(1)FYP FHPK THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA TOWARDS TRAVEL INTENTION AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN MALAYSIA By
Academic year: 2022
(2) I hereby certify that the work embodied in this thesis is the result of the original research and has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution . OPEN ACCESS. I agree that my report is to be made immediately available as hardcopy or on-line access (full text). CONFIDENTIAL. (Contains confidential information under the Official Secret Act 1972) *. RESTRICTED. (Contains restricted information as specified by the organization where the research was done) *. I acknowledge that Universiti Malaysia Kelantan reserves the right as follows. 1. The report is the property of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan. 2. The library of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan has the right to make copies for the purpose of research only. 3. The library has the right to make copies of the thesis for academic exchange.. SIGNATURE. SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISOR. ZAKIYAH BINTI TAHARIM GROUP REPRESENTATIVE. DR. MOHD FADIL BIN MOHD YUSOF NAME OF SUPERVISOR. Date: 20 JUNE 2021. Date: 20 JUNE 2021. Note: * If the thesis is CONFIDENTIAL OR RESTRICTED, please attach the letter from the organization stating the period and reasons for confidentiality and restriction. ii. FYP FHPK. DECLARATION THESIS.
(3) Saya dengan ini mengesahkan bahawa kerja yang terkandung dalam tesis ini adalah hasil penyelidikan yang asli dan tidak pernah dikemukakan untuk ijazah tinggi kepada manamana Universiti atau Institusi. . TERBUKA. Saya bersetuju bahawa tesis boleh didapati sebagai naskah keras atau akses terbuka dalam talian (teks penuh). SULIT. (Mengandungi maklumat sulit di bawah Akta Rahsia Rasmi 1972) *. TERHAD. (Mengandungi maklumat terhad yang ditetapkan oleh organisasi di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)*. Saya mengakui bahawa Unievrsiti Malaysia Kelantan mempunyai hak berikut. 1. Tesis adalah hak milik Universiti Malaysia Kelantan. 2. Perpustakaan Universiti Malaysia Kelantan mempunyai hak untuk membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. 3. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian.. TANDATANGAN. TANDATANGAN PENYELIA. ZAKIYAH BINTI TAHARIM WAKIL KUMPULAN. DR. MOHD FADIL BIN MOHD YUSOF NAMA PENYELIA. Tarikh: 20 JUN 2021. Tarikh: 20 JUN 2021. Nota: * Sekiranya Tesis ini adalah SULIT atau TERHAD, sila kepilkan bersama surat dari organisasi dengan menyatakan tempoh dan sebab-sebab kerahsiaan dan sekatan. iii. FYP FHPK. PENGESAHAN TESIS.
(4) Millions of thanks and dedication to Universiti Malaysia Kelantan for giving us this opportunity to conduct our research. This research is conducted to fulfil a subject requirement of Bachelor of Entrepreneurship (Tourism). We learnt a lot of valuable knowledge from conducting this research. Besides that, we would like to express our deepest thanks to our supervisor Dr. Mohd Fadil Bin Mohd Yusof, who has been our backbones throughout the whole research time. Without him, we could not complete this research on time as he had helped and given much valuable advice based on his knowledge. His encouragements helped us a lot in completing this research. Furthermore, many thanks to our group members who have cooperated to accomplish this research. Contributions and help of each of the group members helped in making the completion of this research easier. Finally, sincere thanks to our family for being so understanding about our needs and wants. Their prayers and support are our main strengths in completing this research despite the difficulties that we have been through towards completing this research.. iv. FYP FHPK. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.
(5) PAGE DECLARATION THESIS. ii. PENGESAHAN TESIS. iii. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. iv. TABLE OF CONTENTS. v. LIST OF TABLES. ix. LIST OF FIGURES. xi. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. xii. LIST OF SYMBOLS. xiii. ABSTRAK. xiv. ABSTRACT. xv. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Introduction. 1. 1.2. Background of Study. 1. 1.3. Problem of Statement. 3. 1.4. Research Objectives. 5. 1.5. Research Questions. 5. 1.6. Scope of the Research. 6. 1.7. Significance of Study. 6. 1.8. Definition of Terms. 7. 1.8.1 Social Media. 7. 1.8.2 Travel Intention. 8. 1.8.3 Self-sufficiency. 8. Summary. 9. 1.9. v. FYP FHPK. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
(6) 2.1. Introduction. 10. 2.2. Dependent Variable. 10. 2.2.1 Travel Intention. 11. Independent Variables. 12. 2.3.1 Destination Attractions Through Social Media. 12. 2.3.2 Attitude Through Social Media. 14. 2.3.3 Self-sufficiency Through Social Media. 14. Relationship between Independent Variables and Dependent Variable. 16. 2.4.1 Relationship between Destination Attractions Through Social Media and the Travel Intention Among University Students in Malaysia.. 16. 2.4.2 Relationship between Attitude Through Social Media and Travel Intention Among University Students in Malaysia.. 17. 2.4.3 Relationship between Self-sufficiency Through Social Media and the Travel Intention Among University Students in Malaysia. 17. Conceptual Framework. 18. 2.5.1 Hypothesis. 19. Summary. 19. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1. Introduction. 21. 3.2. Research Design. 21. 3.3. Population. 22. 3.4. Sample Size. 22. 3.5. Sampling Method. 23. 3.6. Data Collection Procedure. 23. 3.7. Research Instrument. 24. 3.7.1 Questions Used in Section A of the Questionnaire. 25. vi. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.
(7) 3.9. 25. 3.7.3 Questions Used Section B (II) Questionnaire. 26. 3.7.4 Questions Used in Section C of the Questionnaire. 27. Data Analysis. 28. 3.8.1 Descriptive Analysis. 28. 3.8.2 Reliability Analysis. 29. 3.8.3 Pearson Correlation. 30. 3.8.4 Pilot Study. 30. 3.8.5 Normality Test. 31. Summary. 31. CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS 4.1. Introduction. 32. 4.2. Reliability Analysis (Pilot Test). 32. 4.3. Descriptive Analysis (Demographic Profile). 34. 4.3.1 Gender. 34. 4.3.2 Age. 35. 4.3.3 Race. 36. 4.3.4 Marital Status. 37. 4.3.5 Years of Study. 38. 4.3.6 Do you Have Social Media?. 39. 4.3.7 Do you Travel Often?. 40. 4.3.8 Do you Think Social Media Influence the University Student?. 41. 4.3.9 Respondent Profile. 42. Descriptive Analysis (IV and DV). 44. 4.4.1 Mean score for Destination Attraction Through Social Media. 44. 4.4.2 Mean score for Attitude Through Social Media. 45. 4.4. vii. FYP FHPK. 3.8. 3.7.2 Questions Used in Section B (I) of the Questionnaire.
(8) 47. 4.4.4 The Determinant of Travel Intention. 48. Inferential Analysis. 49. 4.5.1 Pearson Correlation. 49. 4.6. Discussion Based on Research Objectives. 50. 4.7. Summary. 50. 4.5. CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 5.1. Introduction. 51. 5.2. Discussion of Finding. 52. 5.2.1 Destination Attraction. 52. 5.2.2 Attitude. 53. 5.2.3 Self-Sufficiency. 54. 5.3. Limitation of Study. 55. 5.4. Recommendation. 56. 5.4.1 Theoretical Recommendation for Future Research. 56. 5.4.2 Methodology Recommendation for Future Research. 57. 5.4.3 Practical Recommendation for Future Research. 57. Summary. 59. REFERENCES. 60. APPENDIX A. 65. APPENDIX B. 74. 5.5. viii. FYP FHPK. 4.4.3 Mean Score for Self-Sufficiency Through Social Media.
