎﺸﳌﺍ .
ﻁﺎﺒﺗﺭﻹﺍ ﺕﻼﻴﻠﲢ ﺕﺭﺎﺷﺍ ﺎﻤﻛ
ﻲﻔﻴﻇﻮﻟﺍ ﻰﺿﺮﻟﺍ ﻯﻮﺘﺴﻣﻭ ﺭﺍﺮﻘﻟﺍ ﺫﺎﲣﺇ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﲔﺑ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣﺇ ﺔﻟﻻﺩ ﺕﺍﺫ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﺩﻮﺟﻭ ﱃﺇ .
ﺩﻮﺟﻭ ﻡﺪﻋ ﱃﺍ ﻚﻟﺍﺬﻛ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻨﻟﺍ ﺕﺭﺎﺷﺃ ﺪﻗﻭ ﺭﻮﻛﺬﻟﺍ ﲔﺑ ﻲﻔﻴﻇﻮﻟﺍ ﻰﺿﺮﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﰲ ﻕﺮﻓ
ﲔﻳﺭﺍﺩﻹﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺙﺎﻧﻹﺍﻭ .
ﺫﺎﲣﺇ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﰲ ﺔﻛﺭﺎﺸﳌﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣﻹﺍ ﺔﻟﻻﺪﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺫ ﺕﺎﺌﺒﻨﳌﺍ ﻦﻣﻭ
ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ ﰲ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﺔﻴﳘﺍ ﺎﳍﺭﺍﺮﻘﻟﺍ .
ﻩﺬﻫ ﺖﻨﻤﻈﺗ ﺪﻘﻓ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻨﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﻰﻠﻋ ًﺀﺎﻨﺑﻭ
ﺾﻌﺑ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺳﺆﳌﺍ ﰲ ﲔﻳﺭﺍﺩﻺﻟﻭ ﲔﻟﻭﺆﺴﻤﻠﻟ ﺕﺎﻴﺻﻮﺘﻟﺍ
ﺾﻌﺑﻭ ﺎ ﻞﻤﻌﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻟﺍ
ﻝﺎﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﰲ ﻯﺮﺧﺍ ﺙﻮﲝ ﻞﻤﻌﻟ ﺕﺎﻴﺻﻮﺘﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ .
I certify that I have supervised and read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Education (Educational Administration).
Mohamad Johdi Salleh Supervisor
I certify that I have read this study and in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for degree of Master of Education (Educational Administration).
Afareez bin Abd Razak Alhafiz Examiner
This dissertation was submitted to the department of Educational Administration and is accepted as a fulfilment of the degree of Master of Education (Educational Administration).
Hairuddin bin Mohd Ali Head, Department of Educational Administration This dissertation was submitted to the Institute of Education and is accepted as a fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Education (Educational Administration).
Dean, Institute of Education
I hereby declare that this dissertation is the result of my own investigation, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degree at IIUM or other institutions.
Abdulmajid Mohamed Al daba
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERISTY MALAYSIA
Copyright 2013 by Abdulmajid Mohamed Aldaba. All rights reserved.
DECLARATION OF COPY RIGHT AND AFFIRMATION OF FAIR USE OF UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH
No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder expected as provide below.
1. Any material contained in or derive from this unpublished research may only be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgment.
2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.
3. The IIUM or its library will have the right to make, store in a retrieval system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.
Affirmed by Abdulmajid Mohamed Aldaba
I lovingly dedicate this thesis to:
Both of my parents: Mohamed Abdul-Wahab & Bahjah Nasser, My brother Sadek Al-Daba & my friend Mohamed Yahya Al-Daba,
All of my precious family and lovely friends,
for the deepest prayer, love, concern, encouragement and endless support.
In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful. All praise be to Allah (S.W.T) for enabling me to complete this research. I am really grateful to Him for the health, wealth, strength and opportunity to complete my Master’s Degree without any obstacles and difficulties, particularly in conducting this research which cannot be done without His will.
