Adaptation strategies for impacts of climate change on tourism in Malaysia: Assessing the perspectives of community

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ADAPTATION STRATEGIES FOR IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON TOURISM IN MALAYSIA: ASSESSING THE

PERSPECTIVES OF COMMUNITY

ANNATE NADZIRAH ABD LATIF

MASTER OF SCIENCE (TOURISM MANAGEMENT) UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA

(2022)

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ADAPTATION STRATEGIES FOR IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON TOURISM IN MALAYSIA: ASSESSING THE

PERSPECTIVES OF COMMUNITY

ANNATE NADZIRAH ABD LATIF 826279

A thesis submitted to the Ghazalie Shafie Graduate School of Government in fulfilment of the requirement for the Master of Science (Tourism Management)

Universiti Utara Malaysia

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Kolej Undang-Undang, Kerajaan dan Pengajian Antarabangsa (College of Law, Government and International Studies)

UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA

PERAKUAN KERJA TESIS / DISERTASI (Certification of thesis / dissertation)

Kami, yang bertandatangan, memperakukan bahawa (We, the undersigned, certify that)

ANNATE NADZIRAH BINTI ABD LATIF (826279) calon untuk Ijazah MASTER OF SCIENCE (TOURISM MANAGEMENT) (candidate for the degree of)

telah mengemukakan tesis / disertasi yang bertajuk:

(has presented his/her thesis / dissertation of the following title):

ADAPTION STRATEGIES FOR IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON TOURISM IN MALAYSIA:

ASSESSING THE PERSPECTIVES OF COMMUNITY

seperti yang tercatat di muka surat tajuk dan kulit tesis / disertasi.

(as it appears on the title page and front cover of the thesis / dissertation).

Bahawa tesis/disertasi tersebut boleh diterima dari segi bentuk serta kandungan dan meliputi bidang ilmu dengan memuaskan, sebagaimana yang ditunjukkan oleh calon dalam ujian lisan yang diadakan pada 15 MAC 2022

That the said thesis/dissertation is acceptable in form and content and displays a satisfactory knowledge of the field of study as demonstrated by the candidate through an oral examination held on: MARCH 15, 2022

Pengerusi Viva

(Chairman for Viva) : PROF. MADYA DR. ROZILA BINTI AHMAD

Tandatangan (Signature) Pemeriksa Luar

(External Examiner)

: PROF. MADYA DR. AZILA AZMI

Tandatangan (Signature) Pemeriksa Dalam

(Internal Examiner) : DR. MUNA MARYAM BINTI AZMY

Tandatangan (Signature) Tarikh : 15 MAC 2022

Date

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Nama Pelajar

(Name of Student) : ANNATE NADZIRAH BINTI ABD LATIF (826279)

Tajuk Tesis : ADAPTION STRATEGIES FOR IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON TOURISM IN MALAYSIA: ASSESSING THE PERSPECTIVES OF COMMUNITY

(Title of the Thesis)

Program Pengajian : MASTER OF SCIENCE (TOURISM MANAGEMENT) (Programme of Study)

Penyelia Pertama

(First Supervisor) :

PROF. DR. NURHAZANI BT MOHD

SHARIFF Tandatangan

(Signature)

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PERMISSION TO USE

In presenting this in fulfilment of the requirements for a postgraduate degree from Universiti Utara Malaysia, I agreed that the Perpustakaan Sultanah Bahiyah, UUM may make if freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for copying of this thesis in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly purpose may be granted by my supervisor(s) or, in their absence, by Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government (GSGSG). It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this thesis or parts thereof for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to Universiti Utara Malaysia for any scholarly use which may be made of any material from my thesis.

Request for permission to copy or to make use of materials in this thesis, in whole or in part, should be addressed to:

Dean (Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government)

UUM College of Law, Government and International Studies (UUM COLGIS) Universiti Utara Malaysia

06010 UUM Sintok

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ABSTRACT

Climate change is a critical issue today which significantly affected the ecosystem of the community. The government of Malaysia has constructed and implement numerous policy and plan in order to curb the climate change but it sad to see that this country is still at the moderate phase of overcoming the issue. Climate change consequences on tourism are crucial because it increases the danger of species extinction, decreases freshwater, increases wildfire accidents, heat waves, and illnesses, all of which cause visitors to avoid certain places. Being aware of climate change consequently help the communities to prepare for its effects. As a result, the community is also becoming more educated and able to develop proactive and reactive measures to combat climate change and reducing their social vulnerability. Hence, this study surveyed the adaptation strategies for impacts of climate change on tourism in Malaysia by assessing the perspectives of community. The objectives of this study are to investigate community awareness of climate change; to examine community perceptions toward the impacts of climate change on tourism; to assess community perceptions toward the adaptation strategies used to overcome the impacts of climate change on tourism; and further to seek the differences between the community socioeconomic characteristics and awareness of adaptation strategies for climate change. The researcher had analyzed 400 respondents representing the communities in various destinations in Malaysia which are directly and indirectly affected by climate change through a distribution of questionnaires. The findings indicated that two domains derived pertaining to community awareness and were named as affected tourism and community and physically affected. As for the community perceptions, three domains derived and were named as socio-economic impacts, physical impacts and environmental impacts. Another two domains derived to answer objective three of the study regarding the community perceptions toward the adaptation strategies and were named as enhancing awareness and capacity development and also diversification of tourism activities. Additionally, significant relationships are found among socioeconomic characteristics and community awareness. This study significantly provides an adaptation plan for climate change complements the tourism stakeholders in Malaysia social innovation aim, which focuses on sustainable communities.It also assists the policymakers by providing a framework for measuring and understanding the consequences of adaptation measures of climate change in the tourism industry.