(9) NO.. PAGE. Table 3.1. Questionnaire composition. 24. Table 3.2. Questions used in Section A of the questionnaire - Demographic profile of respondents. 25. Table 3.3. Yes or No scale. 26. Table 3.4. Questions used in Section B (I) of the Questionnaire- The Influence of social media Towards Travel Intention Among University Students in Malaysia. 26. Table 3.5. The five-point likert scale. 26. Table 3.6. Questions used in Section B (II) of the questionnaire - The influence of social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia. 27. Questions used in section C of the questionnaire - The travel intention. 28. Table 3.8. The rule of thumb for Cronbach’s alpha coefficient value. 29. Table 3.9. Rules of thumb about correlation coefficient size. 30. Table 4.1. Reliability statistic for 30 respondents. 32. Table 4.2. Reliability statistic for 322 respondents. 33. Table 4.3. The gender of respondents. 34. Table 4.4. The age of respondents. 35. Table 4.5. The race of respondents. 36. Table 4.6. The marital status of respondents. 37. Table 4.7. The years of study of respondents. 38. Table 4.8. Result for statement “Do you have social media?” of Respondents. 39. Table 4.9. Result for statement “Do you travel often?” of respondents. 40. Table 4.10. Result for statement “Do you think social media influence the university student?” of respondents. 41. Respondent’s profile (N=322). 42. Table 3.7. Table 4.11. ix. FYP FHPK. LIST OF TABLES.
(10) Descriptive statistic for destination attraction through social media. 44. Table 4.13. Descriptive statistic for attitude through social media. 46. Table 4.14. Descriptive statistic for self-sufficiency through social media. 47. Table 4.15. Descriptive statistic for the determinant of travel intention. 48. Table 4.16. Result of Pearson correlation analysis. 49. Table 4.17. Shows the summary for hypothesis testing in this study. 50. x. FYP FHPK. Table 4.12.
(11) NO.. PAGE. Figure 2.1. Research framework of this study. 18. Figure 4.1. The percentage of gender. 34. Figure 4.2. The percentage of age. 35. Figure 4.3. The percentage of race. 36. Figure 4.4. The percentage of status. 37. Figure 4.5. The percentage of years of study. 38. Figure 4.6. The percentage of statement “Do you have social media?”. 39. Figure 4.7. The percentage of travel often of respondents. 40. Figure 4.8. The percentage of social media influence. 41. xi. FYP FHPK. LIST OF FIGURES.
(12) ASEAN. Association of Southeast Asia Nations. DV. Dependent Variable. IV. Independent Variable. SRS. Simple random sampling method. UMK. Universiti Malaysia Kelantan. UNWTO. World Tourism Organization. xii. FYP FHPK. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.
(13) α. Alpha. F. Percentage of variance. n. Frequency. N. Population. r. Pearson Correlation. ≥. Equal and more than. <. Less than. %. Percent. (-). Negative. xiii. FYP FHPK. LIST OF SYMBOLS.
(14) Malaysia. ABSTRAK. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh media sosial terhadap tujuan perjalanan di kalangan pelajar universiti di Malaysia. Kajian ini mengkaji hubungan antara tarikan destinasi, sikap, dan kecukupan diri terhadap niat perjalanan. Metodologi kuantitatif digunakan untuk mencapai objektif penyelidikan ini. Kaedah persampelan digunakan dan tindak balas daripada 322 responden dikumpulkan. Sampel 322 pelajar sarjana dari pelbagai universiti di Malaysia ditinjau. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa majoriti pelajar universiti di Malaysia menggunakan media sosial untuk mengenal pasti destinasi pilihan dan menentukan tujuan perjalanan mereka. Penyelidikan ini menyumbang untuk memahami penggunaan media sosial di kalangan pelajar universiti ketika mereka ingin melancong. Kata Kunci: Tarikan Destinasi, Sikap, Kecukupan Diri, Media Sosial, Niat Perjalanan. xiv. FYP FHPK. Pengaruh Media Sosial Terhadap Niat Perjalanan dikalangan Pelajar Universiti di.
(15) University Students in Malaysia. ABSTRACT. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia. The study examines the relationships among destination attraction through social media, attitude through social media, and self-sufficiency through social media towards travel intention. A quantitative methodology was employed to accomplish the objectives of this research. Nonprobability convenient sampling method was used and responses from 322 respondents were collected. A sample of 322 undergraduate students from different universities in Malaysia was surveyed. Results showed that majority of university students in Malaysia used social media to identify own preferred destination and determine their travel intention. This research contributes to understanding the usage of social media among university students when they intent to travel. Keywords: Destination Attraction, Attitude, Self-Sufficiency, Social Media, Travel Intention. xv. FYP FHPK. The Influence of Social Media Towards Travel Intention Among.
(16) INTRODUCTION. 1.1. Introduction. This chapter highlights the background of the study, the problem statement, research objectives, research questions, significance of the study and definition of terms. It is also to identify research factors about the influence of social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia and the problem statement for this research. The definition of term and significance about this research will also be presented.. 1.2. Background of Study. The term “social media” refers to the network of individuals that exists (Boyd & Ellison, 2007) Other than that, according to Matthew Husson (2020), the digital tool that allows users to easily produce and share information with the public is considered social media. Based on the developments of social media, younger users such as students and teenagers are now able to communicate thoughts, sentiments, personal information, photographs, and videos at an incredible rate. A wide range of social media platforms and applications is included. Any of them, such as Twitter, have ties and brief written message sharing. Others are designed to simplify the posting of pictures and videos like Instagram and TikTok (Boyd & Ellison, 2007). Many university students use their free time on social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitters, and other similar platforms (Wang, Chen, & Liang, 2011). Social networks, media networks, chat networks, and. 1. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 1.
(17) of social media has its own differences, and many services could fit into multiple categories Matthew Hudson (2020). As a trend, Malaysia has become the most visited destination for international visitors in ASEAN over the past decade. It is one of the most successful tourism destinations in Asia (ASEAN 2019). This growth increased the global tourism Windustry’s average growth. According to Zurab Pololikashvili (2019), secretary-general of World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) was reported growth of the international tourist 5% in 2018 to reach the 1.4 billion marks. These numbers show the marketability of Malaysia as a tourism destination and must be continually established as an industry that generates the country’s economic income. The real challenge of developing the tourism sector while emphasizing sustainable tourism in the country is to provide effective education that can provide experience and benefits to students, especially the generation at the school level. For example, American and Australian countries already have their own tourism education policies because they feel that such education is very important in bringing their country as the world’s leading tourist destination (Mendes, Valle, Guerreiro, & Silva, 2010). The influence of social media is a marketing concept that indicates the capacity of the user to control the thoughts of others in the social online environment (Panahi, Watson & Partridge, 2016). The more influences it has, the more people need to demand other businesses or people who would like to promote a place (Panahi, Watson & Partridge, 2016). Social media, as the future of connectivity, has been a medium that improves and enhances user’s information exchange. This revolutionary form of media mainly allows the sharing of messages, images, audio, videos, and information fluid among internet users according to Matthew Hudson (2016).. 2. FYP FHPK. review networks are some of the several forms of social media. There are a few, this type.
(18) a lot of information and the minimum effort needed for them to make an influence attempt, social media required minimal effort from individuals to make an influence attempt according to Matthew Hudson (2016). The study also found that the tourism industry needs social media and claims that tourism companies must also engage in these channels, like other industries, to thrive in today’s growing competitive marketplace (Lim, 2010). Therefore, tourists can find a connection to all such great local tours via social media or tourism page.. 1.3. Problem of Statement. Social media had a huge impact on social media users such as university students, companies, and travel in particular company. Social media is becoming a major digital platform that plays an important role in promoting or marketing a product, regardless of the entrepreneurial industry or the hospitality and tourism industry. Therefore, the social media effect the travel intention for tourist especially among university students. In the field of travel, the intention to travel refers to the expected possibility of the traveller visiting a particular location during a specific amount of time (Wang H.-Y. , 2012). Moreover, many teens and university students have been interested in social networking sites after reading Wall Posts, Status Updates, and Activity Feeds on Facebook, and Instagram, which are just some of the ways that young nowadays connect (Sawyer, 2011). Viral becomes the concern of everyone in their daily lives especially those who use social media all the time (Subramani & Rajagopalan, 2003). Viral is best defined as information from which it is distributed one sources to other sources through internet either via online or offline. Social media is full of viral tourist spots and has pictures, videos and possibly the place for filming a movie or drama. For example, 3. FYP FHPK. Due to the obvious already have the large number of people using them to deliver.