I am heartily thankful to my supervisor, Asst. Prof. Dr. Mohamad Johdi Salleh whose encouragement, assistance, guidance and cooperation from the initial to the final stage enabled me to develop an understanding of the subject. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my second reader Asst. Prof. Dr. Afareez bin Abd Razak Al-Hafiz who sacrificed his precious time to assist me to complete this thesis.
Also, my heartfelt appreciation goes to all lecturers of the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), especially to my beloved lecturers at the Institute of Education (INSTED) namely, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ismaiel Hassanein, Assoc. Prof. Dr.
Yedullah Kazmi, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hairuddin bin Mohd Ali, Prof. Dr. Mohamad Sahari bin Nordin, Asst. Prof. Dr. Mohd Burhan Ibrahim, Asst. Prof. Dr. Azam bin Othman for their efforts and sincerity in teaching me.
My sincere gratitude also goes to my parents Shaikh Mohamed Abdulwahab and Ms. Bahajah Nasser for their education, motivation, support and inspiration imparted to me throughout this journey of success. I am grateful to my brother Sadek and my friend Mohammed Yahya for their support and encouragement. To colleagues and administrative staff, who either directly or indirectly contributed throughout the course of this study, my thanks.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ... ii
Abstract in Arabic ... iii
Approval Page ... iv
Declaration Page ... v
Copyright Page ... vi
Dedication ... vii
Acknowledgements ... viii
List of Tables ... xii
List of Figures ... xiv
List of Abbreviations ... xv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ... 1
1.1 Background of the Study ... 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ... 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study ... 6
1.4 Research Questions ... 6
1.5 Significance of Study... 7
1.6 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study ... 8
1.7 Theoretical Model ... 8
1.8 Conceptual Framework ... 11
1.9 Defintion of Operational Terms ... 13
1.10 Thesis Design ... 15
1.11 Conclusion ... 16
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ... 17
2.1 Introduction ... 17
2.2 Decision-Making Process ... 17
2.3 Levels of Decision-Making Process ... 18
2.3.1 Strategic Decisions: ... 18
2.3.2 Tactical Decisions: ... 19
2.3.3 Operational Decisions: ... 19
2.3.4 Policies Decisions: ... 19
2.4. Stages of Decision-Making Process ... 20
2.5. Approaches used in Decision Making ... 21
2.5.1 Authoritarian Approach: ... 21
2.5.2 Group Approach: ... 21
2.6. Theories of Decision Making Process ... 21
2.7. Participation in Decision-Making ... 24
2.7.1. Participation in Decision-Making Advantages ... 26
2.7.2. Participation in Decision-Making Challenges ... 27
2.8. Techniques of Participation in Decision-Making... 28
2.8.1 Participative Technique:... 28
2.8.2 Consultative Technique: ... 28
2.9. Decision-Making Process In Islam ... 29
2.9.1 General Overview ... 29
2.9.2 Literal Definition of Shura ... 30
2.9.3 Technical Defination of Shura ... 31
2.9.4 Institution of Shura ... 32
2.9.5 The Wisdom Behind the Legitimacy of Shura ... 34
2.9.6 Shura in Organizations... 35
2.10. Job Satisfaction... 37
2.10.1. Concept and Theoretical Overview ... 37
2.10.2. Recent Development in Job Satisfaction ... 42
2.10.3. Effects of Job Satisfaction ... 44
2.10.4. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction ... 45
2.10.5. Job Satisfaction and Participation in Decision-Making ... 48
2.11. Conclusion and Summary ... 50
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 52
3.1 Introduction ... 52
3.2. Research Design ... 52
3.3. Framework of the Research ... 53
3.4. Methodology ... 55
