• Tiada Hasil Ditemukan



Academic year: 2022


Tunjuk Lagi ( halaman)







A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science (Manufacturing Engineering)

Kulliyyah of Engineering

International Islamic University Malaysia





The aim of this research was to evaluate the environmental impact from broiler chicken farming industry in Malaysia. In order to achieve that, Life Cycle Assessment method was chosen as a guideline to complete the task. A case study was conducted at a broiler chicken farm to gather the data and information related to the broiler chicken production. Cradle-to-gate assessment including distribution stage was conducted based on the ISO 14040/14044 guidelines. Inventory data for this case study was gathered in collaboration with one of the selected case study broiler chicken farm company.

Greenhouse gas emission that consists of several most affected gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were studied. Emission to water, soil and overall wastes also included to determine their environmental impact. Result shows that the highest carbon dioxide emission came from manure which accounted for 1,665,342 kg CO2 equivalent per total broilers while the highest methane emission came from feed which accounted for 126,207.84 g CH4 equivalent per total broilers. For nitrous oxide emission, the highest values came from bedding which accounted for 20,316.87 g N2O equivalent per total broilers in the commercial modern broiler chicken farm. For emission to water, results shows that sulfate gives the highest amount which is 8mg/L followed by chemical oxygen demand of 5mg/L, sodium 1mg/L and suspended solid 0.5mg/L. For emission to soil, results shows nitrate gives the highest amount followed by potassium and phosphorus with amount of 0.044, 0.021, 0.019 kg/broiler respectively. For the overall wastes, results shows manure gives the highest amount followed by dead broilers, industrial waste and sludge with amount of 120, 78, 70, 5kg respectively. In this case study, it can be concluded that manure gives the most prominent effect to the greenhouse gas emission followed by feed and bedding materials. It also can be concluded that sulfate gives the most prominent to emission of water, nitrate to emission of soil and weight of manure is the highest for overall wastes.

This research study is limited from cradle to gate only. Hence, the other data outside gate are not considered such as the production of feed materials. This study provides conceptual framework to reduce significant impact of environmental problems specifically in modern broiler chicken farming operation. The conceptual framework was validated by identifying the actions taken inside the coop were following the general broiler chicken guideline in Malaysia.



ثحبلا ةصلاخ


د مييقت رايتخا تم .يازيلام في محللا جورف جاجد ةيبترب صالخا يئيبلا يرثأتلا مييقت لىإ ثحبلا اذه فدهي ةرو

تامولعلما عيمجتل محللا جورف جاجد ةعرزم في ةلاح ةسارد لمع تم .ةساردلا هذه قيقحتل رايعمك ةايلحا محللا جورف جاجد جاتنبا ةصالخا مييقتب مايقلا تم .

cradle-to-gate ءانب عيزوتلا ةلحرم كلذ في ابم

وزيا يرياعم ىلع ISO 14040/14044

ةلالحا تاسارد ىدحا ةكراشبم نوزخلما تناايب عجم تم .

رثكلأا تازاغلا نم ديدعلا نم ةنوكلما ةئيفدلا تازاغلا تثااعبنا ةسارد تم .محللا جورف جاجد جاتنبا ةصالخا ثك اًررضت تياافنلاو ةبترلا ،ءاملل تثااعبنلاا نم لُك جاردا تم .سوترينلاو ينثيلما ديسكأو نوبراكلا ديسكأ نيا تتأ نوبراكلا ديسكأ نيثا تثااعبنا نم ةبسن ىلعأ نأ لىإ جئاتنلا تراشأ .يئيبلا يرثأتلا ديدحتل ةماعلا

دامسلا نم غلبت تيلاو


لإا ددعلل نوبراكلا ديسكأ نيثا جك نأ ينح في ،محللا جورفل لياجم

غلبت تيلاو فلعلا نم تتأ ينثيملل ثاعبنا ةبسن ىلعأ 126.207.84

.محللا جورفل لياجملإا ددعلل مارج

غلبت تيلاو شارفلا نم تتأ ةميق ىلعأ نإف ،سوترينلا ديسكلأ ةبسنلبا 20,316.87

يلكلا ددعلل مارج

ترل ةثيدلحا ةيراجتلا ةعرزلما في محللا جورفل أ ،ءاملل تثااعبنلال ةبسنلبا .محللا جورف جاجد ةيب