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ABSTRAK

Perubahan iklim adalah isu kritikal masa kini yang secara signifikannya mempengaruhi ekosistem komuniti. Malaysia telah membangun dan melaksanakan beberapa dasar dan perancangan bagi membendung perubahan iklim, namun negara masih lagi berada pada tahap yang sederhana untuk mengatasi masalah ini. Impak perubahan iklim terhadap pelancongan sangat penting kerana ia mengakibatkan peningkatan kepupusan spesies, pengurangan air tawar, peningkatan kebakaran hutan, peningkatan gelombang panas dan penyakit, di mana menyebabkan pelancong mengelak dari mengunjungi destinasi berkenaan. Kesedaran terhadap perubahan iklim dapat membantu komuniti bersiap sedia menghadapi impaknya. Malah, komuniti turut menjadi lebih berpendidikan dan mampu membangunkan langkah proaktif dan reaktif untuk memerangi perubahan iklim dan mengurangi kelemahan sosial mereka. Oleh itu, kajian ini bertujuan meninjau strategi penyesuaian bagi impak perubahan iklim terhadap pelancongan di Malaysia melalui perspektif komuniti. Objektif kajian ini antaranya adalah untuk mengkaji kesedaran komuniti mengenai perubahan iklim;

mengkaji persepsi komuniti terhadap kesan perubahan iklim terhadap pelancongan;

menilai persepsi komuniti terhadap strategi penyesuaian yang digunakan untuk mengatasi kesan perubahan iklim terhadap pelancongan; dan seterusnya mendapatkan perbezaan diantara ciri-ciri sosioekonomi komuniti dengan kesedaran terhadap strategi penyesuaian perubahan iklim. Penyelidik telah menganalisis 400 responden yang mewakili komuniti di pelbagai destinasi di Malaysia yang secara langsung dan tidak langsung dipengaruhi oleh perubahan iklim dengan pengedaran borang soal selidik.

Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa dua domain terhasil berkaitan dengan kesedaran masyarakat dan dinamakan sebagai pelancongan dan komuniti yang terjejas serta terjejas secara fizikal. Bagi persepsi komuniti, tiga domain terhasil dan dinamakan sebagai impak sosio-ekonomi, impak fizikal dan impak persekitaran. Dua lagi domain diperolehi untuk menjawab objektif ketiga kajian berkenaan persepsi komuniti terhadap strategi penyesuaian dan dinamakan sebagai peningkatan kesedaran dan pembangunan kapasiti, serta kepelbagaian aktiviti pelancongan. Selain itu, hasil kajian turut menunjukkan wujudnya hubungan yang ketara terhadap ciri-ciri sosioekonomi dengan kesedaran komuniti terhadap perubahan iklim. Kajian ini secara signifikan menyediakan para pemegang taruh pelancongan satu perancangan adaptasi yang memfokus kepada komuniti selari dengan memenuhi inovasi sosial di Malaysia. Hasil dapatan turut membantu para pembuat polisi dengan menyediakan kerangka kerja bagi mengukur dan memahami kesan serta langkah-langkah penyesuaian perubahan iklim dalam industri pelancongan.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Praise to Allah s.w.t the Almighty for His blessing for giving the strength, ideas, strong determination and patience in completing this research paper in order to fulfill the graduation requirement of Master of Science (Tourism Management). I would like to pay my greatest gratitude to Prof. Dr. Nurhazani Bt Mohd Shariff as the supervisor who is always giving her never ending support, guidance, motivation and constructive comments which helped me a lot in improving the quality of this research paper. Not to be forgotten, to my family for their moral support and valuable prayers for me. At the risk of overlooking some individuals, I would like to specially acknowledge them for the help given throughout this process.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PERMISSION TO USE………...i

ABSTRACT………...ii

ABSTRAK……….iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……….iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS………..v

LIST OF TABLES………vi

LIST OF FIGURES……….vii

LIST OF APPENDICES………viii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS………..ix

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction……….. 1

1.2 Background of the Study……….. 1

1.3 Problem Statement………. ……. 9

1.4 Research Questions……….. 16

1.5 Research Objectives………. 16

1.6 Scope of the Study……… 17

1.7 Significance of the Study………. 18

1.7.1 Practical Contribution 18 1.7.2 Academic Contribution 20 1.8 Operationalization of Terms……… 22

1.9 Structure of the Thesis……….. 25

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction………... 26

2.2 Climate Change and Tourism………. 26

2.2.1 Understanding Climate Change………. 29

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2.2.2 The Relationships between Climate Change and Tourism…. 32

2.2.3 Impacts of Climate Change to Tourism………. 36

2.2.4 Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Tourism………… 43

2.2.5 Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Community Awareness………. 47 2.2.6 Socioeconomics characteristics and respondent’s awareness 53 2.3 Tourism in Malaysia……….. 55

2.3.1 Nature-Based Tourism in Malaysia……… 61

2.3.2 The Roles of Ministry of Energy, Science, Technology, Environment and Climate Change (MESTECC)……… 64 2.4 Conclusion………. 69

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction………... 71

3.2 Research Design……… 71

3.3 Population and Sampling………... 72

3.3.1 Population of the Study……….... 72

3.3.2 Sampling Technique……….... 73

3.4 Instrument Development………... 74

3.5 Reliability Test and Pilot Study………... 76

3.6 Data Collection………... 84

3.6.1 Secondary Data Collection………... 84

3.6.2 Primary Data Collection………... 84

3.7 Data Analysis……… 85

3.7.1 Factor Analysis……….... 85

3.7.2 Reliability Test………. 86

3.7.3 Descriptive Statistics Analysis………. 86

3.7.4 ANOVA Test………... 87

3.8 Conclusion……… 88

CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS 4.1 Introduction………. 89

4.2 Data Collection……… 89

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4.3 Awareness of Climate Change……… 93

4.3.1 Factor Analysis……….. 94

4.3.2 Reliability Test………... 95

4.3.3 Descriptive Analysis……….. 97

4.4 Perceptions about Impacts of Climate Change on Tourism………. 101

4.4.1 Factor Analysis………... 101

4.4.2 Reliability Test………... 104

4.4.3 Descriptive Analysis……….. 106

4.5 Adaptation Strategies of Climate Change for Tourism……… 113

4.5.1 Factor Analysis………... 113

4.5.2 Reliability Test………... 115

4.5.3 Descriptive Analysis……….. 117

4.6 Suggestions for Adaptation Strategies………. 122

4.7 Conclusion………... 124

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 5.1 Introduction………. 126

5.2 Achievement of Research Objectives………. 126

5.2.1 To investigate community awareness of climate change… 127 5.2.2 To examine community perceptions toward the impacts of climate change on tourism………. 133 5.2.3 To access community perceptions toward the adaptation strategies to overcome the impacts of climate change on tourism……….. 138 5.2.4 Suggestion for Adaptation Strategies. ……… 142

5.3 Implications of the Study ……… 144

5.3.1 Academic Contributions………. 144

5.3.2 Practical Contributions………... 144

5.4 Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research…………. 146

5.5 Conclusion………... 147

REFERENCES………149

APPENDIX 1………..183

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viii LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 Tourist receipts and tourist arrivals in Malaysia (2016-2019) 5 Table 1.2 Operationalization of terms used for the study……… 22 Table 2.1 Studies on impacts of climate change and implications to

tourism………..