3.5. Population ... 55
3.6. Sampling and Sample Size... 57
3.7. Variables ... 60
3.8. Instrumentation... 60
3.9. Validity of the Study... 61
3.10. Pilot Testing of the Questionnaire ... 62
3.11. Reliability of the Study ... 63
3.12. Data Collection ... 64
3.13. Data Analysis ... 64
3.14. Conclusion ... 66
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS ... 67
4.1. Introduction ... 67
4.2. Participants’ Demographic Charactheristics ... 67
4.2.1 Gender ... 67
4.2.2. Nationality ... 68
4.2.3. Working Experience ... 68
4.2.4. Qualification ... 69
4.2.5. Job Position ... 70
4.2.6. Organizations ... 71
4.3. RQ 1. Analysis for Participatory Decision-Making (PDM) ... 72
4.4. RQ 2. Analysis for Administrative Staff’s Practice of Shura ... 78
4.5. Rq 3. Analysis For Administrative Staff Job Satisfaction ... 82
4.5.1. Level of Satisfaction with General Working Conditions ... 83
4.5.2. Level of Satisfaction with Pay and Work relations ... 86
4.5.3. Level of Satisfaction with Job Design and Feedback ... 89
4.6. RQ 4. Analysis for the Correlation between PDM and Job Satisfaction ... 96
4.7. RQ 5. Analysis for Difference in Job Satisfaction based on Gender ... 97
4.8. RQ 6. Analysis for Difference in PDM based on Gender ... 99
4.9. Conclusion ... 100
CHAPTER FIVE:CONCLUSION ... 102
5.1 Summary of the Study ... 102
5.2. Findings from Discussion ... 104
5.3. Implications ... 106
5.4. Recommendations for further Research ... 106
5.5. Conclusion ... 107
BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 109
APPENDIX I: LETTER USED FOR DETERMINING QUESTIONNAIRE VALIDITY ... 117
APPENDIX II: COVER-LETTER TO ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF ... 118
APPENDIX III: RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE ... 119
LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Page No.
3.1 Number of Administrative Staff according to MSD, IIUM 2012/2013 56
3.2 Determining sample size from a given population 58
3.3 Reliability of Questionnaire items 63
3.4 Summary of Data Analysis and Statistical Techniques 66 4.1 Frequencies and Percentages of Participants according to Gender (n=255) 68 4.2 Frequencies and Percentages of Participants according to Nationality 68 4.3 Frequencies and Percentages of Participants according to Working
4.4 Frequencies and Percentages of Participants according to Qualification 70 4.5 Frequencies and Percentages of Participants according to Job Position 71 4.6 Frequencies and Percentages of Participants according to Organizations 72 4.7 Administrative Staff Participatory Decision-Making 73 4.8 Results of one-Way ANOVA for Administrative staff PDM according to
their characteristic 77
4.9 Participation of Administrative Staff through Shura 79 4.10 Results of one-Way ANOVA for Administrative Staff’s Practice of Shura
according to their Characteristics 82
4.11 Level of Satisfaction with General Working Conditions 83 4.12 Level of Satisfaction with Pay and Work relations 86 4.13 Level of Satisfaction with Job Design and Feedback 90 4.14 Results of one-Way ANOVA for Administrative staff job satisfaction
regarding work experience 93
4.15 Results of one-Way ANOVA for Administrative staff job satisfaction
regarding qualification 94
4.16 Results of one-Way ANOVA for Administrative staff job satisfaction
regarding job position 95
4.17 Results of one-Way ANOVA for Administrative staff job satisfaction
regarding organization 96
4.18 Descriptive Statistics for Correlation between PDM and Job Satisfaction 97 4.19 Pearson Product Moment Correlation between PDM and Job Satisfaction 97 4.20 Independent Samples Test for Gender Difference in Job Satisfaction 98 4.21 Independent Samples Test for Gender Difference in PDM 100
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No. Page No.