جئاتنلا تراش

غلبت تيلاو ةبسن ىلعأ تطعأ تاتيبركلا نأ 8

ةبسنب يئايميكلا ينجيسكلأا بلط اهعبتيو ،ترلل مارجيلم

5 مويدوصلا و ،ترلل مارجيليم 1

قلعلما بلصلا ةدامو ،ترلل مارجيليم 0.5

ةبسنلبا امأ .ترلل مارجيليم

اعبنلال م بسنب روفسفلاو مويستاوبلا اهعبتيو ،ةبسن ىلعأ يطعت تاترنلا نأ جئاتنلا ترهظأ ،ةبترلل تثا ةيلاتت

غلبت 0.044 ،

0.021 و

0.019 نأ جئاتنلا تتبثا ،ةماعلا تياافنلا بسنل ةبسنلبا .محللا جورفل جك

لاحولأاو ةيعانصلا تافلخلما ،تيلما محللا جورف هعبتي ةبسن ىلعأ يطعي دامسلا بسنب

غلبت ةيلاتتم 120


78 ، 70 و 5 تثااعبنلا يرثتأ ىلعأ يطعي دامسلا نأ جاتنتسا انناكمبإ ،ةلالحا ةسارد في .تامارجوليك

يرثتأ ىلعأ يطعي تاتيبركلا نأ جاتنتسا اًضيأ انناكمبإ .شارفلا داومو فلعلا هعبتي ،ةئيفدلا تازاغلا لا يرثتأ ىلعأ يطعي تاترنلاو ،هايلما تثااعبنلا بسنلبا ىلعلأا وه دامسلا نزو و ،ةبترلا تثااعبن

تياافنلل ة

ىلع رصتقت ةساردلا هذه .ةماعلا cradle to gate

نم ًياأ رابتعلاا في ذخؤي لم هنإف ،كلذل .طقف

لكاشلما يرثتأ نم ليلقتلل اًيميهافم اًراطإ اًضيأ ةساردلا هذه مدقت .فلعلا داوم جاتنإك ةيجرالخا تامولعلما ةيئيبلا يميهافلما راطلإا اذه ةحص نم ققحتلا تم .محللا جورف جاجد عرازلم ةثيدلحا تايلمعلا في ةصاخ

.محللا جورف جاجد يرياعلم ةعبتا لخادلبا ةذختلما ةطشنلأا تناك اذا ام ققحتلا قيرط نع




I certify that I have supervised and read this study and that in my opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science (Manufacturing Engineering)


Atiah Abdullah Sidek Supervisor


Muataz Hazza Faizi Al-Hazza Co-Supervisor

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science (Manufacturing Engineering)


Mohd Radzi Che Daud Internal Examiner


Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman External Examiner

This thesis was submitted to the Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering and is accepted as a fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science (Manufacturing Engineering)


Mohamed bin Abdul Rahman Head, Department of

Manufacturing and Materials Engineering

This thesis was submitted to the Kulliyyah of Engineering and is accepted as a fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science (Manufacturing Engineering)


Ahmad Faris Ismail

Dean, Kulliyyah of Engineering




I hereby declare that this thesis is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degrees at IIUM or other institutions.

Syakira Afiqah Binti Suffian

Signature ... Date ...








I declare that the copyright holders of this thesis are jointly owned by the student and IIUM.

Copyright © 2019 Syakira Afiqah Binti Suffian and International Islamic University Malaysia. All rights reserved.

No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below

1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgement.

2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.

3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.

By signing this form, I acknowledged that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Right and Commercialization policy.

Affirmed by Syakira Afiqah Binti Suffian

……..……….. ………..

Signature Date





In the name of Allah, The most Compassionate and The Merciful.

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Atiah Abdullah Sidek for her continuous support, encouragement, guidance and constructive comments upon the completion of this project.

My utmost pleasure to dedicate this work to my dear parents and my family, who granted me the gift of their unwavering belief in my ability to accomplish this goal:

thank you for your support and patience.