(19) gaining tourist attraction after the film’s victory at the Oscars. The location went viral among moviegoers especially young viewers such as university students, such locations as Woori Supermarket, Sky Pizza, and Stairs in Jahaman Tunnel (AmazingNara, 2020). In addition, South Korea promotes the entertainment industry indirectly encouraging development in the country’s tourism industry (Putri Adila, 2017). Goblin Drama is a viral drama and famous among the audience, especially university students with a lineup of famous actors as well as featuring beautiful and beautiful shooting locations that make tourists want to travel there. Other than that, according to Cecelia Chang (2020), a picture belonging to a Malaysian youth went viral on Apple’s Instagram page. The picture shows a view of a paddy field in a northern state of peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, the picture received more than 270.00 total likes and Apple stated that the use of hashtags plays an important role in giving an impact to other social media users (Cecelia Chang, 2020). Therefore, it influences social media users in determining their travel intention through social media. Therefore, tourists especially university students can see positive and negative feedback through social media such as Websites, Facebook pages and others. The Internet has influenced the decision of travellers by online user feedback to determine tourist services, lodging, and travel destinations (Aryanto, 2010). These feedbacks can be made in a wide variety of platforms. Trip Advisor is the largest travel platform that can browsing hundreds of millions of traveller reviews and opinions, also comparison hotel price (Susan Breslow Sardone, 2019). Trip Advisor is a place to praise, criticize and differentiate attractive hotels. This is because, Trip Advisor is like a place where people tell their holiday experiences for the improvement the service of hotel owners and future guests (Linda Kinstler, 2018). The feedback either positive or negative, it will affect the. 4. FYP FHPK. according to AmazingNara (2020), the location of the filming of the film Parasite is.
(20) has a stronger influence on their thought toward travel intention (Jang, Bai, Hu, & Wu, 2009). Therefore, this feedback affects decision making to customers or new customers.. 1.4. Research Objectives. In conducting a study on the influence of social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia: 1. To examine the influence of destination attraction through social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia. 2. To examine the influence of attitude through social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia. 3. To examine the influence of self-sufficiency through social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia.. 1.5. Research Questions. There are three research questions have been formed for this research as follow: 1. What is the relationship between destination attractions through social media and travel intentions? 2. What is the relationship between attitude through social media and travel intentions? 3. What is the relationship between self-sufficiency through social media and travel intentions?. 5. FYP FHPK. attitude of university student to travel because it has contributed to concrete actions which.
(21) Scope of the Research. Overall, this research is to examine the influence of social media on travel intention among university students in Malaysia. The data has been collected through questionnaire by using Google form platform. In this study, there are 350 students targeted to answer the questionnaire that provided. In addition, the reading of documents will be done to see the appropriate influence in the use of social media involving university students in Malaysia. This exact influence is important because it gives a huge impact on the tourism industry in improving the tourism economy, especially in Malaysia.. 1.7. Significance of Study. In this study, it opens the opportunity for future researchers to further expand this study which is about the influence of social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia. What has been available to researchers before and now, it has given some knowledge to future researchers about how social media influence the travel intention among university students in Malaysia. The information obtained from this study will be used by the researcher. Besides, this analysis will encourage the researcher to do a successful study. This analysis can also provide importance to the prospective researcher as this study can be used as a guide and clear reference in testing the influence of social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia. This research will give a strong view of the influence of social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia. The knowledge can be appropriate to understand why university students use social media to travel. People will know from. 6. FYP FHPK. 1.6.
(22) provide the younger generation with a strong vision. This research shows that the influence of social media towards the industry is also able to get high attention and participation by consumers to maximize their brand (Daniel Ku, 2018). As a result, it has become an essential tool for communicating and getting feedback from customers globally. Many industries focus on communication with customers. Through social media to raise awareness about firms and their products. The most agreed-upon benefits of social media are fuctional, hedonic, psychological, social, and financial.. 1.8. Definition of Terms. 1.8.1 Social Media. The definition of social media can refer to platforms and software that connect users easily and quickly in real time to share content or information. Referring to Di Pietro, L & Pantano, E (2012), social media includes various websites and applications, for example, Twitter that can share short messages while Instagram is planned to share photos especially and so on are Facebook, TikTok, YouTube, LinkedIn, and others. Social media plays an important role in promoting tourism and attracting tourists. Therefore, by using the applications available on social media, the researchers believe that there are some things that can influence the travel intention through social media before they travel especially among students.. 7. FYP FHPK. this research what the influence that motivates university students to go travel. This will.
(23) The probability of traveling to a destination is the purpose of travel determined by many researchers in the field of tourism (Hsiao, Lu, & Lan, 2013). It is also emphasized as a person’s intention to travel or a determination to travel. Travel intentions are also influenced by several factors that attract people to travel. Intention can be defined as something we plan or want to do. If we mean something, then that is the intention. However, the consequences of the decision to travel are based on emotional mechanisms. Thus, it is also a transition between desire and action (Jang, Bai, Hu & Wu, 2009). Further, according to (Jang, Bai, Hu & Wu, 2009) explains that the younger age has a stronger intention for future travel.. 1.8.3 Self-sufficiency. Self-sufficiency refers to a person’s ability to meet his or her own requirements, and a self-sustaining entity may maintain self-sufficiency permanently (Martin & Kane, 2014). Self-sufficiency is the quality or state of being self-sufficient in traveller and selfsufficiency taught the tourist to constantly invite to be what their want to do (Ralph Waldo, 2014). Self-sufficiency is also known as self-containment, the ability to survive without the help, support, or involvement of others. Therefore, it is a form of personal or communal autonomy (Biermann & Martinus, 2013).. 1.9. Summary. Overall, Chapter 1 discusses the influence of social media towards travel intentions among university students in Malaysia which gives a strong influence for. 8. FYP FHPK. 1.8.2 Travel Intention.
(24) element to the influence of other communities. However, this study focuses more on the influence of social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia from the aspect of effective social media users by university students deciding to take a holiday trip. Secondary data collection will be done using a virtual questionnaire dissemination method. Studies will be conducted on university students, especially in Malaysia.. 9. FYP FHPK. university students to embark on a holiday trip also has a slight impact on the social media.
(25) LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1. Introduction. This chapter specified the dependent and independent variables of the study. These three independent variables found in the literature. They are destination attraction, attitude, and self-sufficiency. Besides that, the dependent variable found in the literature is the determinant of travel intention through social media. The chapter ended up with a conceptual/ theoretical framework of the study which will be initialized in the next chapter.. 2.2. Dependent Variable. 2.2.1 Travel Intention. The dependent variable (DV) for research topic is about the travel intention. In general, through a choice and decision process, travel intentions through social media are created. Travel intentions are focused on tourists’ amount of certainty towards the destination (generation of trust) and on inhibitors that can force tourists to respond differently from what their behaviours determine when using social media (Jang, Bai, Hu, & Wu, 2009). It is possible to describe travel intentions as the subjective likelihood of either or not a customer would take certain acts that are connected to a tourist service.. 10. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 2.