1.1 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Management Approaches 11
1.2 Conceptual Framework of the Study 13
3.1 Research Framework 54
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
IIUM International Islamic University Malaysia
PDM Participatory Decision Making
MSD Management Service Division (IIUM)
ENGIN Kulliyah of Engineering
IRKH Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Science
KICT Kulliyah of Information and Communication Technology AIKOL Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyah of Law
KENMS Kulliyah of Economics and Management Sciences INSTED Institute of Education
KAED Kulliyah of Architecture and Environmental Design
KLM Kulliyah of Languages and Management
CPS Center for Postgraduate Studies
CELPAD Centre for Languages and Pre-University Academic Development CPD Center for Professional Development
GSM Graduate School of Management
ITD Information Technology Division
STADD Students Affairs and Development Division
MSD Management Services Division
AMAD Academic Management and Admissions Division
HMHLC Harun M. Hashim Law Center
CCD Corporate Communication Division
RMC Research Management Center
AID International Affairs Division
HWC Health and Wellness Center
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This chapter discusses the background and concept of the study based on the model of higher educational organisations. It is evident that higher educational institutions such as universities have formal and informal complex structures in terms of their hierarchy (Klapancha, 1983). The functionality of such organisations depends on how decisions are made, on whom they are made and who takes part in such decision-making processes. In order to achieve the university’s objectives and purposes, the administrators or managers, including their subordinates’ representatives, must be integral to the decision-making process (Helms, 2006).
Decision-making process should therefore be regarded as the fountainhead for every viable managerial function of an organisation of any structure, formal or informal. It is confirmed by various literature that employees’ participation in decision-making has effectively contributed to their excellent performance and job satisfaction (Moore & Gardner 1992; Jones & Napier, 1988). It must be emphasised that the pendulum has now swung back from the iron fist or autocratic management approach where directors or top authorities would impose decisions on the subordinates or use coercive means to enforce such decisions to a more democratic and participatory approach of management in which directors and junior staff’s participation are placed on equal footing in the organization’s decision-making process (Helms, 2006).
Brown (2003) and Rad and Yarmohammadian (2006) state that globalization and the wind of change that have taken place in recent times, have drastically influenced the paradigm shift in organizational structures and management behaviour.
The shift from mechanistic to humanistic approach of management is a good example of paradigm shift where management focuses on the quality of relationship between administrators and employees. Under this style of management, employees are treated humanely. It also encourages mutual trust and respect between management and employees. Administrators are encouraged to involve employees in decision-making process and give effect to democratic process within the organization in order to enhance high level of interaction between the managers and the employees (Amabile et al., 2004; Avolio et al., 2004).
It is now appreciated that the involvement of the employees in the decision- making process tremendously improves performance; efficiency increases employee’s satisfaction and minimizes the adverse effect of absenteeism and staff-turn-over (Luthans, 2005; Moorhead & Griffin, 2004). Although Sergiovanni (1996) argues that autocratic approach of management works in business and corporation, but not in schools, such autocratic style of leadership in all sectors of administration has been outlawed as being archaic, uncivilised, undemocratic and unreasonable (Foote, 1998).
It is also argued that the vertical organisational structure did exist at community college levels and similar high educational organisations during the industrial period. However, there has been a paradigm shift from that period of the Early Information Era because such hierarchical types of structure prevent the free flow of information which adversely affects the organisational prospects of adapting to the newly emerged regime in which administrators, directors and employees become partners in the organisational management through participation in decision-
making process (Maloney, 2003). This new participatory decision-making process has been studied to be connected with job satisfaction. In contrast, the absence of or failure by management to realise employees’ full participation in the organisation’s decision-making process has been cited as the sole cause of job dissatisfaction. This was studied by Belasco and Allutto (1972), Woodruff (1992) and Rice (1993).
While Conway (1984) has argued that despite the fact that results tend to show the positive effect in favour of employer-employee relationship with respect to participation in decision-making as a condition of job satisfaction, the research seems unconvincing in favour of positive relationships which entail that the question of whether staff participation in decision-making process is the sole source of job satisfaction remains unsettled.
