Journal of Management

42  Download (0)

Full text



Abbas, M., Raja, U., Darr, W. & Buckingham, D. (2014). Combined effects of perceived politics and psychological capital on jo satisfaction, turnover intentions, and performance. Journal of Management, 40(7), 1813-1830.

Adams, R. B., & Mehran, H. (2003). Is corporate governance different for bank holding companies?. Available at SSRN 387561.

Adiprasetyo, P. (2011). Pengaruh personality needs terhadap kepuasan pelanggan.

Skripsi Sarjana, tidak diterbitkan. Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Islam Negeri:


Afthanorhan, A., Awang, Z., Rashid, N., Foziah, H., & Ghazali, P. (2019). Assessing the effects of service quality on customer satisfaction. Management Science Letters, 9(1), 13-24.

Agler, R., & De Boeck, P. (2017). On the interpretation and use of mediation: multiple perspectives on mediation analysis. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1984.

Ahmad, A., Nabila, S., Ambad, A., Jamal, S., Nasir, A., Lajuni, N., & Lajuni, N.

(2021). The moderation effect of job tenure on psychological empowerment and employee performance in Malaysia public sector. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 11(4), 780-796.

Albrecht, S. L. (2010). Employee engagement: 10 key questions for research and practice. In S. L. Albrecht (Ed.), Handbook of employee engagement (pp. 3–

19). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Alessandri, G., Borgogni, L., Schaufeli, W. B., Caprara, G. V., & Consiglio, C.

(2015). From positive orientation to job performance: The role of work engagement and self-efficacy beliefs. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(3), 767-788.


Alessandri, G., Consiglio, C., Luthans, F., & Borgogni, L. (2018). Testing a dynamic model of the impact of psychological capital on work engagement and job performance. Career Development International, 23(1), 33-47.

Ali, K. K. (2018). Awareness of ethics and integrity at a Malaysian government district office. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 53, p. 02007). EDP Sciences.

Ali, Z., Sabir, S., & Mehreen, A. (2019). Predicting engagement and performance through firm’s internal factors: Evidence from textile sector. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 16(5), 763-780.

Allison, P. D. (2003). Missing data techniques for structural equation modeling. Journal of abnormal psychology, 112(4), 545.

Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International journal of productivity and performance management, 63(3), 308-323.

Anjum, L., Ahmad, S., & Karim, J. (2014). Do psychological capabilities really matter? The combined effects psychological capital and peace of mind on work centrality and in-role performance. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 8(2), 502-520.

Arvey, R. D., & Murphy, K. R. (1998). Performance evaluation in work settings. Annual review of psychology, 49(1), 141-168.

Ashforth, B. K., & Saks, A. M. (1996). Socialization tactics: Longitudinal effects on newcomer adjustment. Academy of management Journal, 39(1), 149-178.

Asnawi, A., Awang, Z., Afthanorhan, A., Mohamad, M., & Karim, F. J. M. S. L.

(2019). The influence of hospital image and service quality on patients’

satisfaction and loyalty. Management Science Letters, 9(6), 911-920.


Avey, J. B., Wernsing, T. S., & Luthans, F. (2018). Can positive employees help positive organizational change? Impact of psychological capital and emotions on relevant attitudes and behaviors. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44(1), 48-70.

Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. M. (2009). Psychological capital: A positive resource for combating employee stress and turnover. Human resource management, 48(5), 677-693.

Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., Smith, R. M., & Palmer, N. F. (2010). Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(1), 17–28.

Avey, J. B., Patera, J. L., & West, B. J. (2006). The implications of positive psychological capital on employee absenteeism. Journal of leadership &

organizational studies, 13(2), 42-60.

Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta‐analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human resource development quarterly, 22(2), 127-152.

Avey, J. B., Wernsing, T. S., & Luthans, F. (2008). Can positive employees help positive organizational change? Impact of psychological capital and emotions on relevant attitudes and behaviors. The journal of applied behavioral science, 44(1), 48-70.

Avey, J.B., Luthans, F. & Jensen, S.M. (2019). Psychological capital: A positive resource for combating employee stress and turnover. Human Resource Management, 48(5), 677-693.


Avey, J.B., Nimnicht, J.L. & Pigeon, N.G. (2010). Two field studies examining the association between positive psychological capital and employee performance.

Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 31(5), 384–401.

Awang, Z., Afthanorhan, A., & Asri, M. A. M. (2015). Parametric and non parametric approach in structural equation modeling (SEM): The application of bootstrapping. Modern Applied Science, 9(9), 58.

Awang, Z., Afthanorhan, A., & Asri, M. A. M. (2015). Parametric and non parametric approach in structural equation modeling (SEM): The application of bootstrapping. Modern Applied Science, 9(9), 58.

Babbie, E. (1990). The essential wisdom of sociology. Teaching Sociology, 18(4), 526-530.

Badran, M. A., & Youssef-Morgan, C. M. (2015). Psychological capital and job satisfaction in Egypt. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(3), 354–370.

Bahkia, A. S., Awang, Z., Afthanorhan, A., Ghazali, P. L., & Foziah, H. (2019).

Exploratory factor analysis on occupational stress in context of Malaysian sewerage operations. In AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Publishing LLC.

Bakker, A. B., Gierveld, J. H. & Van Rijswijk, K. (2006), “Success factors among female school principals in primary teaching: A study on burnout, work engagement, and performance”. Right Management Consultants, Diemen

Bakker, A. B. (2011). An evidence-based model of work engagement. Current directions in psychological science, 20(4), 265-269.

Bakker, A. B., & Albrecht, S. (2018). Work engagement: current trends. Career Development International, 23(1), 4-11.


Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2017). Job demands–resources theory: taking stock and looking forward. Journal of occupational health psychology, 22(3), 273.

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2018). Multiple levels in job demands-resources theory: Implications for employee well-being and performance. Handbook of well-being. (pp. 1–13). Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers. Bakker, A. B., Albrecht, S. L., & Leiter, M. P. (2011). Work engagement: Further

reflections on the state of play. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(1), 74–88.

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). Using the job demands‐resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management: Published in Cooperation with the School of Business Administration, The University of Michigan and in alliance with the Society of Human Resources Management, 43(1), 83-104.

Bakker, A. B., Hakanen, J. J., Demerouti, E., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2007). Job Resources Boost Work Engagemnet, particularly when job demands are High.

Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), 274-284.

Bakker, A.B. & Demerouti, E. (2008). Towards a model of work engagement. Career Development International, 13(3), 209-223.