39 Table 3.1 Sources and number of items in the survey questionnaire…... 75 Table 3.2 Socioeconomic characteristics of respondents (N = 40)……… 78 Table 3.3 Reliability test for items in the questionnaire (N = 40)……… 81 Table 3.4 Data analysis procedures for the questionnaire……… 87 Table 4.1 Socioeconomic characteristics of respondents (N=400)……... 91 Table 4.2 Factor analysis results for awareness of climate change (N =

400)………...

95 Table 4.3 Reliability test results for awareness of climate change (N =

400)………...

96 Table 4.4 Reliability test results for awareness of climate change (N =

400)………...

98 Table 4.5 Mean value of items for awareness of climate change (N =

400)………...

100 Table 4.6 Factor analysis results for perceptions about impacts of

climate change on tourism (N = 400)………

102 Table 4.7 Reliability test results for perceptions about impacts of climate

change on tourism (N = 400)………

104 Table 4.8 Descriptive analysis of items for socio-economic impacts (N

= 400)………

107 Table 4.9 Descriptive analysis of items for physical impacts (N = 400)… 108 Table 4.10 Descriptive analysis of items for environmental impacts (N =

400)………..

110 Table 4.11 Mean value of items for impacts of climate change on tourism

(N = 400)……….

111 Table 4.12 Factor analysis results for climate change adaptation strategies

(N = 400)……….

114 Table 4.13 Reliability test results for climate change adaptation strategies

(N = 400)………..

116

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Table 4.14 Descriptive analysis of items for enhance awareness and capacity development (N = 400)………...

118 Table 4.15 Descriptive analysis of items for diversification of tourism

activities (N = 400)………..

120 Table 4.16 Mean value of items for climate change adaptation strategies

(N = 400)………..

121 Table 4.17 ANOVA test between socioeconomic characteristics and

awareness of climate change (N =

400)……….

123

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Monthly Tourist Arrival in 2019………... 58 Figure 2.2 Monthly Arrival by Country in 2019……… 59

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1 Survey Questionnaire………. 149

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS

ADAPT Asia Pacific Climate Change Adaptation Project Preparation Facility

CO2 Carbon dioxide

CCA Climate Change Adaptation DDR Disaster Risk Reduction GI Green Infrastructure

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

MESTECC Ministry of Energy, Science, Technology, Environmental &

Climate Change

MOCAT Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism

MOSTI Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation MTTP Malaysian Tourism Transformation Programme NAHRIM National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia NCCP National Climate Change Policy

NEP National Ecotourism Plan

NGTP National Green Technology Policy NKEAs National Key Economic Areas (NKEAs) NTP National Tourism Policy

SLR Sea Level Rise

TDC Tourism Development Corporation

UNISDR United Nation International Strategy for Disaster Reduction

UK United Kingdom

UKPACT United Kingdom Partnering for Accelerated Climate Transitions UNEP United Nation Environment Programme

UNDP United Nation Development Programme

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNWTO United Nations of World Tourism Organization

USD United States Dollar

USAID United States Agency for International Development WTTC World Travel & Tourism Council

WTO World Tourism Organization

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the general background of the study beginning with the phenomenon of climate change and the relation of climate change to tourism particularly in Malaysia. It then follows by explaining the problem statement of the study. Further, this chapter presents the objectives and research questions for the study.

The chapter additionally discusses on the scope of the study which involves two major aspects – perspectives of community on extreme weather events and nature-based tourism. It also explains the significance of the study in terms of practical and academic contribution. This chapter ends by further presenting the operationalization of terms used in the study and also the structure of the thesis.

1.2 Background of Study

Climate change is expected to adversely to affect the tourism as a large portion of its overall performance, but others such as infrastructure, hospitality, land, culture, and economics will be affected even more (Hall et al., 2015). Indeed, a thorough study of how ten types of climate change impacts are affecting 89 human health, food, water, housing, environment, and protection attributes discovered that tourism is one of the five that is affected by all ten types of climate impacts (Mora et al., 2018). Despite

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growing data in academia and recognition by policy makers, climate change is still a controversial in the tourism sector. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) joined the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Climate Neutral Now campaign in 2018, pledging to become climate neutral by 2050 and collaborating on sector-wide climate action (Gössling & Scott, 2018).

The earth's atmosphere is deteriorating, and climate change is occurring on a global scale. As the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased, major incidents such as rising sea levels, melting snow and ice, increased intensity of excessive heat events, explosions, and drought, as well as an increase in the number of severe weathers, unstable rains, and flooding, have occurred.

The world is warming, with global warming expected to hit 1.5°C by 2030 and 2052 if existing trends persist. Since the 1960s, the temperature in South East Asia (SEA) countries has risen at a rate of 0.14°C to 0.20°C per decade, resulting in an influx of hot days and nights and a downturn in cooler weather, while the trend of the southwest rainy season has shifted, decreasing overall rainfall and the frequency of rainy days and precipitation extremes are very likely in the Southeast Asian zone. The IPCC's findings matched those of many local surveys that looked at the impact of climate change on the atmosphere, such as rising temperatures (Tang, 2019), sea level rise (Md. Din et al., 2019), heavy and an erratic monsoon cycle (Loo et al., 2015).

Ever since 1980s, there is a surge on the days with extreme rain fall. Extreme wind events and number of annual thunderstorm days have also been increasingly reported.

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Following the existence of the El-Nino effect, the year 2019 saw a string of heat waves.

On March 5 to 8, 2019, Chuping, Perlis experienced a heat wave with maximum temperatures ranging from 37.1°C to 37.7°C, and on March 18 to 22, 2019, it experienced a heat wave with maximum temperatures ranging from 37.2°C to 38°C.

Hot and dry weather conditions triggered local and transboundary haze during the Southwest monsoon, leading to a rise in the Air Pollution Index (API) in the Peninsula's west coast states and some areas of Sarawak (Malaysia Meteorological Department, 2019). MET Malaysia has initiated many development projects under the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (11MP). Two construction projects have been finished successfully, and two further development projects will be continued in 2020. The meteorological group commemorates World Meteorological Day every year on March 23. (WMD). WMD's theme for 2019 was 'The Sun, The World, and The Atmosphere.' The choice of this theme emphasises the sun's importance as a source of energy for life on Earth, as well as its effect on hydrological cycles and ocean currents, which influence climate and weather patterns.