(26) destination within a certain period of the time (Woodside & MacDonald, 2019). In the literature of travel and tourism, the intention to travel is articulated and studied within the scope of travel intention. This involves a complex and dynamic decision-making process with various interrelated component determinants (Sirakaya, E & Woodside, A.G, 2005). The intention of university students to use social media for travel preparation goes further to validate the essential roles of distinctive variables, such as the impressions of similarity of interest, trustworthiness, and pleasure by travellers. The processes of decision-making and models of destination selection also emphasize interrelated variables and ongoing interactions between components (Sirakaya, E & Woodside, A.G, 2005). One factor is travel stimulus, such as marketing communications, travel literature, word of mouth, reviews, and recommendations for travel trade (Tuten, T.L & Solomon, M. R, 2017). Other variables include personal and social determinants of travel activity, personality characteristics, social impact, and attitudes and values of socioeconomic status. External variables, such as trust, destination image, past travel experiences, objective/subjective risk assessment, time constraints, costs, and so on are also available. In developing a sense of purpose, shaping travel intentions, and choosing a range of options such as destinations, hotels, events, attractions, modes of transportation, roads, shopping, dining, and others, all these variables may play an important role. This result is supported by several research studies, including (Chang, Stylos, Yeh, & Tung, 2015). When studying the travel intentions through social media, many tourism studies have shown that advertisement “promotes” plans or visits to a specific destination as a promotional campaign (Jamaludin, Mokhtar, & Aziz, 2018). This approach has generally focused on evaluating individuals’ responses to travel intention that influence them by. 11. FYP FHPK. This intention to travel by university students is the possibility that they will visit the.
(27) is mainly concerned with the flow of activities, from visitor rewards to purchasing decisions (Buzzetto-More, 2013). However, (Lin, Lee, Yeh, Lee, & Wong, 2014) indicate that the destination decision based on the exposure to an advertisement from social media is likely to be formalized only by travellers who already have a general intention to travel to a specific destination.. 2.3. Independent Variables. 2.3.1 Destination Attractions Through Social Media. The meaning of the destination attractions is more to a place of interest where the tourist visit seen in term of the typically for its inherent or an exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement. While, according to Boyd, D. M. & Ellison, N. B. (2007) defines, destination attraction as the extent to which the place meets the expectations of its visitors to come, whether in terms of food and lodging, natural beauty, cultural richness, recreational opportunities, and other facilities. Next, why destination attractions through social media have been chosen by researchers to know influence travel intentions among university students (Sara & Zayodny, 2018). This is because, social media plays an important role in promoting interesting places. At this point we can see, interesting places that viral on social media through virtual friends or close people will be more attract for people to make travel intention especially among university students (Qinya Wang, Wei Chen & Yu Liang,. 12. FYP FHPK. using social media within the context of destination awareness and intentions to visit. It.
(28) through the feedback of tourist before (Panahi, Watson & Partridge, 2016). Apart from that, based on (Gretzel, 2005), social media is encompassing various websites and applications, for example, Instagram is created to share photos. So, we can also see that people now prefer to share interesting places that they have visited on social media, especially on Instagram because its users are mostly teenagers. Instagram has changed the travel habits of tourists and the most interesting destinations in the world (Ellen Cranley, 2019). So, the destination attraction that viral on social media, it will influence university students in travel intention. Therefore, they will also use this social media to find specific feedback information before continuing the journey to the destination. There are various classifications and categories of destination attractions. Destination attractions come in all shapes, sizes, and shapes. For example, classify attraction into two broad classes, namely man-made and natural (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2003). Man-made attractions are created by humans such as like theme park, water park or historical monuments. Most university students like to go to destinations like this to have fun with their friends and release their stress by playing in the theme park and water park (Vengesayi, Mavondo & Reisinger, 2009). For historical monuments, it become the place that the student can gain the knowledge and feel the history in that time. The previous study said that the key tourism tools that tourism destinations have are destination attractions (Vengesayi, Mavondo & Reisinger, 2009). The most ideal destination attractions are places that are rarely found and visited, cannot be imitated and are only available at certain destinations or very few destinations.. 13. FYP FHPK. 2011). This is because, on social media we will be able to know the details of the place.
(29) The simpler definition of attitude is the tendency of the mind to act in a certain way based on experience and behaviour. The concept definition of attitude has been defined by (Lewis, 2010) as a psychological tendency to evaluate certain entities with some support and disagreement. According to Ramadami (2014), attitude is positively related to behavioural intention. Researchers choose attitude as an independent to see that what the attitude through media social can make a determinant travel intention among university students. Besides, through social media, university students can see the affective of attitudes toward travel intension. Attitudes that are relatively permanent and stable evaluative summaries about an item are an important psychological construct because they have been found to influence and predict many behaviours (Lewis, 2010). In general, the more favourable the attitude through social media will be among university student’s influence towards travel intension. Attitude can influence a person in determining travel intention (Khuong and Ha, 2014).. 2.3.3 Self-sufficiency Through Social Media. The self-sufficiency is about to the entails the self being enough to fulfil the needs and a self-sustaining entity can maintain self-sufficiency indefinitely (Hong, Hodge, & Choi, 2015). According to Hong, Hodge, & Choi (2015) self-sufficiency is the quality or state of being self-sufficient in traveller. Self-sufficiency is an independent variable in this research because the researcher wants to share the travel intention can be seen through one’s self-sufficiency like a university student. University students have their own tastes,. 14. FYP FHPK. 2.3.2 Attitude Through Social Media.
(30) student can be self-sufficiency before their want to travel. This is because, they can make a budget before travel, survey the place that their want to visit and want to travel alone like backpackers. Mostly people may think that it is not that easy to travel as a university student who always has a very low budget but with make a budget properly student might to travel and enjoy their journey without worrying about their budget (Stanley Low, 2015). University students can manage their money and any other supplies that can be carried while traveling they do not have to worry and just enjoy their journey. This will limit the number of activities; they can do there but at least they can enjoy some free activities there. Budget list such as booking early flight ticket, use public transport to go around, use student discount and others (Stanley Low, 2015). By making their budget do not have to worry if lack of money or problems with credit cards, this budget planning can help them and being a self-sufficiency (Hong, Hodge, & Choi, 2015). In addition, previous research said that there are the most popular social media sites used by university student while their travelling such as Facebook (82%), Instagram (56%) and YouTube (35%) (Sara and Zavodny, 2018). The university student used social media to survey, identify and plan their journey and they may use social media mostly as the tools for seeking relevant information required for the decision-making processes while travel (Gretzel, 2005). Young university student wants to feel or gain new experiences like traveling as a backpacker. Backpacker is more to a form of free and cheap travel, often staying in cheap accommodation and carrying all necessities in a backpack. Therefore, university student become the self-sufficiency tourist while traveling (Gergely Rathonyi, 2013).. 15. FYP FHPK. appropriateness and want to try the different experiences. Other than that, university.
(31) Relationship between Independent Variables and Dependent Variable. 2.4.1 Relationship between Destination Attractions Through Social Media and the Travel Intention Among University Students in Malaysia.. Social media is a website and application created to connect people to share content or information efficiently and quickly by (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). So, through social media we will be able to know all things and sometimes, through social media can also influence travel intentions. According to Buhalis (2000), destination attraction is a tool that plays an important role in attracting people to come to the place. For example, through destination attractions that go viral on social media like today, has greatly influenced the travel intentions of individuals, especially among university students. This may be due to; through social media they can find out the details of that place through the feedback of previous visitors. In short, researchers can assess that destination attractions through social media play an important role in the purpose of travel, especially among university students. According to (Anjou, A. D, 2004) anything can become a tourist travel attention, not only the historical and natural sites but also the services and facilities that cater for tourist can be included in attractions. Based on the above facts, this shows that the attraction of the destination through social media has influenced the students in the purpose of their journey. According to the discussion, the researcher can develop the hypothesis as above. Tourist intention to travel to the destinations whereby destination image is similar with self-image (Hosany, Ekinci, & Uysal, 2007). It can also give easier to other tourist to get the information as knowledge and impression while evaluating the information from various sources which can find the benefits of destination (Zhang, 2014). 16. FYP FHPK. 2.4.