Bakker, A.B. & Leiter, M.P. (2010). Where to go from here: integration and future research on work engagement. In Bakker AB & Leiter MP (eds). work engagement: a handbook of essential theory and research. New York, NY:

Psychology Press.

Bakker, A.B. & Schaufeli, W.B. (2008). Positive Organization Behavior: Engaged Employees in Flourishing Organizations. Journal of Organization Behavior, 29, 147-154.


Bakker, A.B. (2009). Building engagement in the workplace, in Cooper, C.L. and Burke, R.J. (Eds), The Peak Performing Organization, Routledge, London, 50- 72.

Bakker, A.B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). Using the Job Demands-Resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management Journal, 43, 83-104

Bakker, A.B., Schaufeli, W.B., Leiter, M.P. & Taris, T.W. (2008). Work engagement:

an emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work and Stress, 22, 187-200

Bande, B., Fernández-Ferrín, P., Varela, J. A., & Jaramillo, F. (2015). Emotions and salesperson propensity to leave: The effects of emotional intelligence and resilience. Industrial Marketing Management, 44, 142-153.

Bande, B., Fernández-Ferrín, P., Varela, J. A., & Jaramillo, F. (2015). Emotions and salesperson propensity to leave: The effects of emotional intelligence and resilience. Industrial Marketing Management, 44, 142-153.

Bandura A. (1982). Self Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122-147.

Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American psychologist, 44(9), 1175-1184

Banister, P. (2011). Qualitative methods in psychology: A research guide. McGraw- Hill Education (UK).

Baron, R.M. & Kenny, D.A. (2016). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173- 1182.


Basch, J., & Fisher, C. D. (1998). Affective events-emotions matrix: A classification of work events and associated emotions. Bond University.

Bateman, T.S., & Organ, D.W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between affect and employee citizenship. Academy of Management Journal, 24(4), 587-595.

Borman, W.C. and Motowidlo, S.J. (1997). Task performance and contextual performance: the meaning for personnel selection research. Human Performance, 10, 99-109.

Breevaart, K., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Derks, D. (2016). Who takes the lead?

A multi‐source diary study on leadership, work engagement, and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(3), 309-325.

Breevaart, K., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Van Den Heuvel, M. (2015). Leader- member exchange, work engagement, and job performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(7), 754-770.

Bunjak, A., & Černe, M. (2018). Mindfulness–The missing link in the relationship between leader–follower strategic optimism (mis) match and work engagement. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1-11.

Burke, R. J., & El‐Kot, G. (2010). Work engagement among managers and professionals in Egypt: Potential antecedents and consequences. African Journal of economic and management studies.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Byrnes N. (2006). The art of motivation. Business Week, 57-62.


Campbell, J.P. (1990). Modeling The Performance Prediction Problem In Industrial And Organizational Psychology. In M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of Role-Based Performance Scale Psychology, 1(2), 687-732.

Campbell, J.P., McCloy, R.A., Oppler, S.H., & Sager, CE (1993). A theory of performance. In N. Schmidt, W.C. Borman, & Assoc. (Eds.), Personnel Selection in Organizations, an Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Çankır, B. (2017). The Effect of Job Resources on Work Engagement-A Study on Academicians in Turkey. Available at SSRN 3076947.

Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2009). Action, affect, and two-mode models of functioning. In E. Morsella, J. A. Bargh, & P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), Oxford handbook of human action (pp. 298–327). Oxford University Press

Cascio, W. F. (2006). The economic impact of employee behaviors on organizational performance. In America at work (pp. 241-256). Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Cascio, W. F. (2010). The changing world of work. In P. A. Linley, S. Harrington, &

N. Garcea (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology and work (pp. 13–

24). New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Cavus, M., & Gokcen, A. (2014). Psychological Capital: Definition, Components and Effects. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 5(3), 244-255.

Çetin, F. (2011). The effects of the organizational psychological capital on the attitudes of commitment and satisfaction: A public sample in Turkey. European Journal of Social Sciences, 21(3), 373-380.

Çetin, F., & Basim, H. N. (2012). Organizational psychological capital: A scale adaptation study. Review of Public Administration,6(1), 159-179.


Çetin, F., & Aşkun, D. (2018). The effect of occupational self-efficacy on work performance through intrinsic work motivation. Management Research Review, 41(3), 1-17

Chang, H. H., Wong, K. H., & Fang, P. W. (2014). The effects of customer relationship management relational information processes on customer-based performance. Decision support systems, 66, 146-159.

Chen, D. J., & Lim, V. K. (2012). Strength in adversity: The influence of psychological capital on job search. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(6), 811-839.

Chen, F., Yang, M., Gao, W., Liu, Y., & De Gieter, S. (2015). Impact of satisfactions with psychological reward and pay on Chinese nurses' work attitudes. Applied Nursing Research, 28(4), e29-e34.

Chin, S. T. S., Anantharaman, R. N., & Tong, D. Y. K. (2011). The roles of emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence at the workplace. Journal of Human Resources Management Research, 2011, 1-9.

Choi, S. Y., Lee, H., & Yoo, Y. (2010). The impact of information technology and transactive memory systems on knowledge sharing, application, and team performance: A field study. MIS quarterly, 855-870.

Christian, M. S., Garza, A. S., & Slaughter, J. E. (2011). Work engagement: A quantitative review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Personnel psychology, 64(1), 89-136.

Chughtai, A. A. (2008). Impact of job involvement on in-role job performance and organizational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 9(2), 169-183.


Chughtai, A.A. and Buckley, F. (2010). Assessing the effects of organizational identification on in-role job performance and learning behaviour – the mediating role of learning goal orientation. Personnel Review, 39, 242-58.

Cohen, A., & Vigoda, E. (2000). Do good citizens make good organizational citizens?

An empirical examination of the relationship between general citizenship and organizational citizenship behavior in Israel. Administration & Society, 32(5), 596-624.

Collini, S. A., Guidroz, A. M., & Perez, L. M. (2015). Turnover in health care: the mediating effects of employee engagement. Journal of nursing management, 23(2), 169-178.

Cooke, F. L., Cooper, B., Bartram, T., Wang, J., & Mei, H. (2019). Mapping the relationships between high-performance work systems, employee resilience and engagement: A study of the banking industry in China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30(8), 1239-1260.

Cooper, D. R., Schindler, P. S., & Sun, J. (2006). Business research methods. New York: Mcgraw-hill.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Mapping the field of mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(2), 95-108.

Culbertson, S. S., Fullagar, C. J., & Mills, M. J. (2010). Feeling good and doing great:

the relationship between psychological capital and well-being. Journal of occupational health psychology, 15(4), 421.