The overlap of dry spell and heavy rainfall within the same year is an emerging weather pattern in Malaysia (Khor, 2015). Throughout the year, Malaysia was exposed to a variety of severe weather incidents. Tropical Storm Pabuk passed close to our shores from December 31, 2018 to January 4, 2019, bringing high winds, raging waves, and heavy downpours to the Peninsula's east coast states of Kelantan and Terengganu (Malaysia Meteorological Department, 2019). Meanwhile, on August 9, 2019, Typhoon Lekima struck the eastern part of China, wreaking havoc on the northern part

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of the Peninsula. Typhoon Lekima's tail-end formed a squall line that reached the northern states of the Peninsula, including Penang, Kedah, and Perlis, caused extensive damage to top buildings and homes (Malaysia Meteorological Department, 2019).

Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang and Johor witnessed massive flooding during the Northeast Monsoon of 2019/2020 (Malaysia Meteorological Department, 2019).

Tourism has grown to be one of the important and rapidly industries, and it is a key source of income, employment, export, and taxes for many countries. Based on the data from World Tourism Organization (2020), tourism has contributed 9.25 trillion USD to the global economy for 2019 with the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide 1.46 billion. As for Malaysia, the significance of the tourism industry can be interpreted by increasing of revenues, creating job opportunities, encouraging private sector and developing infrastructure (Jalil et al., 2013). Additionally, it also promotes growth and prosperity in business activity, foreign exchange, income, employment and government revenue. In recognition of the importance of tourism towards economy, the government has built essential infrastructure to serve hotels and other tourist facilities and has provided support for the expansion of tourist accommodations, investment incentives and loan guarantees to assist private sectors.

The World Tourism Organization has acknowledged Malaysia as the top three countries which attracted higher number of tourists in the Asian region (WTO, 2018).

As shown in Table 1.1, the latest statistics highlights that tourism in Malaysia has continued to exhibit positive growth from 2015 with 86.14 billion contributions in

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tourist receipts and 26.1 million international tourist arrivals for 2019 (Tourism Malaysia, 2020).

Table 1.1

Tourist receipts and tourist arrivals in Malaysia (2016-2019) Year Tourist arrivals

(million)

Tourist receipts (RM, billion)

2019 26.10 86.14

2018 25.83 84.13

2017 25.95 82.17

2016 26.76 82.10

Source: Tourism Malaysia Statistic, Tourism Malaysia (2020)

The data from the table also indicated a positive growth for Malaysia tourism industry which recorded 26.76 million tourist arrivals in 2016. Corresponding to the 4% of arrivals growth, tourist receipts increased to RM82.1 billion (+18.8) and per capita expenditure escalated 14.2% or RM3.068.2. Most of the Association South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries such as, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei and Thailand largely contributed to the arrivals. However, in 2017, major market namely Singapore, Indonesia, India, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia and West Asia led to the decreasing of tourist arrivals which significantly downtrend of tourist arrival, to 25.95 million. As for January to December 2018, Malaysia again received less arrivals compare to 2017 which affected for about -0.4% to 25.83 million. The tourist receipts still experiencing a positive graph of increased +2.4 to RM84.13 billion. Slightly in

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2019, there is an improvement in the number of tourist arrivals, a rose of +1.0% over the same period last year to 26.1 million. Indonesia, China, India, South Korea, Australia and Saudi Arabia were among the major contributor to the strong growth. In tandem with small positive growth of tourist arrivals, the total tourist receipts recorded a growth of +2.4 to 86.14 billion.

Malaysia offers various type of tourism which are successfully promoted by the Malaysian Tourism Promotion Board (MTPB), Islamic Tourism Centre (ITC) and Malaysia Convention & Exhibition Bureau (MyCEB). The image of Malaysia as a tourist destination has continuously highlighted the types of tourism in Malaysia beginning with "Fascinating Malaysia. Year of Festivals" (1990), “Fascinating Malaysia. Naturally More” (1994), "Malaysia Truly Asia" (2007), “Celebrating 1Malaysia Truly Asia" (2014), “Visit Truly Asia Malaysia” (2020), (Tourism Malaysia. 2020). There are several tourism policies being launched, National Tourism Policy 2020-2030 which is focusing on boosting productivity, promoting healthy, inclusive tourism and disaster preparedness. As an effort to gain sustainable tourism development, the policy also aims on thriving eco-tourism in the country such as beach and coastal tourism, ocean and sea-life tourism and forest and biodiversity tourism (Prime Minister’s Office of Malaysia, 2020). As for National Ecotourism Policy 2016- 2025, it widely goaling on investment in ecotourism, finding a suitable method for the sustainable financing of protected areas and ecotourism, improving the synergy between ecotourism, conservation and increase local community participation, fully

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utilizing the digital platform for marketing, last but not least, implementing the ecotourism cluster (Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture, 2016).

Based on community needs and interests, Fielho (2008) calls for stakeholders to share climate change information. The community is unlikely to be as interested in climate change material that is more technical in nature. As a result of their expertise in managing climate change-related programmes and responding to climatic risks locally and internationally, Shaffril et al. (2013) concluded that their experience is essential for raising community understanding of climate change. Shared information is extremely beneficial for all parties involved, and should be emphasised in a number of different ways, including but not limited to: relevant parties and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). To begin, as suggested by Nursey-Bray (2011), climate change research findings should be shared and promoted with the local people. There should also be use of trusted and reliable interpersonal sources such as relevant government officers (e.g., fisheries extension officers, agriculture extension officers, district officers) village leaders, jetty leaders, and vessel skippers because most communities (especially those in rural and coastal areas) prefer interpersonal communication (Shaffil et al., 2013). As a result, they should have a better grasp of climate change and be able to communicate that knowledge to the coastal people.

Badjeck et al. (2009) explained the impacts of climate change on the ecosystem and community. Badjeck et al. (2009) claim that climate change has caused environmental instability (such as ocean currents, rainfall, sea level rise, and temperature). This

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volatility has harmed the quality and quantity of marine life, and reduced the frequency of fishing operations for individuals who rely on environmental stability to run their business. Instability also affects the community's livelihood, as well as society and economy. Badjeck et al. (2009) focus on the local coastal population and the impact of climate change. Moving them is regarded one of the most effective solutions available as climate change continues to threaten coastal communities. While this move may cause self-conflict among community members, other community members may feel strongly attached to the place and refuse to be relocated, leading in conflict between the two groups. According to Badjeck et al. (2009), efficient livelihood strategies are required to cope with climate change. They found that the coastal population has less viable livelihood alternatives to deal with climate change for several reasons.