(32) Among University Students in Malaysia.. In the psychological aspect, attitude refers to beliefs, emotions, and behaviours towards a particular object, person, thing, or event. According to Kendra (2020), she said that attitude is something that results from experience or upbringing and attitude can also influence a person’s behaviour. According to Yoon & Uysal (2005), the greater the attitude toward travel, the greater intentions it will be, it could internally push tourist to a destination. Students usually have limited knowledge of the nature of the destination they have never visited. For this reason, the attitude or condition of that place as a tourist destination tends to be an important element in the travel intention especially to university student. However, attitude can influence a person in determining travel intention especially for university students. Based on the discussion, the researcher can make the hypothesis as above.. 2.4.3 Relationship between Self-sufficiency Through Social Media and the Travel Intention Among University Students in Malaysia. Self-sufficiency is about going to travel but each person will choose for themselves a different experience (Bow, 2019). Self-sufficiency taught the tourist to constantly invite to be what their want to do (Ralph Waldo, 2014). In addition, selfsufficiency become the determinant of travel through social media intention that can make a tourist manage their money by doing their budget before travelling. According to Hudson (2020), social media is a tool that allows users to share or get information quickly. For example, through social media, students can find out the. 17. FYP FHPK. 2.4.2 Relationship between Attitude Through Social Media and Travel Intention.
(33) also can assess self-sufficiency in terms of finances whether they are able or not to choose the destination, or, with the self-sufficiency they can make a budget before determining the travel intention. Being self-sufficient is an important thing if we plan on travelling a lot or long trip. Self-sufficiency can be defined as someone who can take care of themselves, be able to be happy, or be able to deal with problems without the need for help from others. So, through social media also, students will be self-sufficient in getting information for the determinant of their travel intention without the need for help from others like tour guide to guide their travelling or to get information. However, selfsufficiency can influence a person in travel intention. Based on the discussion, the researcher can make the hypothesis as above.. 2.5. Conceptual Framework. Independent Variable (IV). Dependent Variable (DV). Destination attractions through social media. Attitude through social media. Travel Intentions. Self-sufficiency through social media. Figure 2.1:. Research framework of this study. Sources: (Gallarza, Saura, & García, 2002). 18. FYP FHPK. details of the place they want to go such as the price of the place. From there, students.
(34) The hypothesis of the research is made based on the factors such as destination attractions, attitude and self-sufficiency through social media which influence the travel intention among university students in Malaysia. Based on the study, the hypothesis had been created and to be tested: H1 – There is relationship between destination attraction through social media and the travel intention among university students in Malaysia. H2 – The relationship between attitude through social media and the travel intention among university students in Malaysia. H3 – The relationship between self-sufficiency through social media and the travel intention among university students in Malaysia.. 2.6. Summary. This chapter summarized that the dependent and independent variables play an important role in the study. It becomes the main point the do the study. For example, independent variables such destination attractions through social elaborated the benefit of travel intention through social media among university students in Malaysia where most university students in Malaysia like to go to destinations like this to have fun with their friends and release their stress. Furthermore, the dependent variable explained the travel intention through the research. In short, a variable is an attitude through social media and self-sufficiency through social media that stated in a specific or an applied way. Variables are things that can be measured, controlled, or manipulated in an investigation. In short, variables including the independent variables (IV) and dependent variable (DV) are the main in researching. By setting the independent variables (IV) and dependent variable. 19. FYP FHPK. 2.5.1 Hypothesis.
(35) through social media among university students.. 20. FYP FHPK. (DV), the researcher found out that the study brings the factors to the travel intention.
(36) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. 3.1. Introduction. This chapter is about research methodology. In this chapter, researchers describe the types of research methods used to collect data and complete the study. The researchers also described how the data and information collected to address the objectives of the study and how the questions were collected, present and analysed. In planning a research methodology, research problems must be found to determine the research method refers to the extent to which it covers the target population and the difficulty of accessing it. The importance of the results to be taken from the study is one of the aspects that will influence the research method. In this section, show the techniques that have been identified and applied by researchers. This chapter will show the whole mechanism involved in conducting this study session.. 3.2. Research Design. Research design is the framework of research methods and techniques chosen by researchers. The research design refers to the overall strategy that researchers choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint of the data collection, measurement, and analysis of data (Trochim & William, 2001). The purpose of the research design is to verify the facts obtained that can help the researchers. 21. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 3.
(37) collect data that can be linked to research problems and it also involves various types of facts needed to research theories and used to interpret phenomena to assess a problem. This research uses descriptive analysis that explains something that may be a trend, a current scenario, for the research design. This research will use a quantitative method by providing a questionnaire to university students in Malaysia to gather the data needed to carry out this analysis. Quantitative methods obtained using surveys, questionnaires, and or by using computational tools to manipulate pre-existing statistical data. There are many benefits to the questionnaire, such as the questionnaire is easy to administer, the knowledge gathered is accurate since the answers are limited to the alternatives stated.. 3.3. Population. Population refers to the researcher wishes to investigate things, peoples, or events (Shotton, M.A, 2019). This research investigates the influence of social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia. Population for this research is the university students at Universiti Malaysia Kelantan. Universiti Malaysia Kelantan have around 9000 students including undergraduate and postgraduate students. The researcher focuses on the university students in Universiti Malaysia Kelantan who are in the first year, second year, and third year students to become a respondent in this research.. 3.4. Sample Size. Sample refers to the element of the population. The university students of the sample are known as subject and the total number of the subject in the sample known as. 22. FYP FHPK. to more concentrate on the research problems efficiently. In addition, researchers need to.
(38) websites (Malaysia Population 2019, n.d.) for Malaysia’s population will peak in the year 2068. For this research, the population of students in Malaysia is more than 3000 that the required sample is 350. This is because when the population increase, the sample size increases. At a diminishing rate, the sample size will stay remains as it eventually constant at 322 sample size and a slightly more. Therefore, it is the best for researcher uses a sample size of 350 because it saved expense and energy to sample 322 sample size.. 3.5. Sampling Method. The sampling method the researcher used for this research is non-probability convenient sampling method. In the non-probability convenient sampling method, no probabilities are associated with the components in the population that are chosen as sample subjects. This means that the results of sample research cannot be applied to the entire population. However, as previously said, collecting some early knowledge rapidly and affordably may be more important at times. They would then resort to non-probability convenient sampling method. Sometimes non-probability convenient sampling method could be the only way to get data, as discussed later. Some of the non-probability convenient sampling method plans are more dependable than others and could offer some important leads to possibly useful information relating to or connected to the population.. 3.6. Data Collection Procedure. In this research, the data were collected by using Google form questionnaires. Google form questionnaires were assigned to the university students especially student of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan who are using social media to go travel.. 23. FYP FHPK. sample size. The sample of size is normally determined by population. According to the.
(39) must be a student who are in first, second and third year. Secondly, the respondent should be a student from Malaysia and lastly, they should be 18 years old and above. To make sure the respondents selected are qualified to all the criteria stated above, researchers asked a few screening questions, “Are you a student first year until third year?” before respondents answering the questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed in March and April 2021 as researchers were having semester break. Moreover, university students who are during their semester break will tend to answer the questionnaire since they have free time. The questionnaire contains items to answer the research objectives and has privacy and confidential agreements of the responses.. 3.7. Research Instrument. The current study developed an instrument based on items suggested by Hung and Petrick (2012), Lam and Hsu (2006), Yeh and Huan (2014), Isa, Phaik, Mohammad (2017), and Zhang (2014). In response to the research objectives, three sections were created. Table 3.1 shows all the items and further explanation were made for each of the section.. Table 3.1: Questionnaire composition Sections. Items. Number of items. Supporting References. Section A. Demographic data. 4. Isa, Phaik, Mohammad (2017). Section B. The Influence of social media toward Travel’s Intention among University students 1. Destination Attraction. 24. FYP FHPK. Respondents were selected based on several characteristics. Firstly, respondents.