Dajani, D., & Zaki, M. A. (2015). The impact of employee engagement on job performance and organizational commitment in the Egyptian banking sector.

Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 3(5), 138-147.


Damayanti, A. T., & Handoko, H. (2018). Influence of Resilience on Work Engagement in Machinists in Charge of Yogyakarta Tugu Station. Jurnal Perkeretaapian Indonesia (Indonesian Railway Journal), 2(2), 87-94.

Dawes, J. (2008). Do data characteristics change according to the number of scale points used? An experiment using 5-point, 7-point and 10-point scales. International journal of market research, 50(1), 61-104.

De Lange, A. H., De Witte, H., & Notelaers, G. (2008). Should I stay or should I go?

Examining longitudinal relations among job resources and work engagement for stayers versus movers. Work & Stress, 22(3), 201-223.

De Lange, A.H., De Witte, H. & Notelaers, G. (2018). Should I stay or should I go?

Examining longitudinal relations among job resources and work engagement for stayers versus movers. Work & Stress, 22(3), 201-223.

De Vaus, D. (2001). Research design in social research. Sage Publication. London De Vaus, D. (2002). Analyzing social science data: 50 key problems in data analysis.

Sage Publication. London

Demerouti, E. and Cropanzano, R. (2010), “From thought to action: employee work engagement and job performance”, in Bakker,A.B. and Leiter,M.P. (Eds), Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research, Psychology Press, New York, NY.

Dhamija, P., Gupta, S., & Bag, S. (2019). Measuring of job satisfaction: the use of quality of work life factors. Benchmarking: An International Journal.

Durrah, O., Khdour, N., Al-Abbadi, S., & Saif, N. (2014). The impact of psychological empowerment on the effectiveness of job performance: A field study on the Jordanian private banks. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(32), 176-190.


Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behaviours in work teams.

Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 350-83.

Edmondson, A. (2004). Psychological safety, trust and learning in organizations: a group level lens, in Kramer, R.M. and Cook, K.S. (Eds), Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Dilemmas and Approaches, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY.

Egan, T.M., Yang, B. & Bartlett, K.R. (2014). The effects of organizational learning culture and job satisfaction on motivation to transfer learning and turnover intention. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15(3), 279-301.

Ekanem, I. (2007). “Insider accounts”: a qualitative research method for small firms. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14(1), 105-117.

Elger, B. S. (2007). Insomnia in places of detention: a review of the most recent research findings. Medicine, Science and the Law, 47(3), 191-199.

Estiri, M., Nargesian, A., Dastpish, F., & Sharifi, S. M. (2016). The impact of psychological capital on mental health among Iranian nurses: considering the mediating role of job burnout. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 1-5.

Fiabane, E., Giorgi, I., Sguazzin, C., & Argentero, P. (2013). Work engagement and occupational stress in nurses and other healthcare workers: the role of organizational and personal factors. Journal of clinical nursing, 22(17-18), 2614-2624.

Field, L. K., & Buitendach, J. H. (2011). Happiness, work engagement and organisational commitment of support staff at a tertiary education institution in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37(1), 01-10.

Fitz‐enz, J. (2009). Predicting people: From metrics to analytics. Employment Relations Today, 36(3), 1-11.


Fleishman E. A. (1973). Twenty years of consideration and structure. In Fleishman E.

A., Hunt J. G. (Eds.), Current developments in the study of leadership (pp. 1- 37). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Friedrich, G.W. (2000). Methods of Inquiry: Sampling Theory. Retrieved April 1, 2015, from

Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self‐determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational behavior, 26(4), 331-362.

Gallup, J. L. (2012). Is there a Kuznets curve. Portland State University, 575-603.

Gefen, D., & Straub, D. (2005). A practical guide to factorial validity using PLS- Graph: Tutorial and annotated example. Communications of the Association for Information systems, 16(1), 91-109.

George J.M, & Battenhausen, K. (1990). Understanding prosocial behavior, sales performance, and turnover: A group-level analysis in a service context.

Journal Application Psychology, 75, 698-709.

Giga, S. I., Cooper, C. L., & Faragher, B. (2003). The development of a framework for a comprehensive approach to stress management interventions at work. International Journal of Stress Management, 10(4), 280.

Gillespie, B. M., Chaboyer, W., Wallis, M., & Grimbeek, P. (2017). Resilience in the operating room: Developing and testing of a resilience model. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 59(4), 427-438.

Goldstein, S., & Brooks, R. B. (2005). Resilience in children. New York: Springer.

Gooding, HC, Milliren, CE, Austin, SB, Sheridan, MA, & McLaughlin, KA (2016). Child abuse, resting blood pressure, and blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 41, 5-12.


Goodman, S. A., & Svyantek, D. J. (1999). Person–organization fit and contextual performance: Do shared values matter. Journal of vocational behavior, 55(2), 254-275.

Gorgievski, M.J., Bakker, A.B. & Schaufeli, W.B. (2010). Work engagement and workaholism: Comparing the self-employed and slaried employees. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(1), 83-96.

Gould, R. V., & Fernandez, R. M. (1989). Structures of mediation: A formal approach to brokerage in transaction networks. Sociological methodology, 89-126.

Griffin, M. A., Neal, A., & Parker, S. K. (2007). A new model of work role performance: Positive behavior in uncertain and interdependent contexts. Academy of management journal, 50(2), 327-347.

Gringeri, C., Barusch, A., & Cambron, C. (2013). Examining foundations of qualitative research: A review of social work dissertations, 2008–

2010. Journal of Social Work Education, 49(4), 760-773.

Gupta, V., Agarwal, U. A., & Khatri, N. (2016). The relationships between perceived organizational support, affective commitment, psychological contract breach, organizational citizenship behaviour and work engagement. Journal of advanced nursing, 72(11), 2806-2817.

Haenisch J. P. (2012). Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers.

Sage Journals, 2(1), 1-7.

Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Gudergan, S. P. (2017). Advanced issues in partial least squares structural equation modeling. Sage publications.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, Anderson, R. E. and Tatham, R. L. (2006).

Multivariate data analysis. New Jersey: Pearson International Edition.


Hair, J. F., Celsi, M., Ortinau, D. J., & Bush, R. P. (2010). Essentials of marketing research (Vol. 2). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance. Long range planning, 46(1-2), 1-12.

Hair, J. F., Bush, R. P. and Ortinau, D. J. (2003). Marketing research: Within a changing information environment, 2, Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of school psychology, 43(6), 495-513.

Halbesleben, J. R., & Wheeler, A. R. (2008). The relative roles of engagement and embeddedness in predicting job performance and intention to leave. Work &

Stress, 22(3), 242-256.