Unfortunately, China reported an outbreak of a form of pneumonia with uncertain causes in December 2019. The pandemic had escalated into a global public health emergency. The US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported a seafood market in Wuhan as the alleged centre of the outbreak in early January 2020, and the market has remained closed since then. This latest virus has been classified as a novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, or COVID-19. Visit Malaysia Year 2020 campaign has been cancelled due to the Covid-19 pandemic, announced by Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture. It may have an effect on the government's target of 30 million visitors during the Visit Malaysia 2020 programme (MSN, 2020) Due to the imposition of a movement control order (MCO) on March 18, 2020, all tourism licencing division

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operations have been declared to be suspended for the duration of the MCO (Rahim, 2020).

Hence, several researches have been conducted to indicate the relationship between tourism and climate change (Scott et al., 2012). The importance of climate change to tourism has also been emphasized in several literatures (Nyamwange, 2016). In fact, several researchers also agree that climate change has a significant influence on the tourism sector (Hoogendoorn et al., 2016; Liu, 2016). The tourism industry is considered as sensitive to climate change due to the fact that it has a direct impact on the tourist resources at destinations (Kovacs & Thistlethwaite, 2014). A review on literature reveals how climate will influence tourism, as climate can affect the seasonality of tourism, where visitors choose to go and what events they partake in as well as their overall experience of a tourist destination by means of how satisfied and safe they feel (Gössling et al., 2012).

1.3 Problem Statement

To mitigate the effects of climate change on human flourishing, governments, development agencies, and civil society organisations have made significant investments in strengthening people's ability to adapt to change. However, these efforts have been centred on a fairly limited understanding of adaptive capability.

Adaptability refers to how well people can anticipate and respond to change, how well they can minimise the consequences, how well they can recover, and how well they can take advantage of new opportunities when things change. In the past, researchers

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found that the availability of capital (such as financial, social, and human) in times of need was a big factor in adaptive capacity. Recent research shows that adaptive capacity isn't just about having the resources you need. It's also about being willing and able to use those resources in a way that is effective (Cinner, Adger, Allison, et al, 2018).

Based on the latest research made by Mcnamara & Buggy (2017), an ecotourism boom in Lower Kinabatangan, it benefits the local community by raising awareness among residents about the region's natural resources, such as its forests and wildlife. The preservation of Orang Sungai cultural heritage assets is essential to diversifying tourism offerings, which can enrich the tourist experience and generate more revenue for the local community. Many of the people who took the survey felt that although there are several options for locals to get involved in ecotourism development, such as working in lodges, taking part in conservation efforts, or providing lodgings, the current level of direct participation by locals is still low. Ecotourism involvement is hampered by issues such as a lack of financial resources and expertise in running tourism operations and businesses. The vast majority of people interviewed in Lower Kinabatangan who were involved in ecotourism found that ecotourism has a positive impact on the local population, particularly in terms of increasing and diversifying income sources, creating jobs, preserving cultural heritage, and improving infrastructure. Stakeholders like as government agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), plantation firms, and tourism operators have all had a role in

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helping to develop ecotourism, conserve the area, and improve the socioeconomic status of the locals in Lower Kinabatangan.

Adaptation elements are included in the National Policy on Climate Change in 2009 and 11th Malaysia Plans, but they are not as prominent as mitigation elements. As a result, Malaysia may be particularly vulnerable to climate change's effects (Alam et al., 2017). Drought, flood, and deforestation, irrigation, hygiene, woods, and biodiversity, as well as coastal marine habitat, were listed as areas needing adaptation in 2011. Despite this, there are already differences in adaptation. The lack of participatory preparation found by Khailani and Perera (2013) was evident in planners' inability to address basic needs of people in relation to flood hazards, such as identifying rescue and assessment routes and reducing the risks of flooding on homes, transportation, roads, and services. In the bright side, planners have defined insecure areas for houses, as well as evacuation buffer zones (an area of land designated for environmental protection) and natural lines of protection in preparation. The report suggested that the Federal Department of Town and Country Planning engage in constructive physical planning, including consultation with partners in the design of urban development plans, to implement disaster readiness and climate change adaptation.

The Vector-Borne Disease Control Program, which succeeded the Malaria Eradication Program in 1967, was implemented by the Ministry of Health in 1986. Malaria, as well as other vector-borne diseases including dengue, filariasis, typhus, and yellow fever,

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are all part of the Vector-Borne Disease Control Program. Its life has nothing to do with responding to and future-proofing climate change, beyond the fact that it has been alleged to do so (Alhoot et al., 2016). In the case of floods, Malaysia's Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) has launched the official Public Info banjir (flood information) website, which displays alarm and warning water levels based on data from its flood gauges across the country to aid emergency response. In fact, the Info banjir is a product of the DID's flood forecasting and warning system software, which also includes the integrated flood and rainfall control (IFFRM). The initiative has facilitated the establishment of a drought monitoring database (Info Kemarau), but a visit to the site reveals minimal public knowledge on drought events or predictions (DID, 2018). In view of the increased occurrence of severe weather incidents associated with climate change, the Malaysia Meteorological Department issues warnings of earthquakes and tsunamis, high winds, rough seas, thunderstorms, heavy rainfall, and tropical cyclones on its website. The Public Works Department Malaysia's emergency management centre also operates a website that simply relays weather forecasts from the Meteorological Department (2016).

In March 2012, Malaysia established the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) as a significant adaptation programme. (Abdullah, 2016) An efficient water governance system is emphasised by the IWRM. Following the implementation of IWRM, key milestones included the construction of the National River Register, completion of 12 river basin management plans, and release of the urban storm water management manual. Completed a national report on IWRM in Malaysia and

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implemented IWRM Best Management Practices. On average, 95.1% of Malaysians had piped water by 2013, up from 94.2% in 2010, while irrigated land increased (Abdullah et al., 2016). Many climate change response ideas have been offered, however many of them lack connectivity to existing or planned solutions, leaving unsolved gaps. A number of academics, such as Shahid et al. (2017), have recommended developing climate-resilient water, electricity, and catastrophe management strategies. The IWRM takes this into account. Some techniques, such as revitalising a broken water runoff infrastructure or optimising operational operations, may be ineffectual due to their extensive scope.

Climate change is also impacting Malaysia's coastal areas, as it is elsewhere. It has been identified that Malaysia's coastal communities face rising temperatures (Kwan et al., 2011); rising sea levels (Awang and Abdul Hamid, 2013) unstable rain patterns and thunderstorms (Wan Azli, 2010); strong wind and waves (Muzathik et al., 2011), (Kajikawa et al., 2012). According to several local scholars, these changes have had a profound effect on the coastal community, which is heavily reliant on natural resources such as the sea, the coast, and mangrove areas for fisheries, tourism, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME), and social activities (Shaffril et al., 2013). Residents in coastal communities are required to be conscious of climate change. We expected that increasing rural community understanding of climate change would lead to improved preparedness to confront the various dangers caused by climate change. As a result, being aware of climate change will help communities prepare for its effects.