(40) Items 2. Attitude. Number of items. Supporting References. 5. Hung and Petrick (2012). 5. Lam and Hsu (2006). 4. Zhang (2014). 4. Yeh and Huan (2014). 3. Self-Sufficiency The travel intention. Section C. Researcher. 3.7.1 Questions Used in Section A of the Questionnaire. Section A was created for the data collection of data respondents’ demographic profile. It involves gender, age, marital status, and race. The items listed are shown in Table 3.2.. Table 3.2: Questions used in Section A of the questionnaire - Demographic profile of respondents Dimensions. Supporting references. Demographic. Isa, Phaik, Mohammad (2017). Profile of Respondents. Items. 1. Gender (Male; Female) 2. Age (18-23 years old, 24-29 years old, 3035 years old, and 36-40 years old) 3. Race (Malay, Indian, Chinese, and others). Researcher. 4. Marital status (Single/Married). 3.7.2 Questions Used in Section B (I) of the Questionnaire. Section B (I) is designed with the scale below. It can be tick (/) for sincere response anyway between 1 and 2.. 25. FYP FHPK. Sections.
(41) 1. 2. Yes. No. Ya. Tidak. Table 3.4: Questions used in Section B (I) of the Questionnaire- The Influence of social media Towards Travel Intention Among University Students in Malaysia Dimensions. Supporting References. Items. The Influence of social media. Hung and Petrick (2012). 1. Do you have social media? 2. Do you travel often? 3. Do you think that social media influence the university student toward their travel intention?. 3.7.3 Questions Used Section B (II) Questionnaire. Section B (II) designed to understand the influence of social media towards travel intentions among university students in Malaysia. A total number of 14 items were developed in the aspects of destination attraction, attitude, and self-sufficiency to measure the statements on each dimension. Adaption from the referred research article, Wu (2005), a Five-point Likert scale was used in this study too for respondents to indicate their level of agreement. This scale is ranging from one (1) with “strongly disagree” to five (5) “strongly agree”. All the items are shown in the Table 3.6.. Table 3.5: The five-point likert scale 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Strongly Disagree. Disagree. Neutral. Agree. Strongly Agree. 26. FYP FHPK. Table 3.3: Yes or No scale.
(42) Dimensions. Supporting References. Items. Destination Attraction. Yeh and Huan (2014). Attitude. Lam and Hsu (2006). Selfsufficiency. Zhang (2014). 1. Social media often displays destinations attractions across multiple platforms 2. Social media is the main platform to find the destination attractions for tourist, especially university students. 3. Destination attractions that are featured on social media can determine the travel intentions of tourists. 4. Social media can help university students in finding the destination attractions they want. 5. The use of social media makes it easier for university students to find their destination attractions that can determine their travel intentions. 6. Social media can influence the attitude of university students in determining their travel intentions. 7. Attitude is very important in determining the travel intentions of a tourist, especially university students who have a young soul and like to have fun while traveling 8. Using social media can save time and make it easier for university students to travel. 9. Social media provides accurate and easy-tounderstand information that makes it easier for university students to determine their travel intentions. 10. Social media allows university students to see feedback from other tourists from their previous experiences. 11. Social media can make university students being self-sufficiency in planning their journey using this platform. 12. University students gain new experience by planning their trip using social media without the help of tour guides or travel agencies. 13. Able to learn new things add knowledge in themselves. 14. Social media makes travel easier for tourists who want to be self-sufficiency travellers.. 3.7.4 Questions Used in Section C of the Questionnaire. To evaluate the social media towards the travel Intention, 4 items were developed in Section C. Respondents need to tick (/) their agreement level on five-point satisfaction. 27. FYP FHPK. Table 3.6: Questions used in Section B (II) of the questionnaire - The influence of social media towards travel intention among university students in Malaysia.
(43) section. Table 3.8 described the items for this section.. Table 3.7: Questions used in section C of the questionnaire - The travel intention Supporting References. Items. Zhang (2014). 1. Using social media can determinant of travel intention easily and saving time to university students. 2. Tourist travel intentions can be determined by various categories including destination attractions, attitudes, self-sufficiency, and others. 3. Provide good benefits in travel planning through social media. 4. Social media have a good level of choice to go travel in planning to determinant of travel intentions tourist.. 3.8. Data Analysis. Data analysis is a process of organizing, describing, representing, evaluating, and interpreting data using statistical methods. First, when performing the analysis, it is critical to have a clear understanding of the research’s goal.. 3.8.1 Descriptive Analysis. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the basic features of the data in research. It helps the researcher to summarize the data that collected and find patterns. It involves the meanings which is the set of values’ numerical average, namely Median. A common value in a set of values is mode and percentage are normally used to express how a group of respondents are related to the data. These data analyses should be based on the research questions and the research design selected for this study.. 28. FYP FHPK. scale ranging from one (1) with “strongly disagree” to five (5) “strongly agree” in this.
(44) research question and what to show. For example, gender distribution of respondents the best to show in percentage. Descriptive analysis is the best limited sample research and when larger population are not needed since descriptive analysis is mostly used for analysing single variable.. 3.8.2 Reliability Analysis. The reliability test has used by the researcher to measure the reliability of the questionnaire. The pilot test has been conducted and 322 respondents have been chosen to conduct the test. The researcher conducts the pilot test especially is university students in Malaysia. The pilot test is a standard version of a complete study of test or test run done in research of the whole study. In this pilot test, the researcher has choses 322 respondents of university students in Malaysia to conduct the pilot test. From the pilot test the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to analyse the reliability of the data. A reliability test can be a measure of the value of Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. The below table shows:. Table 3.8: The rule of thumb for Cronbach’s alpha coefficient value Alpha Coefficient Range. Strength of Association. < 0.60. Weak. 0.60 to < 0.70. Moderate. 0.70 to < 0.80. Good. 0.80 to < 0.90. Very Good. 0.90 >. Excellent. 29. FYP FHPK. Before descriptive methods are applied, researcher need to have a clear mind on.
(45) 3.8.3 Pearson Correlation. Then, the researcher will use the Pearson’s Correlation Analysis to identify the relationship between dependent and independent variable. From this analysis, the researcher can make the hypothesis. It can be positive and negative hypothesis. Pearson’s correlation can be defined as a test which measures the relationship between the independent variables and a dependent variable. In this research, the dependent variable is travel intention. Meanwhile, the independent variables were the destination attractions through social media, attitude through social media, and self-sufficiency through social media. The objective of this test is to know whether the correlation is statically significant. Furthermore, it is used to identify the hypothesis should be accepted or rejected. The table below shows the rules of thumb about correlation coefficient size.. Table 3.9: Rules of thumb about correlation coefficient size Coefficient Range (r). Strength of Correlation. . 91 to 1.0 / -. 91 to -1.0. Very Strong. . 71 to.90 / -. 71 to -. 90. High. . 41 to.70 / -. 41 to -. 70. Moderate. . 21 to.40 / -. 21 to -. 40. Weak. .01 to .20 / -.01 to -.20. Very Weak. Sources: Adopted from Hinkle (2003) 3.8.4 Pilot Study. A pilot study is a must step to do, whenever the questionnaire was involved in the study. This is because, with the help of the pilot study, the error of the questionnaire gets 30. FYP FHPK. Source: Arthor H. Money (2007).