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes:

a meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology, 87(2), 268.

Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L. & Hayes, T.L. (2012). Business–unit–level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes:

A meta–analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 268-279.

Henard, D. H., & Dacin, P. A. (2010). Reputation for product innovation: Its impact on consumers. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27(3), 321-335.

Herbert, M. (2011). An exploration of the relationships between psychological capital (hope, optimism, self-efficacy, resilience), occupational stress, burnout and


employee engagement (Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University).

Hesse-Biber, S. N., & Leavy, P. (2010). The practice of qualitative research. Sage Publication.

Hiebert, b. (2006). A Contemporary Look at Stress and Burnout: Clarifying the Nuances. The Alberta Counsellor, 29(1), 16-25.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: a new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American psychologist, 44(3), 513-524.

Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of general psychology, 6(4), 307-324.

Hobfoll, S. E., & Wells, J. D. (1998). Conservation of resources, stress, and aging.

In Handbook of aging and mental health. Springer, Boston, MA.

Hobfoll, S. E., Johnson, R. J., Ennis, N., & Jackson, A. P. (2003). Resource loss, resource gain, and emotional outcomes among inner city women. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(3), 632.

Hodges, H.F., Keeley, A.C., & Grier, E.C. (2015). Professional resilience, practice longevity and Parse’s theory for baccalaureate education. Journal of Nursing Education, 44, 548-554.

Howell, A. J. (2009). Flourishing: Achievement-related correlates of students’ well- being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(1), 1-13.

Hunt, N. & Tyrrell, S. (2001). Discuss Sampling Methods. LTSN Maths Stats or Network. Retrieved April 1, 2015, from

Ismail, H. N., Iqbal, A., & Nasr, L. (2019). Employee engagement and job performance in Lebanon: the mediating role of creativity. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 68(3), 506-523.


Jabbar, M. N., Nawaz, M., Rehman, F. U., Bhatti, G. A., & Choudhary, A. (2019).

Does Optimism and Work Engagement Matter to Improve Job Performance?

An Empirical Study. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 11(4), 170-176.

Jackson, D., Firtko, A., & Edenborough, M. (2017). Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60(1), 1-9.

Jakubik, M., & Vakkuri, M. (2015). The E-experience: exploring employee engagement. Haaga-Helia Publication Series.

Jasmani, M.Y. & Abdul J.M. (2011). Stress and Pschological Well Being of Government Workers in Malaysia. Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 7(2), 40-50.

Jenaro, C., Flores, N., Orgaz, M. B., & Cruz, M. (2011). Vigour and dedication in nursing professionals: towards a better understanding of work engagement. Journal of advanced nursing, 67(4), 865-875.

Johari, J., & Yahya, K. K. (2019). Organizational structure, work involvement, and job performance of public servants. International Journal of Public Administration, 42(8), 654-663.

Johari, J., Shamsudin, F. M., Yean, T. F., Yahya, K. K., & Adnan, Z. (2018). Job characteristics, employee well-being, and job performance of public sector employees in Malaysia. International Journal of Public Sector Management.

Judge, T. A., Jackson, C. L., Shaw, J. C., Scott, B. A., & Rich, B. L. (2007). Self- efficacy and work-related performance: The integral role of individual differences. Journal of applied psychology, 92(1), 107.


Jung, H. S., & Yoon, H. H. (2015). The impact of employees’ positive psychological capital on job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviors in the hotel. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(6), 1135-1156.

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of management journal, 33(4), 692-724.

Kaplan, M., & Biçkes, D. M. (2013). The Relationship Between Psychological Capital and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Hotel Businesses in Nevşehir. Journal of Management & Economics, 20(2). 233-242.

Kappagoda, U. S., Othman, H. Z. F., & De Alwis, G. (2014). Psychological capital and job performance: The mediating role of work attitudes. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 2(02), 102116.

Karanika-Murray, M., Duncan, N., Pontes, H. M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015).

Organizational identification, work engagement, and job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology.

Karatepe, O. M. (2013). High-performance work practices and hotel employee performance: The mediation of work engagement. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32, 132-140.

Karatepe, O. M. (2014). Hope, work engagement, and organizationally valued performance outcomes: an empirical study in the hotel industry. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 23(6), 678-698.

Karatepe, O. M., & Aga, M. (2016). The effects of organization mission fulfillment and perceived organizational support on job performance: The mediating role of work engagement. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 34(3), 368- 387.


Karatepe, O. M., & Karadas, G. (2014). The effect of psychological capital on conflicts in the work–family interface, turnover and absence intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 43, 132-143.

Karatepe, O. M., & Kilic, H. (2007). Relationships of supervisor support and conflicts in the work–family interface with the selected job outcomes of frontline employees. Tourism management, 28(1), 238-252.

Karatepe, O. M., & Olugbade, O. A. (2009). The effects of job and personal resources on hotel employees’ work engagement. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(4), 504-512.

Karatepe, O. M., & Olugbade, O. A. (2016). The mediating role of work engagement in the relationship between high-performance work practices and job outcomes of employees in Nigeria. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(10), 2350-2371.

Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. New York:


Kim, M. S., & Koo, D. W. (2017). Linking LMX, engagement, innovative behavior, and job performance in hotel employees. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

Kim, S. (2006). Public service motivation and organizational citizenship behavior in Korea. International journal of manpower, 29(12), 3044-3062.

Kim, W., Han, S. J., & Park, J. (2019). Is the role of work engagement essential to employee performance or ‘nice to have’?. Sustainability, 11(4), 1-16.

Konovsky, M. A., & Organ, D. W. (1996). Dispositional and contextual determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of organizational behavior, 17(3), 253-266.


Koopmans, L., Bernaards, C. M., Hildebrandt, V. H., Schaufeli, W. B., De Vet, H. C.

W., & Van der Beek, A. J. (2011). Conceptual Frameworks of Individual Work Performance: A Systematic Review. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53, 856-866.

Kotrlik, J. W., Bartlett, J. E., Higgins, C. C., & Williams, H. A. (2002). Factors associated with research productivity of agricultural education faculty. Journal of Agricultural Education, 43(3), 1-10.

Kotzé, M., & Kleynhans, R. (2013). Psychological well-being and resilience as predictors of first-year students' academic performance. Journal of psychology in Africa, 23(1), 51-59.

Koyuncu, M., Burke, R. J., & Fiksenbaum, L. (2006). Work engagement among women managers and professionals in a Turkish bank: Potential antecedents and consequences. Equal Opportunities International.