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Other than that, the community is more educated and able to develop proactive and reactive measures to combat climate change, reducing their social vulnerability.

According to Abdul Hamid (2013), numerous local and foreign researchers have focused on the topic of climate change in Malaysia. However, most of this environmental research are practical in nature, resulting in a lack in social elements of climate change, notably community awareness. Moreover, a number of local studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding population knowledge of climate change.

Most of the coastal community, according to Shaffril et al. (2013) and Abu Samah et al. (2011), has experienced climate change, whereas Omar et al. (2013) asserted that a section of the coastal community believes the current climate is normal. So, is the community in Malaysia sufficiently informed of climate change? These issues lead to the goal of this study, which is to evaluate community knowledge of climate change and factors that influence their awareness and adaption strategy.

Tourism destinations are now facing the necessity to develop adaptation strategies.

Malaysia eventually has adopted the National Climate Change Policy (NCCP) and the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 to report the persistent concerns of climate change in the country. Taking seriously the impacts of climate change in the country, several policies have been addressed in the 5-year Malaysia Plans including the Environmental Quality Act 1974, National Forestry Act 1984, National Policy on Biological Diversity 1998 and the National Wetland Policy 2004. These policies however focus more into the mitigation aspect rather than adaptation and

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further, none is addressed in the context of tourism. To deal with climate change threats in tourism, an adaptation strategy demand actions from affected bodies within the industry. Hence, it is important for the country to collectively formulate an adaptation strategy to address what must be considered the greatest challenge to overcome the climate change impacts to tourism

Up to this date, the revised policies, such as National Policy on Biological Diversity 2016-2025 consists of 5 key principles specifically focus on biodiversity management.

In this policy, government has put on the effort in preserving and highlighting the ecotourism. Precisely, they focus on the terrestrial habitat, coastal-marine habitats and lastly flora and fauna diversity. Malaysia has recently been touted as an environmental- tourism haven due to its abundant and pristine biodiversity. Dive divers from all around the world enjoy recreational diving. One of the drawbacks of this form of tourism is the level of diversity and the climate it provides. Diving in Sipadan and Layang-Layang island groups is known to be one of the top locations in the South China Sea. Both of these UNESCO World Heritage sites have high levels of biodiversity. In Taman Negara National Park, more than 80,000 visitors come every year. The rising quality of these and other products helps to promote tourism in Malaysia (Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment Malaysia, 2016).

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16 1.4 Research Questions

The study points out four research questions focused on the aforementioned situation:

i. Does community aware of climate change?

ii. How does community perceive the impacts of climate change impacts on tourism?

iii. How does community perceive the adaptation strategies used to overcome the impacts of climate change on tourism?

iv. Is there any differences between community awareness of climate change and socioeconomic characteristics? (Gender, age, marital status, level of education and number of years living in the tourism area?)

1.5 Research Objectives

The purpose of this study is to assess the community perceptions toward climate change impacts and adaptation strategies for tourism in Malaysia. Four objective is identified to answer the research questions as above:

i. To investigate community awareness of climate change;

ii. To examine community perceptions toward the impacts of climate change on tourism; and

iii. To assess community perceptions toward the adaptation strategies used to overcome the impacts of climate change on tourism.

iv. To examine the community awareness of climate change differences based on their socioeconomics characteristics (gender, age, marital status, level of education and number of years living in the tourism area).

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17 1.6 Scope of Study

The focus of the research is limited to three aspects. Firstly, the study will focus on extreme weather events. Study on climate change indicates that extreme weather events for instance sea level rise (SLR), flood, drought, wildfire and infected decease can influence tourists’ activities as well as their safety (Siddique & Imran, 2018).

Today, Malaysia is experiencing the unstable weather which may lead to the sea level rise, wildfire, drought, flood and infected disease. It is noted that a significance portion of Malaysian population is vulnerable to the effects of extreme weather events associated to climate change for instance floods and droughts (Syafrina, et al., 2017).

Secondly, to investigate the effects of the extreme weather events on tourism in Malaysia, the research will focus on nature-based tourism, as its effects on the environment are more pertinent. This is in line with the National Tourism Policy as the objective is to place Malaysia as one of the Top Mind Ecotourism Destination in the world. Apart from that, the goals of this policy are to focus on the nature-based tourism which include adventure, ecotourism, cultural and heritage, sustainable and responsible tourism. Malaysia are one of those countries which rely quite heavily on natural resources in its tourism growth and development (Abdul Razak, 2018). It is one of the fastest growth industries in Malaysia's tourism sector (Jones & Ohsawa, 2016).

Thirdly, community perspective towards climate change impact and adaptation strategies for tourism in Malaysia. Climate and climate change knowledge has been

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built in many ways (Murphy 2011). Others have sought to include non-expert community viewpoints in recent years (Finnis et al 2015). However, community voices have been largely ignored in climate knowledge development (Jasanoff, 2010).

Furthermore, physical science dominates interpretive social science techniques (Murphy 2011). There is growing interest in multiple ways of ‘‘knowing" the climate.

This recognises the differences in epistemologies (the way we interpret the world) (Burnham et al 2016; Nightingale 2016; Popke 2016). However, such efforts are rare in HDCC research, where transdisciplinary is often superficially incorporated (Fernandez-Llamazares et al 2017).

1.7 Significance of Study

There are two aspects of the importance of the research which are practical contribution and academic contribution.

1.7.1 Practical Contribution

As for practical contribution of the study, the climate change adaptation strategy will significantly benefit several parties such as the policy makers and tourism planners and the communities. For the policy makers and tourism planners, the adaptation strategy will assist in managing sustainable tourism development. Having an adaptation strategy for climate change significantly fulfil the social innovation objective highlighted by Ministry of Energy, Science, Technology, Environment and Climate Change (MESTECC), particularly towards sustainable communities.

MESTECC further emphasizes the practice of social creativity by creating and

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applying innovative solutions to address social needs and establishing a social partnership to increase human well-being. Additionally, the environment and climate change are one of the areas documented by MESTECC in the National Priority Areas of policy foundations, hence the adaptation strategies will incorporate environment considerations in tourism regulations, development and management plans to sustain the tourism development in Malaysia. Further, the developed adaptation strategy will contribute to the Malaysia’s National Policy on Climate Change (NPCC) in terms of setting up long-term policy for tourism in Malaysia. It will assist policymakers by creating guidelines of measurement and knowledge on climate change impacts of the adaptive measures.