(46) study, reliability and validity of the questionnaire get to improve. A total 30 sets of questionnaires were distributed as it is the minimum requirement for pilot study (Johanson and Brooks, 2009). By carrying out pilot test first, researcher gets to test the level of understanding of respondents towards the questionnaire before distributing it to the study sample. Mistake and misleading info and questions were fixed once after the questionnaires returned by these 30 respondents.. 3.8.5 Normality Test. Based on Altman and Bland (1995), the normal distribution was sometimes called the Gaussian distribution. It is used to measure a large number quantity of individuals to obtain a pattern of values obtained distributed. Various methods of analysis such as correlation, t test analysis of variance and regression make assumptions on normality, where the distribution of observed data not in fact to be normal, but it should be compatible with the population. Clinical studies of modest size are advice to transform non-normal data when a skewed distribution occurred.. 3.9. Summary. In this chapter, the researcher is discussing the reliability of all variables which is existed in the research methodology. Basically, this study is basic research. This chapter applies reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, and Pearson’s correlation. As stated above, the researchers are going to select 350 respondents for the questionnaires.. 31. FYP FHPK. to deducted (Singh,2007). According to (Teijlingen & Hundley, 2002) through a pilot.
(47) DATA ANALYSIS. 4.1. Introduction. This chapter discusses the result of the analysis data collected from the 322 respondents on the survey administered. The result was result based on descriptive analysis, reliability test and Pearson’s correlation analysis.. 4.2. Reliability Analysis (Pilot Test). Table 4.1: Reliability statistic for 30 respondents No:. Variable. Cronbach’ Alpha. No. of Item. N. 1. Destination Attraction. 0.862. 5. 30. 2. Attitude. 0.887. 5. 30. 3. Self-sufficiency. 0.873. 4. 30. 4. Travel intention. 0.885. 4. 30. All Variable. 0.936. 18. 30. The result of the reliability statistic for 30 respondents (pilot test) shown by Table 4.1 based on the score of Cronbach’s Alpha. A total number of three independent variable has been tasted using reliability Cronbach’s Alpha. The first independent variable which is destination attraction found to be low reliable (5 items: 𝛼= 0.862). Then, the second independent variable found to be the very high variable (5 items: 𝛼= 0.887). Meanwhile, the third independent variable found to be good reliability (4 items: 𝛼= 0.873). Furthermore, the dependent variable is travel intention was found to be good reliable (4 32. FYP FHPK. CHAPTER 4.
(48) on the result, this section could be concluded that the entire questions in the questionnaire was reliable. This means, the research could be continuing with the distribution of questionnaire to target sample of study, which is university students in Malaysia.. Table 4.2: Reliability statistic for 322 respondents No:. Variable. Cronbach’ Alpha. No. of Item. N. 1. Destination Attraction. 0.848. 5. 322. 2. Attitude. 0.782. 5. 322. 3. Self-sufficiency. 0.805. 4. 322. 4. Travel intention. 0.848. 4. 322. All Variable. 0.931. 18. 322. The result reliability statistic for 322 respondents shown by Table 4.2 based on the score of Cronbach’s Alpha. A total number of three independent variable has been tasted using reliability Cronbach’s Alpha. The first independent variable which is destination attraction found to be higher reliable (5 items: α= 0.848). Then, the second independent variable found to be the very low variable (5 items: α= 0.782). Meanwhile, the third independent variable found to be good reliability (4 items: α= 0.805). Furthermore, the dependent variable is travel intention was found to be good reliable (4 items: α= 0.848) and for all variables show a good reliability (18 items: α= 0.931). Based on the result, this section could be concluded that the entire questions in the questionnaire was reliable.. 33. FYP FHPK. items: 𝛼= 0.885) and for all variables show a good reliability (18 items: α= 0.936). Based.
(49) Descriptive Analysis (Demographic Profile). A descriptive analysis was conducted on the data of section A for the purpose of summarizing the background information on demographic profile of the respondent that involved in this study and section B for the influence of social media toward travel intention among university students in Malaysia.. 4.3.1 Gender. Table 4.3: The gender of respondents Gender. Frequency (n). Percentage (%). Male. 34. 10.6. Female. 288. 89.4. Total. 322. 100.0. Gender. Female. 89.4%. Male. 10.6% 0. 20. 40. 60. Male. 80. 100. Female. Figure 4.1: The percentage of gender Based on result from above, the bar chart shows the gender distribution of the respondents. There was a total of 322 respondents. In this study, female respondent was. 34. FYP FHPK. 4.3.
(50) respondent.. 4.3.2 Age. Table 4.4: The age of respondents Age. Frequency (n). Percentage (%). 18-20 years old. 59. 18.3. 21-25 years old. 261. 81.1. 26-30 years old. 1. 0.3. 31 years above. 1. 0.3. 322. 100.0. Total. Age 31 years above. 0.3%. 26-30 years old. 0.3%. 21-25 years old. 81.1%. 18-20 years old. 18.3% 0. 10. 18-20 years old. 20. 30. 40. 21-25 years old. 50. 60. 26-30 years old. 70. 80. 90. 31 years above. Figure 4.2: The percentage of age Figure 4.2 shows the age distribution. The respondent was allocated into four age group. The highest number of respondents were from 21-25 years old with 81.1% (n=261) respondents. The second highest group were from 18-20 years old which is 18.3% (n=59). 35. FYP FHPK. higher with 89.4% (n=288) respondent as compared to male which is 10.6% (n=34).
(51) above were same which is 0.3% (n=1) respondents.. 4.3.3 Race. Table 4.5: The race of respondents Race. Frequency (n). Percentage (%). Malay. 304. 94.4. Chinese. 9. 2.8. Indian. 2. 0.6. Others. 7. 2.2. Total. 322. 100.0. Race Others. 2.2%. Indian. 0.6%. Chinese. 2.8%. Malay. 94.4% 0. 10. 20. 30 Malay. 40. 50. Chinese. Indian. 60. 70. 80. 90. 100. Others. Figure 4.3: The percentage of race Figure 4.3 shows race distribution among the respondents. The highest number of race group who were involved in this study were Malay 94.4% (n=304) respondents, followed by Chinese with 2.8 (n=9) respondents. There were also others with 2.2% (n=7) while Indian 0.6% (n=2) respondents only.. 36. FYP FHPK. respondents. Meanwhile, the age distribution from group 26-30 years old and 31 years.
(52) Table 4.6: The marital status of respondents Status. Frequency (n). Percentage (%). Single. 317. 98.4. 5. 1.6. 322. 100.0. Married Total. Status. Married. 1.6%. Single. 98.4% 0. 1. 2. 3. Single. 4. 5. Married. Figure 4.4: The percentage of status Figure 4.4 represents the status distribution among the respondents. The highest status of respondents was single status with 98.4% (n=317) respondents and the lowest were married status which is only 1.6% (n=5) respondents.. 37. FYP FHPK. 4.3.4 Marital Status.
(53) Table 4.7: The years of study of respondents Years of Study. Frequency (n). Percentage (%). Years 1. 61. 18.9. Years 2. 76. 23.6. Years 3. 185. 57.5. Total. 322. 100.0. Years of Study. Years 3. 57.5%. Years 2. 23.6%. Years 1. 18.9% 0. 10. 20 Years 1. 30 Years 2. 40. 50. 60. 70. Years 3. Figure 4.5: The percentage of years of study Figure 4.5 represent the years of study of respondents. The respondents were allocated into three group. The highest number of years of study were years 3 which is 57.5% (n=185) respondents, followed by years 2 23.6% (n=76) respondents and the lowest years 1 which is 18.9% (n=61) respondents only in this study.. 38. FYP FHPK. 4.3.5 Years of Study.
(54) Table 4.8: Result for statement “Do you have social media?” of Respondents Social Media. Frequency (n). Percentage (%). Yes. 322. 100.0. No. 0. 0. Maybe. 0. 0. 322. 100.0. Total. Do you have social media?. Maybe. 0. No. 0. Yes. 100% 0. 20. 40. 60 Maybe. No. 80. 100. 120. Yes. Figure 4.6: The percentage of statement “Do you have social media?” Based on Figure 4.6, the results show that the respondents involved in this study all have social media because the results show the “yes” group gets 100% (n = 322) respondents compared to the “no” and “maybe” groups.. 39. FYP FHPK. 4.3.6 Do you Have Social Media?.