Krejcie, R.V. & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610.

Kumar, V., Leone, R. P., Aaker, D. A., & Day, G. S. (2018). Marketing research.

John Wiley & Sons.

Kwon, P. (2000). Hope and dysphoria: The moderating role of defense mechanisms. Journal of Personality, 68(2), 199-223.

La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. (1999).

Corporate ownership around the world. Journal of Finance, 54, 471–517.

Laeeque, S. H., & Bakhtawari, N. Z. (2014). Employee silence as a determinant of organizational commitment: Evidence from the higher education sector of Pakistan. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(20), 46-51.


Larson, M., & Luthans, F. (2006). Potential added value of psychological capital in predicting work attitudes. Journal of leadership & organizational studies, 13(2), 75-92.

Lee, M. C. C., Idris, M. A., & Tuckey, M. (2019). Supervisory coaching and performance feedback as mediators of the relationships between leadership styles, work engagement, and turnover intention. Human Resource Development International, 22(3), 257-282.

Lee, M. Y., & Kim, K. H. (2012). Influence of head nurses' transformational leadership on staff nurse's psychological well-being, stress and somatization- focused on the mediating effect of positive psychological capital.

Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration,18(2), 166- 175.

Lhalloubi, J., & Ibnchahid, F. (2020). Do resilience and work engagement enhance distribution manager performance? A study of the automotive sector. The Journal of Distribution Science, 18(7), 5-17.

Lievens, F., & Anseel, F. (2004). Confirmatory factor analysis and invariance of an organizational citizenship behaviour measure across samples in a Dutch‐speaking context. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(3), 299-306.

Lin, X., Luan, Y., Zhao, K., Zhao, T., & Zhao, G. (2022). The antecedents and outcomes of career optimism: a meta-analysis. Career Development International, (ahead-of-print).

Lisbona, A., Palaci, F., Salanova, M., & Frese, M. (2018). The effects of work engagement and self-efficacy on personal initiative and performance. Psicothema, 30(1), 89-96.


Liu, L., Chang, Y., Fu, J., Wang, J., & Wang, L. (2012). The mediating role of psychological capital on the association between occupational stress and depressive symptoms among Chinese physicians: a cross-sectional study. BMC public health, 12(1), 1-8.

Luthans, F. & Peterson, S.J. (2002). Employee Engagement and Manager Self‐Efficacy. Journal of Management Development, 21(5), 376-387.

Luthans, F. (2002), Positive Organizational Behaviour: Developing and Managing Psychological Strengths. Academy of Management Executive, 16, 57‐72.

Luthans, F. and Youssef, C.M. (2007). Emerging Positive Organizational Behaviour.

Journal of Management, 33, 321‐49.

Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. M. (2002). Hope: A new positive strength for human resource development. Human resource development review, 1(3), 304-322.

Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2014). Human, social, and now positive psychological capital management: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics,33(2), 143-160.

Luthans, F., & Youssef-Morgan, C. M. (2017). Psychological capital: An evidence- based positive approach. Annual review of organizational psychology and organizational behavior, 4, 339-366.

Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., & Patera, J. L. (2008). Experimental analysis of a web-based training intervention to develop positive psychological capital. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 7(2), 209-221.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel psychology, 60(3), 541-572.


Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel psychology, 60(3), 541-572.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2017). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541-572.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O. and Li, W. (2005), The Psychological Capital of Chinese Workers: Exploring the Relationship with Performance.

Management and Organization Review, 1, 249–271.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Li, W. (2005). The psychological capital of Chinese workers: Exploring the relationship with performance. Management and organization review, 1(2), 249-271.

Luthans, F., Luthans, K. W., & Luthans, B. C. (2014). Positive psychological capital: Beyond human and social capital. Business Horizons, 47(1), 45-50.

Luthans, F., Norman, S. M., Avolio, B. J., & Avey, J. B. (2008). The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate—employee performance relationship. Journal of organizational behavior: The international journal of industrial, occupational and organizational psychology and behavior, 29(2), 219-238.

Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital: Investing and developing positive organizational behavior. Positive organizational behavior, 1(2), 9-24.

Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital:

Developing the human competitive edge (Vol. 198). Oxford: Oxford university press.


Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2015). Psychological capital and beyond. Oxford University Press, USA.

Luthans, K. W., Loebsack, S. A., & Lebsack, R. R. (2018). Positivity in healthcare:

Relation of optimism to performance. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 22(2), 178-188.

Luthans, K. W., Luthans, B. C., & Palmer, N. F. (2016). A positive approach to management education: The relationship between academic PsyCap and student engagement. Journal of Management Development, 35(9), 1098-1118.

Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and organizational Psychology, 1(1), 3-30.

Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Wanke, E., Groneberg, D. A., Klapp, B. F., & Danzer, G.

(2014). Exploring the impact of resilience, self-efficacy, optimism and organizational resources on work engagement. Work, 47, 491-500.

MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Ahearne, M. (1998). Some possible antecedents and consequences of in-role and extra-role salesperson performance. Journal of marketing, 62(3), 87-98.

MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Ahearne, M. (1998). Some possible antecedents and consequences of in-role and extra-role salesperson performance. Journal of marketing, 62(3), 87-98.

MacLeod, A. K., Coates, E., & Hetherton, J. (2008). Increasing well-being through teaching goal-setting and planning skills: Results of a brief intervention. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9(2), 185-196.

Mafuzah Mohamad, & Juraifa Jais. (2016). Emotional intelligence and job performance: A study among Malaysian teachers. Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 674–682.


Mahazril A.Y., Zuraini Y.Z., Hafizah H.A.K., Aminuddin A., Zakaria Z., Noordin N., MohamedB.A. (2012) Work Motivation among Malaysian Public Servants. Asian Social Science, 8 (12) 238-242.

Malik, A., & Awadallah, B. (2013). The economics of the Arab Spring. World Development, 45, 296-313.

Mann, A., & Harter, J. (2016). The worldwide employee engagement crisis. Gallup Business Journal, 7(1), 1-5.

Maxham, J.G.I, Netemeyer, R.G., Lichtenstein, D.R. (2008). The retail value chain:

linking employee perceptions to employee performance, customer evaluations, and store performance. Market Science, 27,147–167.

McMillan, J.H. & Schumacher, S. (2006). Research in Education: Evidence Based Inquiry. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.

Medhurst, A., & Albrecht, S. (2011). Salesperson engagement and performance: A theoretical model. Journal of Management & Organization, 17(3), 398-411.

Medlin, B., & Green, K. W. (2009). Enhancing performance through goal setting, engagement, and optimism. Industrial management & data systems, 109(7), 943-956.