Further, the development of climate change adaptation strategy in Malaysia will also provide impact on the tourism communities sustainability including the regional tourism drivers namely destination attractiveness, product content, business revenue, infrastructure preparation and investment. The strategy gives an effect on the tourism communities such as the local, the individual tourist destinations and businesses to plan for better travel pattern in the future by taking into account the unpredictable changes in the climate, such as rising temperature and erratic rainfall. The communities will be able to curb overcoming issues on climate change, have a better understanding on the matter and may take necessary measure as to retain the tourism industry.

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20 1.7.2 Academic Contribution

As for the academic contribution, the climate change adaptation strategy will provide the academician better comprehend regarding the issues on climate change in the tourism industry. It will become a standard framework for the academician to refer for future studies and contribute for new knowledge within the context of tourism industry in Malaysia. Moreover, this will also act as an addition to the current education system in Malaysia specifically on environmental education for tourism operators, community and public. The environmental education is vital because it will produce environment activist, promoting sustainability, adapting new technology in order to overcome the climate change, encourage the involvement of more institutions as to spread the awareness and lastly, future proof planning. This will lead to obtain a new perspective on problem-solving approaches when ones work on real-world issues in this subject of study. They will also look into the future and take preventative actions to protect the environment in the present, so they can be future-proof.

Students and educators alike should be aware of NEPA as a source of inspiration from around the globe. Some of the most important methods made to improve environmental education will be explained here. In 1970, the United States established the National Environment Policy Act (NEPA), a statute that promotes environmental protection and was signed into law on January 1, 1970. It has since grown to include more than 100 countries, all of which have adopted environmental laws similar to those established by the United Nations (NEPA). As a result of these initiatives, federal agencies are now leading the way in creating national highway routes that are as short

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as possible. When all executive federal agencies were asked to prepare environmental assessments and environmental impact statements reports, NEPA produced the most useful environmental results. As a result of their efforts, several federal agencies were able to demonstrate the full impact of their activities. People like Marjory Stoneman Douglas (a journalist and environmental activist) and Leonardo DiCaprio (an actor and environmental activist) and Thom Yorke (a musician and environmental activist) have all made significant contributions to raising awareness about the importance of environmental education around the globe (Fahad, 2020).

One of the initiatives made by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), they delegated the tasks to Parties on climate change education and public awareness campaigns, as well as ensuring public participation in programmes and easy access to information. By drawing on children's thoughts and imaginations worldwide, UNICEF has captured a snapshot of what it's like for young people today as climate change continues to accelerate. UNESCO's Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development programme aims to "assist people comprehend the impact of global warming today and enhance climate literacy among young people." It was presented and discussed at 22nd Conference of the Parties (COP 22) alongside other cutting-edge educational projects including as the Global Action Program (GAP), Action for Climate Empowerment, and the ZOOM campaign. World Metrological Organization (WMO) works closely with weathercasters who are committed to climate change education and outreach through the Climate without Borders network, which has a daily reach of approximately 375,000,000 people, and aims to "educate, motivate and

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activate" weathercasters to reach out to their audiences with useful information. For its part, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) collaborated with Climate Central to produce an educational video series, Summer In The Cities, to show how climate change will affect the weather in cities all across the globe this coming summer. Following the "Weather in 2050" video series, in which TV weather presenters provided a typical 2050 weather forecast based on scientific possibilities, this follows (IISD’s SDG Knowledge Hub, 2016).

1.8 Operationalization of Terms

There are few major terms in the study which needs further explanation regarding the definitions and concept for instance climate change, impacts of climate change, adaptation strategy, tourism, extreme weather events and perspectives of community.

Table 1.2 depicts the operationalized of the terms used for the study.

Table 1.2

Operationalization of terms used for the study

TERMS OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS

Climate change A global climate system that includes the hydrosphere (the liquid water contained on and under the Earth's surface), the lithosphere (soil and sediment on the surface), and the biosphere (plant and animal life on and human), are all altered by the amount of solar radiation the Earth receives (World Meteorological Organization,

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2021). For this study, climate change will be investigated extreme weather events that affected nature-based tourism in Malaysia.

Impacts of climate change

There are impacts from climate change on all facets of the physical world, from ecosystems to our economies, and humans. The issue also involves the various economic and social developments that occur as a result of the rise in the global temperature. Climate change imposed by mankind is one of the perils facing sustainability (IPCC, 2007). This research would also discuss the direct impacts of climate change that specifically involve impacts of extreme weather conditions on the implementation of tourism activities. This type of impacts commonly has implications on the profitability of tourism enterprises which requires emergency preparedness and higher operating expenses. Further, this study will also investigate the indirect impacts which refer to the effect on the attractiveness of the landscape and the environments where tourist activities take place particularly at the local and regional destination level.

Adaptation strategy The IPCC (2001) describes adaptation as the process by which natural or human processes respond to real or anticipated climatic stimuli or their consequences in order to mitigate damage or capitalise on beneficial opportunities. This study will investigate the climate change adaptation strategy as to overcome the impacts

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of extreme weather events to the nature-based tourism in Malaysia.

Tourism A tourist travels for less than one year to a principal destination other than the employees of a resident body in a country or a visited location outside its normal setting (Christopher &

Humphreys, 2020). For this study, tourism in Malaysia will focus on the nature-based development and products which includes ecotourism, adventure tourism, wildlife and natural park and cultural heritage tourism.

Extreme weather events

A severe weather situation is a condition of the weather that deviates from typical weather conditions which impact people and the atmosphere in a variety of ways based on sensitivity to extreme conditions and their resilience to stress recovery. (Radovic &

Iglesias, 2018). This study will focus on significant extreme weather events in Malaysia such as high temperature, SLR, flood, drought, wildfire and infectious disease.

Perspectives of community

Communities that are geographically close and have similar demographic, economic, and social characteristics can frequently have vastly different physical and socioeconomic characteristics.

In order to comprehend adaptation, public need to understand social and economic vulnerability in certain socio-geographical situations. A deeper understanding of particular communities'

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adaptation requirements and responses is required (Scott, Gossling

& Hall, 2012).