My appreciation and sincere thanks also goes to my co-supervisor, Dr Muataz Hazza Al-Hazza for his helpful comments and cooperation throughout the study.

I wish to express my appreciation and thanks to those who provided their time, effort and support for this project. To the members of my thesis committee, thank you for sticking with me.

My final thanks goes to Department of Manufacturing and Material Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia for giving me the opportunity to complete my studies.




Abstract ... ii

Abstract in Arabic ... iii

Approval Page ... iv

Declaration ... v

Copyright Page ... vi

Acknowledgements ... vii

Table of Contents ... viii

List of Tables ... xi

List of Figures ... xii

List of Equations ... xiv


Background of The Study ... 1

Statement of The Problem ... 2

Purpose of The Study... 3

Research Questions ... 4

Research Objectives... 5

Theoretical Framework ... 5

Significance of The Study ... 6

Limitations of The Study ... 7

Thesis Organization ... 8

1.10 Chapter Summary ... 9


Part One: Theoretical Review ... 10

Introduction... 10

2.2 Global Poultry Industry ... 10

2.3 Environmental Aspect of Chicken Production System ... 13

2.4 Sustainable Development of Chicken Production in Malaysia ... 15

2.5 Broiler Production in Malaysia ... 16

2.6 Global Greenhouse Gas Emission ... 18

2.7 History of Environmental Policy and Regulation ... 19

2.8 Overview of Poultry Waste Management... 20

2.9 Introduction to Iso 14040 Guidelines ... 22

2.10 Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment ... 23

2.11 Components of Life Cycle Assessment ... 25

2.11.1 Goal and Scope Definition ... 25

2.11.2 Inventory Analysis ... 27

2.11.3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment ... 27 Basic Principle of Life Cycle Impact Assessment ... 28 Selection of Impact Categories: Indicators and Characterization Factors ... 28