Meintjes, A., & Hofmeyr, K. (2018). The impact of resilience and perceived organizational support on employee engagement in a competitive sales environment. Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(1), 1-11.

Meyer, B., & Pilkonis, P. A. (2001). Attachment style. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 38(4), 466.

Miralam, M. S., Ali, N., & Jeet, V. (2020). Impact of Big Five Model on leadership initiation in critical business environment among marketing executives. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(11), 507-517.


Mobley, W.H., Griffeth, R.W., Hand, H.H. & Meglino, B.M. (2019). Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 493-522.

Moss, S. (2009). Fit indices for structural equation modeling. Website: http://www.

psych-it. com. au/Psychlopedia/article. asp.

Motowidlo, S. J., & Kell, H. J. (2012). Job performance. Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition, 12.

Motowidlo, S. J., & Van Scotter, J. R. (1994). Evidence that task performance should be distinguished from contextual performance. Journal of Applied psychology, 79(4), 475.

Motowildo, S. J., Borman, W. C., & Schmit, M. J. (1997). A theory of individual differences in task and contextual performance. Human performance, 10(2), 71-83.

Muhammad, M. Z., Char, A. K., Yasoa, M. B., & Hassan, Z. (2010). Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) competing in the global business environment: A case of Malaysia. International Business Research, 3(1), 66-75.

Munir, F., Houdmont, J., Clemes, S., Wilson, K., Kerr, R., & Addley, K. (2015).

Work engagement and its association with occupational sitting time: results from the Stormont study. BMC public health, 15(1), 1-12.

Munir, S. Muhammad, J.M. & Mohammad, S. (2012). The Impact of Job Satisfaction on organizational Commitment. A Study of Faculty Members of Private Universities, 3(11), 799-808.

Mustafa, G., Glavee-Geo, R., Gronhaug, K., & Saber Almazrouei, H. (2019).

Structural impacts on formation of self-efficacy and its performance effects. Sustainability, 11(3), 860.


Nes, L. S., Segerstrom, S. C., & Sephton, S. E. (2005). Engagement and arousal:

Optimism’s effects during a brief stressor. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(1), 111-120.

Nguyen, H. M., & Ngo, T. T. (2020). Psychological capital, organizational commitment and job performance: A case in Vietnam. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(5), 269-278.

Niu, H. J. (2010). Investigating the effects of self-efficacy on foodservice industry employees’ career commitment. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(4), 743-750.

Norman, R. M., & Sjetne, I. S. (2017). Measuring nurses’ perception of work environment: a scoping review of questionnaires. BMC nursing, 16(1), 1-15.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). An overview of psychological measurement. Clinical diagnosis of mental disorders, 97-146.

Nur, Z. & Narehan, H. (2015). The Relationship between Workplace Environment and Job performance in Selected Government Offices in Shah Alam, Selangor.

International Review of Management and Business Research, 4(3), 845-851.

Nwanzu, C. L., & Babalola, S. S. (2019). Examining psychological capital of optimism, self-efficacy and self-monitoring as predictors of attitude towards organizational change. International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 11, 1-12.

Oattes, H., Fukkink, R., Oostdam, R., de Graaff, R., & Wilschut, A. (2020). A showdown between bilingual and mainstream education: the impact of language of instruction on learning subject content knowledge. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1-14.


Okhakhu, E., Emeka, P., & Okhakhu-Okpodi, J. (2016). Employee performance and self-efficacy theory as tools for safe healthcare delivery in Nigerian hospitals: A literature-based exploration. Insights to a Changing World Journal,1, 125-137.

Ong, M. H. A., & Puteh, F. (2017). Quantitative data analysis: Choosing between SPSS, PLS, and AMOS in social science research. International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scientific Research, 3(1), 14-25.

Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Snyder, C. R. (2000). Relations between hope and graduate students' coping strategies for studying and examination-taking. Psychological Reports, 86(3), 803-806.

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com.

Orpen, C. (1994). The effects of organizational and individual career management on career success. International journal of manpower, 15(1), 27-37.

Othman, N., & Nasurdin, A. M. (2011). Work engagement of Malaysian nurses:

Exploring the impact of hope and resilience. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 5(12), 391-395.

Othman, R., Asri, N. A. M., Alias, N. E., Jahya, A., Koe, W. L., & Krishnan, R.

(2021). The Effect of Job Resources on Work Engagement: Does this Matter among Academics in Malaysia?. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 11(6), 1165-1175.

Ouweneel, E., Le Blanc, P. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Flourishing students: A longitudinal study on positive emotions, personal resources, and study engagement. The journal of positive psychology, 6(2), 142-153.


Ouweneel, E., Le Blanc, P. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2013). Do‐it‐yourself: An online positive psychology intervention to promote positive emotions, self‐efficacy, and engagement at work. Career Development International, 18(2), 173-195.

Ouweneel, E., Le Blanc, P. M., Schaufeli, W. B., & van Wijhe, C. I. (2012). Good morning, good day: A diary study on positive emotions, hope, and work engagement. Human relations, 65(9), 1129-1154.

Ouweneel, E., Schaufeli, W. B., & Le Blanc, P. M. (2013). Believe, and you will achieve: Changes over time in self‐efficacy, engagement, and performance. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being, 5(2), 225-247.

Pallant, J. (2011). Survival manual. A step-by-step guide to data analysis using SPSS, Routledge, London.

Parker, S. K. (1998). Enhancing role breadth self-efficacy: the roles of job enrichment and other organizational interventions. Journal of applied psychology, 83(6), 835.

Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2006). Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 583–597.

Peng, J., Jiang, X., Zhang, J., Xiao, R., Song, Y., Feng, X., & Miao, D. (2013). The impact of psychological capital on job burnout of Chinese nurses: the mediator role of organizational commitment. PloS one, 8(12), e84193.

Peterson, C. (2006). A primer in positive psychology. Oxford university press.

Peterson, C. (2010). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55(1), 44–55.

Peterson, S. J., & Byron, K. (2008). Exploring the role of hope in job performance:

Results from four studies. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The


International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 29(6), 785-803.

Peterson, S. J., Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Zhang, Z. (2011).

Psychological capital and employee performance: A latent growth modeling approach. Personnel psychology, 64(2), 427-450.

Ploumis, A., Phan, P., Hess, K., & Wood, K. B. (2014). Factors influencing surgical decision making in adult spine deformity: a cross-sectional survey. Spine deformity, 2(1), 55-60.

Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009).

Individual-and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied Psychology, 94(1), 122.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000).

Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of management, 26(3), 513-563.