1.9 Structure of Thesis

The proposal includes three primary chapters. A general background on the study's view of climate change and its impact on tourism is presented in the first chapter. It summarises the study's overall research questions and objectives. The operationalization of terms used in the study are described in depth to further understanding regarding the topic of the study. Chapter two of the proposal reviews the literature involved in the study. It focuses on two aspects related to the study, firstly is on the climate change and tourism, and secondly, it presents tourism in Malaysia and also the roles of MESTECC in relation to climate change. Finally, chapter three discusses the methodology of the study including the research design, data collection, the interview process and participants, and also the data analysis.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter consists of two major sections. The first section introduces climate change and tourism starting with the understanding of climate change in general. It then follows by presenting the relationship between climate change and tourism including the impacts of climate change to tourism. The final section further discusses on the climate change adaptation strategy particularly in the context of tourism. The second section of this chapter presents the general topic of tourism in Malaysia, beginning with the review of literature on the past and future of the Malaysia tourism industry. It then introduces the development of nature-based tourism in Malaysia and ends by presenting the roles of MESTECC as the party responsible for managing issues of climate change in Malaysia.

2.2 Climate Change and Tourism

Tourism is a significant global economic field that has developed exponentially in the last 50 years (United Nations World Tourism Organization [UNWTO], 2018). The tourism sector's global economic impact has also increased, with the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) placing the sector's contribution to the global economy in

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2015 at US$7.2 trillion (9.8% of global GDP) and 284 million employees (9.1% of global jobs) (WTTC, 2016a). The tourism economy's value is magnified even more in thousands of destination societies and more than 90 countries where tourism accounts for more than 10% of national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and a sizable portion of jobs (WTTC, 2016b). With expected increases in international tourist arrivals in a number of developing markets, the UNWTO, WTTC, and international development organisations position tourism as a critical contributor to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (World Bank, 2017). Climate change is a threat to the global economy (Burke et al., 2018), especially as global warming exceeds 2 degrees Celsius. The threat that climate change poses to tourism development and, in particular, to its potential to contribute to the SDGs remains unexplored (Becken, 2019; Hall, 2019). There is also a surfeit of published literature on tourism and climate change in less developed countries (Scott et al., 2016), as well as on the future consequences for tourism as a means of poverty reduction and sustainable growth (Scheyvens & Hughes, 2018).

Additionally, one of the scholars mentioned that the need for improved information in this field was acknowledged by the relevant bodies when he presented the White Paper on Tourism in the Third World Climate, which was held specifically in Geneva, Switzerland (de Freitas 2017). The White Paper illustrated its multifaceted, dynamic relation between climate and tourism, including the high climate vulnerability of the sector and the variety of climatic services required by numerous industry players.

Subsequently, the study boom improved the role of tourism in the Intergovernmental

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Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), (Scott et al. 2016a), further enhancing public awareness of the unified and sectoral impacts of tourism and climate, along with the commitment of the industry to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. As the Conference on Climate, Tourism and Recreation (CCTR) is widely known to the world, the research in a broader variety of disciplines and in an increasing number of countries is now more varied than ever, adding to the growing literature in this area. Emerging researchers, educational and public-private partnerships are getting more and more involved. Such as graduate students, early career scientists.

The creation of indices was another field of climate tourism research that has significantly expanded over recent decades. Despite notable criticism, Mieczkowski's first composite Tourism Climate Index (TCI) produced in 1985 is broadly applicable throughout tourism environments (Scott et al. 2016b; Rutty et al. 2020). The findings made by Yu et al. (2020), in the first implementation of the Holiday Climate Index (HCI); Beach in the Asia-Pacific tourism area, illustrated the incorrect use of the TCI when evaluating the tourism potential of 3S (sun, sea, sand) with main rating discrepancies observed when assessing the climatic suitability of beach. In order to create an index that captures the particular qualitative reality of Great Lakes beach park tourism, which eclipsed both the TCI and HCI: Beach, Matthews et al. (2019) combined the use of expert knowledge, reported visitor expectations and statistical optimization. The first Ski Climate Index (SCI) was developed by Demiroglu et al.

(2017), applying snow reliability, thermal comfort and aesthetic facets uniquely

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designed for snow tourism to determine which regions in Turkey are most appropriate for the construction of future ski resorts. The Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index for Tourism (ATSIT) was created by Grigorieva (2020) to measure the experience of physiological strain travellers during the acclimatization period and, in turn, help with intervention procedures to mitigate negative health consequences. Walking is another main tourism practice, but there is no study from a tourist viewpoint on walkability, including the degree to which tourist walking behaviour is influenced by weather and climate conditions. Strategies for future walkability studies, such as the need to resolve concerns such as convenience, accessibility and protection.

2.2.1 Understanding Climate Change

The change in climate trends is defined as climate change. This is largely attributed to greenhouse gas pollution. Emissions of greenhouse gases allow the earth's atmosphere to be trapped by heat, and this has been the main impetus underlying global warming.

Natural processes and human activities comprise the primary sources of such pollution.

Forest freshness, floods, glaciers, permafrost, lakes, mud volcanoes and volcanoes are part of natural systems (Yue & Gao 2018), while human activities are primarily linked to energy generation, agricultural activities and farming, land usage and land use transition (Edenhofer et al. 2014). Yue and Gao (2018), analysed global greenhouse gas emissions from natural processes and anthropogenic behaviours objectively and concluded that the natural structure of the planet can be seen as self-balancing and that anthropogenic emissions bring added burden to the system of the earth. In literature and literature, greenhouse gases are widely debated. Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane

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(CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gasses such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) are identified by the Kyoto Protocol (UNFCCC, 2008). For example, total of greenhouse gas emissions in 2018 amounted to 55,3 GtCO2e according to the pollution gap report prepared by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 2019, of which 37,5 GtCO2 are due to fossil CO2 emissions from energy extraction and manufacturing activities.

Knowing the significant effects of climate change on natural and human environments, as well as the threats and related limitations, is a significant starting point for recognizing the global state of climate emergency. A new study by the United Nations Secretariat on Climate Change has outlined improvements in climate metrics, including temperature, precipitation, sea-level rise, ocean acidification and extreme weather conditions. Climate threats recorded included droughts, foods, hurricanes, heavy weather, heatwaves, wildfires, snowstorms and flash floods (UNCCS, 2019). In 2018, 315 natural disasters, mostly climate-related, occurred around the world according to the Centre for Disaster Epidemiology Research (CRED). This included 16 drought cases, 26 high temperature cases, 127 flooding cases, 13 landslide cases, 95 tornado cases, and 10 wildfire cases. Other than that, in the same year, the number of persons impacted by natural disasters was 68.5 million, with food, floods and droughts responsible for 94% of the total population affected. A total of $131.7 billion was lost, throughout 2018 which dominated by economic damages related to natural hazards, with hurricanes ($70.8B), food ($19.7B), wildfires ($22.8B) and droughts ($9.7B) contributing nearly 93% of the total expense. The economic damages due to

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References

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