2.11.4 Life Cycle Interpretation ... 29

2.12 Environmental Impact Assessment Guideline in Malaysia ... 30

2.13 Previous LCA Studies on Livestock Production ... 31



2.14 Mitigation Actions on Broiler Chicken Operation ... 35

2.14.1 National Policy and Planning Framework ... 35

2.15 Chapter Summary ... 37


3.1 Introduction... 38

3.2 Case Study Modern Broiler Chicken Farm ... 40

3.3 Method and Approaches Used in the Study ... 45

3.4 Goal and Scope Definition... 46

3.4.1 Functional Unit ... 46

3.4.2 System Boundaries ... 46

3.5 Life Cycle Inventory Data ... 47

3.5.1 Data Collection ... 49 Feed Consumption ... 49 Transportation ... 51 Electricity... 51 Water Usage ... 53

3.6 Life Cycle Impact Assessment ... 54

3.6.1 Inserting Data in Gabi Education Software ... 56

3.7 Mathematical Modelling for Uncertainty Analysis Using Monte Carlo Method ... 58

3.8 Framework Methodology for Chicken Farming………..59

3.8.1 Conceptual Framework Design of Broiler Chicken Production ... 59

3.9 Chapter Summary ... 63


4.1 Introduction... 64

4.2 Goal and Scope Definition... 64

4.2.1 Determining Functional Unit ... 64

4.2.2 Process Flow of Modern Broiler Chicken Farming Operation System ... 65

4.2.3 System Boundary of Modern Broiler Chicken Operation System ... 66

4.3 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) ... 68

4.3.1 Material Flow Analysis ... 68

4.4 Uncertainty Analysis Using Monte Carlo... 70

4.4.1 Running Evaluation and Interpretation of Results ... 70

4.5 Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) ... 73

4.6 Global Warming Potential (GWP)... 73

4.6.1 Greenhouse Gas Emission ... 73

4.6.2 Greenhouse Gas Emission Factor ... 74

4.6.3 Greenhouse Gas Emission Results ... 74

4.6.4 Issues on Manure as the Highest Contributor to Greenhouse Gas Emission ... 79

4.6.5 Uncertainty Assessment ... 80

4.7 Emissions to Water ... 80

4.7.1 Sulfate Concentration in Wastewater ... 82

4.7.2 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in Wastewater ... 83



4.7.3 Phosphate and Nitrate In Wastewater ... 83

4.8 Emissions to Soil ... 85

4.8.1 Nitrogen ... 89

4.9 Overall Wastes ... 89

4.9.1 Manure ... 90

4.9.2 Dead Broilers ... 91

4.9.3 Industrial Waste ... 93

4.10 Framework for Implementing Sustainability ... 94

4.11 Managing the Environment ... 96

4.11.1 Stocking Density ... 97

4.11.2 Drinker Management ... 98

4.11.3 Feeding Management ... 98

4.11.4 Manure Management ... 99

4.11.5 Broilers Placement Management ... 100

4.11.6 Lighting Programs ... 100

4.11.7 Catching Procedures ... 101

4.12 Chapter Summary ... 102


5.1 Overview... 103

5.2 Achievement of Research Objectives ... 103

5.3 Answering Research Question ... 105

5.4 Theoretical Contributions ... 110

5.5 Future Work Recommendation... 111







Table 2.1 Global Poultry Meat Production from 2015 to 2017 (Bruinsma, 2017) 11 Table 2.2 Poultry Meat Production in Asia for 2010 and 2016 (Henderson, 2016) 13 Table 2.3 Principle of Classification and Characterization 29 Table 2.4 Previous Life Cycle Assessment on Livestock Production 32 Table 3.1 Variables Description of Case Study Broiler Chicken Farm 43 Table 3.2 Ingredients Content of the Broiler Feed Intake Suggested 50 Table 3.3 Total Consumption of Feed Intake By Broilers in the Farm 50 Table 3.4 Transportation Record of the Broiler Activity 51 Table 3.5 Consumption of Electricity in the Broiler Chicken Farm 52 Table 3.6 Water Quality Test for the Input Water Inside the Broiler House 54

Table 4.1 Plugging Input in Form of Worksheet Data 71

Table 4.2 Sensitivity Results From Monte Carlo Simulator 72 Table 4.3 Greenhouse Gas Emission Factor (Wood And Cowie, 2004) 74 Table 4.4 Greenhouse Gas Emission from Broiler Chicken Production 75 Table 4.5 Typical Moisture and Nutrient Content in Poultry Litter 88