(55) Table 4.9: Result for statement “Do you travel often?” of respondents Travel Often. Frequency (n). Percentage (%). Yes. 97. 30.1. No. 138. 42.9. Maybe. 87. 27.0. Total. 322. 100.0. Do you travel often?. Maybe. 27%. No. 42.9%. Yes. 30.1% 0. 10. 20 Yes. 30 No. 40. 50. Maybe. Figure 4.7: The percentage of travel often of respondents Figure 4.7 represent the travel often distribution among the respondent. The respondent was allocated into three (3) group which is yes, no, and maybe. The highest number of travels often were "no" with 42.9% (n=138) respondents, followed by "yes" with 30.1% (n=97) and the lowest were "maybe" which is with 27.0% (n=87) respondents only.. 40. FYP FHPK. 4.3.7 Do you Travel Often?.
(56) Table 4.10:. Result for statement “Do you think social media influence the university student?” of respondents. Social Media influence. Frequency (n). Percentage (%). Yes. 275. 85.4. No. 13. 4.0. Maybe. 34. 10.6. Total. 322. 100.0. Do you think social media influence the university student?. Maybe. 10.6%. No. 4%. Yes. 85.4% 0. 10. 20. 30. 40 Yes. No. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90. Maybe. Figure 4.8: The percentage of social media influence Figure 4.8 shows the results for the percentage of social media influence among the respondents. In this section, it is divided into three (3) groups namely yes, no, and maybe. The highest voter for social media influence were "yes" with 85.4% (n = 275) respondents, followed by the second which is "maybe" with 10.6% (n = 34) and the lowest were "no" with 4.0% (n =130) respondent only.. 41. FYP FHPK. 4.3.8 Do you Think Social Media Influence the University Student?.
(57) Table 4.11 shows the demographic profiles of the respondents. Among the 322 questionnaires that could be used, women comprised many respondents (89.4%), male respondents only (10.6%). As for the age group, the 21-25 years old group answered the most (81.1%), followed by the 18-20 years old group (18.3%), the 26-30 years old age group and 31 years and above were the same (0.3%). Overall, (94.4%) were Malays, while (2.8%) are Chinese, followed by (2.2%) others and India (0.6%). The dominant majority were single (98.4%), single only (1.6%). Regarding the year of study, (57.5%) were individual year 3 students, followed by the second year (23.6%) and (18.9%) was one year. Moreover, in this study, respondents stated that (100%) use those who use social media. Meanwhile, for the statement “do and often travel?”, majority of them answered no (42.9%), followed by yes (30.1%) and maybe (27.0%). Meanwhile, majority of respondents said that social media was used by university students by showing results of (85.4%).. Table 4.11:. Respondent’s profile (N=322). Demographic variables. Frequency. Percentage (%). Male. 34. 10.6. Female. 288. 89.4. 18-20 years old. 59. 18.3. 21-25 years old. 261. 81.1. 26-30 years old. 1. 0.3. 31 years above. 1. 0.3. Gender. Age. 42. FYP FHPK. 4.3.9 Respondent Profile.
(58) Frequency. Percentage (%). 304. 94.4. Chinese. 9. 2.8. Indian. 2. 0.6. Others. 7. 2.2. 317. 98.4. 5. 1.6. Year 1. 61. 18.9. Year 2. 76. 23.6. Year 3. 185. 57.5. Yes. 322. 100. No. 0. 0. Maybe. 0. 0. Yes. 97. 30.1. No. 138. 42.9. Maybe. 87. 27.0. Yes. 275. 85.4. No. 13. 4.0. Maybe. 34. 10.6. Race Malay. Status Single Married Years of study. Do you have social media?. Do you travel often?. Do you think social media influence university student?. 43. FYP FHPK. Demographic variables.
(59) Descriptive Analysis (IV and DV). Descriptive analysis consists of mean and standard deviation based on a Five Likert- Scale (1 = strongly disagree; 2= disagree; 3 =neutral; 4= agree; 5= strongly agree) were calculated for all measured items of destination attraction through social media, attitude through social media, self-sufficiency through social media and the determinant of travel intention.. 4.4.1 Mean score for Destination Attraction Through Social Media. Descriptive analysis for first independent variable is destination attraction through social media. There are five items representing destination attraction constructs. The measurement items for destination attraction are organized and summarized in Table 4.12 as below:. Table 4.12: No.. Descriptive statistic for destination attraction through social media Item. Mean. Std. Deviation. DA1. Social media often displays destination attractions across multiple platforms.. 4.67. 0.503. DA2. Social media is the main platform to find the destination attractions for tourists, especially university students.. 4.57. 0.638. DA3. Destination attractions that are featured on social media can determine the travel intentions of tourists.. 4.41. 0.710. DA4. Social media can help university students in finding the destination attractions they want.. 4.62. 0.558. DA5. The use of social media makes it easier for university students to find their destination attractions that can determine their travel intentions.. 4.55. 0.651. 44. FYP FHPK. 4.4.
(60) for destination attraction through social media start from 4.41 to 4.67. The items of DA1 are the highest mean scores (M= 4.67, SD= 0.503). Based on the standard deviation for DA1, it can be said that most respondents strongly agree that the social media often displays destination attractions across multiple platforms. Based on DA4, the respondents also strongly agree that social media can help university students in finding the destination attractions they want (M=4.62, SD=0.558). Next, DA2 also show that the respondents strongly agree that social media is the main platform to find the destination attractions for tourists, especially university students (M= 4.57, SD= 0.638). Judging from the result for DA5, it shows that most respondents agree that the use of social media makes it easier for university students to find their destination attractions that can determine their travel intentions (M= 4.55, SD= 0.651). Lastly for DA3, the results show that most respondents strongly agree that social media makes student easier to find their destination attractions that can determine their travel intentions with (M=4.41, SD= 0.710).. 4.4.2 Mean score for Attitude Through Social Media. Descriptive Analysis for second independent variable is attitude through social media. There are five items representing attitude constructs. The measurement items for attitude through social media are organized and summarized in Table 4.13 as below:. 45. FYP FHPK. Based on the result has been summarized in the table 4.10, the range of mean score.
(61) Descriptive statistic for attitude through social media Mean. Std. Deviation. Social media can influence the attitude of university students in determining their travel intentions.. 4.26. 0.792. A2. Attitude is very important in determining the travel intentions of a tourist, especially university students who have a young soul and like to have fun while traveling.. 4.48. 0.694. A3. Using social media can save time and make it easier for university students to travel.. 4.46. 0.688. A4. Social media provides accurate and easy-to-understand information that makes it easier for university students to determine their travel intentions.. 4.19. 0.810. A5. Social media allows university students to see feedback from other tourists from their previous experiences.. 4.52. 0.637. No.. Item. A1. Based on the result has been summarized in the Table 4.11, the range of mean score starts from 4.19 to 4.52 which signifies some respondents agree and strongly agree with the statement in the attitude through social media. The items of A5 are the highest mean scores (M= 4.52, SD= 0.637). Based on A2, the respondents also strongly agree that its attitude is very important in determining the travel intentions of a tourist, especially university students who have a young soul and like to have fun while traveling (M=4.48, SD=0.694). A3 also show that the respondents strongly agrees that attitude is very important in determining the travel intentions of a tourist, especially university students who have a young soul and like to have fun while traveling (M= 4.46, SD= 0.688). Judging from the result for A1, it shows that most respondents strongly agree that social media to influence the attitude of university students in determining their travel intentions (M= 4.26, SD= 0.792). Lastly, for A4 the results show that most respondents still strongly agree that social media provides accurate and easy-to-understand. 46. FYP FHPK. Table 4.13:.
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