Although people’s participation in decision-making process is seen as undermining existing authorities in these institutions, its object is not to do away with such leaderships. The rationale behind participatory decision-making process is to legitimise such leadership by incorporating them into a formidable team-work. In other words, the involvement of the staff in the decision-making process enhances effectiveness and legitimacy of such decisions and boosts employees’ morale and productivity (Tor, 1998).
People’s participation in decision-making in Islam is mandatory because it is sanctioned by Allah swt in the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Those in authority are obliged to observe the principle of Shura (Mutual Consultation) (Al-Shura 42: 38). This is because leadership is a trust (Amanah) from Allah swt which imposes a duty and obligation on those charged with the affairs of the community and therefore the duty to act in mutual consultation in Islam is higher
than in any other systems that call for participation in decision-making process (Marwat, 1990).
In this connection, Al-Habashi et al., (1998) is of the view that decision- making process does not lie in the absolute domain of the autocratic leaders to make decisions according to their whims and capricious, but rather all decisions in Islam lie in the principle of Shura. The Prophet (PBUM) and his Companions are exemplary in this regard. It is prudent that the subordinates in the organisation take part in the decision-making. It is common knowledge that everyone would feel being honoured if he or she is considered as important person by being included in the decision-making team in the organisation to which they belong (Al-Habashi et al., 1998). It follows that Shura is a right of Muslims which should be exercised collectively.
In Malaysia the educational institutions are mainly funded and controlled by the government through policy and directive (Razali & Nik, 1986). Therefore, the involvement of the administrative staff as employees seems very limited. Some studies have been carried out to assess academic staff participation; however, there is no study has been conducted to assess the administrative staff’s attitude towards their issue. In particular, there is no study has been undertaken at IIUM either, where one would expect to find the application of participative management embedded in its organizational practices through the concept of Shura.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study regarding employees’ participation in decision-making process and their job satisfaction is a phenomenon which has been given special attention by the researchers in the West. Most of what has been researched shows that employees’ participation in decision-making in organisations has favourable outcomes. These findings have
confirmed over time that employees’ participation in decision-making process contributes to job satisfaction. In other words, decision-making has a direct effect on employees’ performance. Therefore, the more employees participate in decision- making, the more their motivation and higher their performance (Balakrishnan, 1997).
However, we do not know whether the findings of these studies, which have been conducted in Western countries, can be applied to the Islamic culture and Malaysian culture in particular. Moreover, many studies have looked at the relationship between participatory decision-making and job satisfaction for academic staff while very few focus on the non-academic administrative staff. For example, no previous study has been carried out on participatory decision-making by administrative staff at IIUM. Sediou (1999) recommends that extensive studies should be conducted on the non-academic staff at IIUM. While the relationship between participatory decision-making and job satisfaction regarding academic staff somehow has been researched, there are few studies that attempt to study this relationship among non-academic administrative staff.
Accordingly, it is not clear whether Shura, which is an Islamic legal principle for people’s participation in decision-making process is applied in the administration of Islamic International University Malaysia (IIUM) (Sediou, 1999). Therefore, in order to fill these gaps, the researcher wishes to study the PDM and administrative staff job satisfaction. Also, this study seeks to establish and examine the extent to which IIUM has integrated Islamic principle of Shura with the Western principles of staff participation in decision-making process.
6 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The research aspires to look at five research objectives in regards with the relationship of participatory decision-making and job satisfaction in an educational organization.
1. To examine the participation in decision-making process among the administrative staff in an educational organization.
2. To examine the practice of Shura (Consultation) among administrative staff in an educational organization.
3. To examine the satisfaction of administrative staff in an educational organization regarding participation in decision-making.
4. To examine the relationship between participation in decision-making and job satisfaction among the administrative staff in an educational organization.
5. To examine the difference between gender in job satisfaction regarding involvement in decision-making.
6. To examine the difference between gender in participatory decision- making.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study attempts to answer the following research questions:
1. Are the administrative staff in an educational organization allowed to participate in decision-making?
2. Do the administrative staff in an educational organization participate in decision-making through the principle of Shura (Consultation)?