Pradhan, R. K., Jena, L. K., & Bhattacharya, P. (2016). Impact of psychological capital on organizational citizenship behavior: Moderating role of emotional intelligence. Cogent Business & Management, 3(1), 1194174.

Pradhan, R. K., Jena, L. K., & Kumari, I. G. (2016). Effect of work–life balance on organizational citizenship behaviour: Role of organizational commitment. Global Business Review, 17(3), 15S-29S.

Priyatama, A. N., Zainuddin, M., & Seger Handoyo, N. I. D. N. (2018). Predicting Faculty Member's Work Engagement In Indonesia: Testing The Role Of Optimism, Perceived Organizational Support And Self Efficacy. In: The 6th ASEAN Regional Union Psychological Society (ARUPS) Congress “Driving


Mental Revolution in The Psychological Century: Enhancing Psychological Services For A Better Future”. Himpunan Psikologi Indonesia (HIMPSI), Bali, pp. 1-27

Pushpakumari, M.D. (2008). The Impact of Job satisfaction on Job performance: An Empirical Analysis. City Forum, 9, 89-105.

Rabenu, E., Yaniv, E., & Elizur, D. (2017). The relationship between psychological capital, coping with stress, well-being, and performance. Current Psychology, 36(4), 875-887.

Rachel W.Y. Yee, Andy C.L. Yeung, T.C. Edwin Cheng., (2018). The impact of employee satisfaction on quality and profitability in high-contact service industries. Journal of Operations Management, 26, 651–668.

Rayton, B. A., & Yalabik, Z. Y. (2014). Work engagement, psychological contract breach and job satisfaction. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(17), 2382-2400.

Rego, A., Marques, C., Leal, S., Sousa, F., & Pina e Cunha, M. (2010). Psychological capital and performance of Portuguese civil servants: Exploring neutralizers in the context of an appraisal system. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(9), 1531-1552.

Rego, A., Sousa, F., Marques, C., & e Cunha, M. P. (2014). Hope and positive affect mediating the authentic leadership and creativity relationship. Journal of Business research, 67(2), 200-210.

Reivich, K., & Gillham, J. (2003). Learned optimism: The measurement of explanatory style.

Reivich, K., & Gillham, J. (2003). Learned optimism: The measurement of explanatory style. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological


assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 57–74). American Psychological Association

Rich, B., Lepine, J.A., Crawford, E.R. (2010), Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects on Job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), 617- 635.

Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Zimmermann, L. (2011). Customer satisfaction with commercial airlines: The role of perceived safety and purpose of travel. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(4), 459-472.

Roemer, A., & Harris, C. (2018). Perceived organisational support and well-being:

The role of psychological capital as a mediator. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 44(1), 1-11.

Romero, E., and Cruthirds, K. (2006) The use of humor in the workplace. Academy of Management Perspective, 20, 2, 58- 69.

Rose, A. (2014). Back to the future: Survival, uncertainty, and hope. In HIV and Social Work (pp. 65-72). Routledge.

Rose, N. (1998). Inventing ourselves: Psychology, power, and personhood.

Cambridge University Press.

Rošková, E., & Faragová, L. (2020). Job Crafting, Work Engagement, Burnout:

Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy. Studia Psychologica, 62(2), 148-163.

Sahoo, B. C., Sia, S. K., Sahu, N., & Appu, A. V. (2015). Psychological capital and work attitudes: A conceptual analysis. Journal of organization and Human Behaviour, 4(2), 18-28.

Saks, A. M., & Gruman, J. A. (2011). Getting newcomers engaged: The role of socialization tactics. Journal of managerial psychology, 26(5), 383-402.


Saks, A.M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600-619.

Salanova, M., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2008). A Cross-National Study of Work Engagement as A Mediator between Job Resources and Proactive Behaviour:

A Cross-National Study. International Journal of Human Resources Management, 19, 226-231

Salanova, M., Bakker, A. B., & Llorens, S. (2006). Flow at work: Evidence for an upward spiral of personal and organizational resources. Journal of Happiness studies, 7(1), 1-22.

Salanova, M., Llorens, S., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Yes, I can, I feel good, and I just do it! On gain cycles and spirals of efficacy beliefs, affect, and engagement. Applied Psychology, 60(2), 255-285.

Salanova, M., Llorens, S., Cifre, E., Martínez, I. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2003).

Perceived collective efficacy, subjective well-being, and task performance among electronic work groups: An experimental study. Small Group Research, 34(1), 43-73.

Salkind, N. J. (2003). Exploring Research. 5th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Sansone, C., & Thoman, D. B. (2006). Maintaining activity engagement: Individual differences in the process of self‐regulating motivation. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1697-1720.

Sarwar, H., Nadeem, K., Aftab, J. (2017). The impact of psychological capital on project success mediating role of emotional intelligence in construction organizations of Pakistan, Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 7(22), 1-13


Saudi, M. H. M. (2014). The effects of the performance management system and the organizational culture on the employees’ attitude in Malaysian government statutory bodies: a case study of Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA) (Doctoral dissertation, Southern Cross University).

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students. Pearson education.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Salanova, M. L. (2002). ¿ Cómo evaluar los riesgos psicosociales en el trabajo. Prevención, trabajo y Salud, 20(1), 4-9.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2014). A critical review of the job demands- resources model: Implications for improving work and health. Bridging occupational, organizational and public health, 43-68.

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and psychological measurement, 66(4), 701-716.

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness studies, 3(1), 71-92.

Schaufeli, W.B. & Bakker, A.B. (2014). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293-315.

Schaufeli, W.B. and Bakker, A.B. (2004). Job demands, job resources and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 25, 293-315


Schaufeli, W.B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V. & Bakker, A.B. (2012). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71-92.

Schaufeli, W.B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The Measurement of Engagement and Burnout: A Confirmative Analytic Approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71-92.

Schaufeli, W.B., Taris, T.W. and Bakker, A.B. (2006b). Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde: on the differences between work engagement and workaholism, in Burke, R.J.

(Ed.), Research Companion to Working Time and Work Addiction, Edward Elgar, Northampton

Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, Coping, and Health: Assessment and Implications of Generalized Outcome Expectancies. Health Psychology, 4 (3), 219-247.

Schneider, S. L. (2001). In search of realistic optimism: Meaning, knowledge, and warm fuzziness. American psychologist, 56(3), 250.

Schumacher, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (1996). A beginner’s guide to SEM. New Jersey:


Sekaran, U. (2006). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. 4th ed. New Delhi: Wiley India.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2010). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach (5th edition). New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Seligman, M. E. (1990). Why is there so much depression today? The waxing of the individual and the waning of the commons. In Contemporary psychological approaches to depression (pp. 1-9). Springer, Boston, MA.