Figure 1.1 Life Cycle Assessment Framework (ISO 14040:2006) 6

Figure 2.1 The Growth of World Meat Production of Livestock 11

Figure 2.2 Commercial Broiler Chicken Production 17

Figure 2.3 Current Global Greenhouse Gas Emission By Economic Sector 19

Figure 2.4 General Framework of LCA Phases in ISO 14040 and ISO14044 24

Figure 2.5 Principles of National Direction in Challenges of Climate Change 36

Figure 3.1 Flowchart of the Research Study 39

Figure 3.2 Integrated Contract Farming of Broiler Chicken Production 40

Figure 3.3 Broiler Chicken House of the Case Study Broiler Chicken Farm 42

Figure 3.4 Situation in the Broiler House During Fattening Period 44

Figure 3.5 Broiler House Covered With Sackcloth During Raining Weather 44

Figure 3.6 Automatic Control System Room of the Broiler Chicken Farm 45

Figure 3.7 Electricity Usage in Case Study Broiler Chicken Farm 53

Figure 3.8 Total Volume of Water Consumption by Broilers 54

Figure 3.9 Principle of Classification and Characterization 55

Figure 3.10 Initial Introduction was Inserted into Gabi Education Software 56

Figure 3.11 Input Parameter was Inserted in Gabi Education Software 57

Figure 3.12 Flowchart of Monte Carlo Procedure 58

Figure 3.13 Triple Bottom Line Theory Diagram 59

Figure 3.14 Sustainable Modern Broiler Chicken Production Issues 61

Figure 3.15 Key Theme Sustainable Modern Broiler Chicken Production Issues 61

Figure 3.16 Key Theme and Principle Issues of Environmental Sustainability 62

Figure 3.17 Key Theme and Principle Issues of Social Sustainability 63



Figure 4.1 Functional Unit and Production Unit of the Research Study 65 Figure 4.2 Process Flow Diagram of Commercial Broiler Chicken Supply Chain 65 Figure 4.3 System Boundary of Commercial Modern Broiler Chicken Production 67 Figure 4.4 Material Flow of Broiler Chicken Production System 68 Figure 4.5 Sensitivity Analysis for Inputs of Broiler Chicken Production System 72 Figure 4.6 Total Carbon Emission from Case Study Broiler Chicken Farm 75 Figure 4.7 Total Methane Emission from Case Study Broiler Chicken Farm 76 Figure 4.8 Total Nitrous Oxide Emission from Case Study Broiler Chicken Farm 77 Figure 4.9 Greenhouse Gas Emission Percentage in Chicken Farm 78 Figure 4.10 Total Emissions to Water from Case Study Broiler Production 81 Figure 4.11 Wastewater From the Case Study Broiler Chicken Farm 84 Figure 4.12 Waterfall Wastewater Treatment Concept from Chicken Farm 85 Figure 4.13 Total Emission From Manure of Broiler Chicken to Soil 88 Figure 4.14 Overall Wastes from the Case Study Broiler Chicken Farm 90 Figure 4.15 Manure Produced by Broilers Become Sediment 91 Figure 4.16 Image of Dead Broiler in the Case Study Chicken Farm 92 Figure 4.17 Dead Broilers were Piled in the Bucket Before Buried 93 Figure 4.18 Framework for Implementing Sustainable Broiler Production 95

Figure 4.19 Ventilated Broiler House 97

Figure 4.20 Automatic Water Feeder for Modern Broiler Chicken Industry 98 Figure 4.21 Automatic Feeder for Modern Broiler Chicken Industry 99 Figure 4.22 Broiler Placement Zone in the Case Study Broiler House 100 Figure 4.23 Lighting Management in Modern Broiler Chicken Industry 101




Equation 1 Emission formula 75

Equation 2 Total nutrient content 86

Equation 3 Total amount of N consumed 86

Equation 4 Total amount of nutrient P and K 87





Agriculture production including chicken farming is one of the largest sectors in the Malaysian economy which contributed around 7% to the gross domestic products (GDP) of the country in 2013 (Khan.et.al, 2014). According to Bakar.et.al (2012), agro food industry is expected to keep the gross national income increasing up to RM49.1 billion. The industry also targeted to provide at least 109,000 job opportunities by 2020.

The government aimed to reform and transforms the industry to be more environmentally sustainable and optimized (DVS, 2015). In response to the increase in environmental pollution, Malaysia is stepping up enforcement by gradually introducing stricter regulatory controls and expanding and strengthening the structure of environmental administration. Under the Tenth Malaysia Plan (10MP), the government highlighted the urgent need to protect the environment and at the same time harness economic value in the process.

One of the important concern to enhance the environmental sustainability is by giving more attention in developing human actions. Looking back for one decade, Malaysia gives a huge transformation especially on poultry industry. The production of chicken has been increasing tremendously and integrators take the advantage to overtake the small scale producers. With the high expectations for domestic demand growth, output is expanding slowly. Recently, Malaysia has been making stepping stone to be one of the biggest producer of poultry meat in Asia Pacific region. (Meyer.et.al, 2013). For now, the livestock production for the country is self-sufficient. In fact, Malaysia has becoming one of the producer of poultry meat to Singapore and Middle



East countries. One of the method that has been used in Malaysia to increase the chicken production is by introducing integrated broiler contract farming. From the latest statistic by the researcher, integrated broiler farming gives approximately 75% of the national broiler production in the country. (Rushton.et.al, 2005).

Rising costs of production such as the cost of feed input is one of the factor in limitation of the chicken growth production (Hardy, 2010). Several factors that have led to higher production costs in the country’s poultry industry including the reduction in fuel subsidies, depreciation of Malaysian ringgit and the implementation of minimum wages in 2013. Livestock production has a major impact on the environment especially broiler chicken farm production (Rodic.et.al, 2011). In order to satisfy the fact, a study on environmental impact with regard to the broiler chicken production is becoming a need.