3. Are the administrative staff in an educational organization satisfied with their participation in decision-making?
4. Is there a relationship between participation in decision-making and job satisfaction?
5. Is there a significant difference between gender in job satisfaction regarding involvement in decision-making?
6. Is there a significant difference between genders in participatory decision- making?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The significance of this study is that it provides information for IIUM and other organisations on the importance of staff participation in the decision-making process and its relationship with job satisfaction. The study gives higher institutions of learning an opportunity to evaluate their decision-making system as it affects the staff’s performance. At the same time, it seeks to improve the employer-employee relationships by according the staff an opportunity to participate on equal footing with management in decision-making process as it enhances productivity, effective administration and promotes transparent, accountability and good governance in the organisations.
This study is also essential and useful to human resource management. It is expected the findings of this study will help to evaluate the present management system and challenges upon them to improve their information distribution system, re- designing better jobs prescription, job satisfaction policies and increase employee efficiency through training and promotion. Additionally, it is anticipated the findings of this study are useful to higher institutions of learning as they contribute to the knowledge of literature and assists the administrators of such institutions to realize the impact of staff participation in the decision-making process.
Furthermore, this study is necessary since it attempts to examine and shed light on two benchmark concepts; namely, participatory decision making (PDM) and Shura (mutual consultation) as principles which govern the educational organizations in Islamic societies. Finally, it seeks to probe into whether staff or administrators’
performance and productivity in the institutions of high learning have been influenced by job satisfaction as a result of their participation in decision-making process.
1.6 LIMITATIONS ANDDELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will draw sample from the International Islamic University Malaysia administrative staff only and could be regarded as a major delimitation to the findings of the study. Thus, it may not be extensively generalized to all educational organizations in Malaysia and the Muslim world in general. This study is also limited to investigating decision-making of administrative staff who are employed in 2012/2013 at the International Islamic University Malaysia, Gombak campus only.
Part time administrative staff at IIUM Gombak campus are excluded from this study.
The top hierarchy of the administration system has been excluded from this study.
However, these unavoidable limitations due to time and financial constraints should neither invalidate nor relegate the findings as the study remains valid for the study area.
1.7 THEORETICAL MODEL
Leadership theorists have repetitively produced proofs to maintain the benefits of leadership approaches. Examples are participatory management, Total Quality Management (TQM), employee empowerment, Theory Z, Social System theory, Theory of Cooperation in Organizations, Management by Objectives, Management by
Walking Around, and Theory Y versus Theory X (Helms, 2006). With regard to this study, MacGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y management approach is the best model to explain participation in decision-making and it is chosen for this research to clarify the behaviour of different groups of employees and their leadership in sharing in decision-making.
The famous X-Y theory was proposed by the American social psychologist Douglas McGregor in 1960. This theory is generally still preferred in the field of administration and motivation, and at the same time as more modern studies has subjected the rigidity of the theory McGregor’s X-Y model remains an applicable fundamental principle upon which positive administration approach and style are built (Helms, 2006). McGregor noted that there are two basic methods for dealing with people which he labelled Theory X and Theory Y. Many leaders use Theory X in leading their employees, and usually get poor consequences. However, open-minded leaders utilize Theory Y, which produces better results and allows employees to perform well.
On the one hand, Theory X (the authoritarian style of leadership) supposes that employees do not like to work and try to avoid it. Thus, it is the responsibility of their leaders to force them to work. McGregor’s Theory X has three fundamental assumptions; firstly, the employees do not like work and will avoid it, if they can.
Secondly, most employees must be forced, directed, and threatened or even punished to get them to work toward achieving organizational objectives. Thirdly, employees prefer to be directed; to stay away from responsibility; are relatively unmotivated, and resist change.
Helms (2006) notes that the issue of demonstrating initiative and motivation based on this theory lies with the staff and failure to achieve it is their fault. Staff are