Shantz, A., Alfes, K., Truss, C., & Soane, E. (2013). The role of employee engagement in the relationship between job design and task performance, citizenship and deviant behaviours. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(13), 2608-2627.

Shekari, H. (2015). Evaluating the three dimensions of work engagement in social security organization of yazd province in Iran. Journal of Educational and Management Studies, 5(3), 168-174.

Shin, Y., Hur, W. M., & Choi, W. H. (2020). Co-worker support as a double-edged sword: A moderated mediation model of job crafting, work engagement, and job performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(11), 1417-1438.

Shirom, A. (2003), Feeling vigorous at work? The construct of vigor and the study of positive affect in organizations, in Ganster, D. and Perrewe, P.L. (Eds), Research in Organizational Stress and Well‐being, JAI Press, Greenwich, CT, pp. 135‐65

Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-positive psychology:

Undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant. Psychological science, 22(11), 1359-1366.

Simons, J. C., & Buitendach, J. H. (2013). Psychological capital, work engagement and organizational commitment amongst call centre employees in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39(2), 1-12.

Sirag, A., Mohamed Nor, N., Adamu, P., & Thinng, W. B. K. (2016). Public health spending and GDP per capita in Malaysia: Does the Lucas critique apply?. Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies, 53(2), 211-226.


Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S.

T., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of personality and social psychology, 60(4), 570.

Snyder, C. R., Kevin L. Rand, and David R. Sigmon (2002). Hope Theory: A Member of the Positive Psychology Family. in Handbook of Positive Psychology, C. R.

Snyder and Shane J. Lopez, eds. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, F. C., Borders, T. F., Babyak, M. A., &

Higgins, R. L. (1996). Development and validation of the State Hope Scale. Journal of personality and social psychology, 70(2), 321.

Snyder, H. (2019). Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. Journal of business research, 104, 333-339.

Soane, E., Truss, C., Alfes, K., Shantz, A., Rees, C., & Gatenby, M. (2012).

Development and application of a new measure of employee engagement: the ISA Engagement Scale. Human resource development international, 15(5), 529-547.

Somech, A., & Khotaba, S. (2017). An integrative model for understanding team organizational citizenship behavior: Its antecedents and consequences for educational teams. Journal of Educational Administration, 55(6), 671-685.

Sonnentag, S. (2003). Recovery, work engagement and proactive behaviour: a new look at the interface between non-work and work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 518-28.

Sorenson, S. (2013). How employee engagement drives growth. Gallup business journal, 1, 1-4.


Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1988). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 240-261

Storm, K., & Rothmann, S. (2003). A psychometric analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in the South African police service. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 29(4), 62-70.

Straub, D., Boudreau, M. C., & Gefen, D. (2004). Validation guidelines for IS positivist research. Communications of the Association for Information systems, 13(1), 24.

Strutton, D., & Lumpkin, J. (1992). Relationship Between Optimism and Coping Strategies in the Work Environment. Psychological Reports, 71(3), 179-1186.

Subramaniam Sri Ramalu & Zulhusni Mohamad Rashid. (2016). Islamic work ethic and organizational citizenship behaviour: a study among civil servants in Malaysia. South East Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economics and Law, 11(2)

Sullivan, S. E., & Bhagat, R. S. (1992). Organizational stress, job satisfaction and job performance: where do we go from here?. Journal of management, 18(2), 353- 374.

Sweetman, D. & Luthans, F. (2018). The power of positive psychology:

Psychological capital and work engagement. In Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research, edited by A.B. Bakker & M. P.

Leiter, 54-68. Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press.

Sweetman, D., Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., & Luthans, B. C. (2011). Relationship between positive psychological capital and creative performance. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de administration, 28(1), 4-13.


Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., & Ullman, J. B. (2007). Using multivariate statistics.

Boston, MA: Pearson.

Tabaziba, K. R. (2015). Psychological capital and work engagement: An investigation into the mediating effect of mindfulness (Master's thesis, University of Cape Town).

Tanskanen, J., Mäkelä, L., & Viitala, R. (2019). Linking managerial coaching and leader–member exchange on work engagement and performance. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20(4), 1217-1240.

Tesi, A., Aiello, A., & Giannetti, E. (2019). The work-related well-being of social workers: Framing job demands, psychological well-being, and work engagement. Journal of Social Work, 19(1), 121-141.

The topics were varied, and the respondents were chosen from multiple backgrounds of civil servants. As reported by Datuk Johari Abdul Ghani, Malaysia Second Finance Minister (The Star, 2017

Thomas, R. M. (2003). Blending qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press, Inc, A Sage Publications Company.

Ticehurst, G. W., & Veal, A. J. (2000). Business research methods. Frenchs Forest, Australia: Longman.

Van Der Linden, D., Sonnentag, S., Frese, M., & Van Dyck, C. (2001). Exploration strategies, performance, and error consequences when learning a complex computer task. Behaviour & Information Technology, 20(3), 189-198.

Van Schalkwyk, S., Du Toit, D.H., Bothma, A.S. & Rothmann, S. (2010). Job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour, employee engagement and


intention to leave in a petrochemical laboratory: original research. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(1): 1-7.

Vassos, M. V., & Nankervis, K. L. (2012). Investigating the importance of various individual, interpersonal, organizational and demographic variables when predicting job burnout in disability support workers. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(6), 1780-1791.

Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric. Journal of nursing measurement, 1(2), 165-17847.

Waheed, H., & Dastgeer, G. Impact of Self-Efficacy on Radical and Incremental Creativity: Mediating Role of Work Engagement.

Walsh, J. P., Weber, K., & Margolis, J. D. (2003). Social issues and management: Our lost cause found. Journal of management, 29(6), 859-881.

Wang, Y., Liu, L., Wang, J., & Wang, L. (2012). Work‐family conflict and burnout among Chinese doctors: the mediating role of psychological capital. Journal of occupational health, 54(3), 232-240.

Wardini, L.M., & Anwar, M.S. (2019). The Role of quality of work life as mediator:

Psychological capital and work engagement. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 7(6), 447-463.

Wefald, A. J., Reichard, R. J., & Serrano, S. A. (2011). Fitting engagement into a nomological network: The relationship of engagement to leadership and personality. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 18(4), 522-537.

Weinreich, P. (2009). ‘Enculturation’, not ‘acculturation’: Conceptualising and assessing identity processes in migrant communities. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33(2), 124-139.




Related subjects :