Environmental pollution has become a serious local and international concern due to its adverse and damaging effects to the earth and mankind. The public as a consumer and part of the community are now more aware of and alert to environmental issues in their country and worldwide. Although there is a growing awareness in Malaysia about the importance of green practices among industries, there is limited data and information in the literature regarding Malaysia farming industry and its impact to the environment. In addition to waste accumulation, there is also a possible environmental burden to greenhouse gas, soil contamination, polluted waterways, air pollution and many more that are common in farming industry. In order to reach the industry effectively there is a need to investigate the environmental impact and life cycle inventories of the modern



chicken farming industry. This detailed assessment is needed so that a balanced and sustainable chicken production system in Malaysia can be established and achieved.

The Federation of Livestock Farmers’ Association of Malaysia (2015), whose role is to maintain good agricultural practices and compliance in the country, has announced plans to raise poultry production efficiency and technology in the country.

The association also encourages modernization of Malaysian farms that will include transformation into closed house system in addition to improving hygiene standards.

The association aims to make its poultry products that are sold locally to be good enough for export and to build consumer confidence in local poultry. The Prime Minister, Dato’

Seri Najib Razak in his speech during Rancangan Malaysia Ke-9 aiming there will be 40% reduction of carbon dioxide emission from the country in 10 years ahead.


This research sought to identify the environmental impact of broiler chicken production.

Environmental impact assessment is one of method to study the impacts of the production to the environment. By using the method, it is also crucial to identify the cause and briefly explain about the impacts from the broiler chicken production. In addition, it also indicates the scope for mitigation to improve the significant impact towards a green production system. By using the assessment on the broiler chicken farm, few effects can be tested and evaluated for example the global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas emission (GHG), overall emissions to water, overall emission to soil and overall wastage produced.

This study also sought to develop a framework that can be used by other medium in Malaysia to sustain the productivity and at the same time preserve the environment.

Application of the framework is hoped to reduce the assessed environmental impact and



to be used as a guideline for other integrated broiler chicken farming industry all over the world. According to Schaltegger.et.al (2017), there are few protocol to be included in the development of the framework.

The research focused on Myra Chicken Farm and Services as the focus study technique in its operation. Throughout the research conducted, Life Cycle Assessment was chosen as the method to assess the environmental impact of the integrated broiler chicken farm.


1) What gives broiler chicken production differ from other chicken production and how the mechanism used to grow up the broiler chicken until harvest.

2) How to quantify the related information regarding the broiler chicken production before assessing any relevant test on the production?

3) What are the activities within the chicken farming operation that can have a noteworthy negative impacts on the environment?

4) How to reduce the significant impact to the environment from the commercial broiler chicken farming operation to provide balance and sustainable chicken production system?



The main objective of this research is to investigate the environmental impact on specific broiler chicken farm which is Myra Chicken Farm located at Kalumpang, Selangor. To achieve this target, the research project will conduct the following specific objectives:

1. To study and investigate the broiler chicken farming operation system by analysing the mechanism used to grow up a day old broiler chicken until harvest.

2. To determine and quantify the relevant inputs outputs with regard to the system being studied and establish the lifecycle inventory data.

3. To assess the environmental impact of the production system under study using the magnitude of category indicator results relative to reference information obtained in the inventory data.

4. To introduce a framework that can produce a balance and sustainable chicken production system.


There are a few techniques introduced to do the environmental impact assessment such as Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). Life Cycle Assessment is a systematic analysis that study the environmental effect from the material or process in the production. The production can be assessed starting from the very first process which is the extraction of the material until the waste treatment process. Throughout the research conducted, all weak points of the lifecycle were identified hence produce a stepping stone to improve the system.

Life Cycle Analysis has been following the ISO 14040 standard whereby it describes the principle related by using the framework including the identification of goal and scope, life cycle inventory (LCI) environmental impact assessment (LCIA), and interpretation phase.



Figure 1.1: Life Cycle Assessment framework (ISO 14040:2006)


This study will contribute to decision makers on how to make any intervention based on the findings derived from this study. It stresses the importance of assessing the environmental impacts in order to provide a balance and sustainable integrated broiler chicken farming industries in Malaysia. Providing a better service on production and at the same time to the environment will increase the productivity and quality of the broiler chicken product. Furthermore, a new framework was developed in order to produce a balance and sustainable chicken production. By using this framework, it is believed that all integrated broiler chicken farming industries in Malaysia will be able to practice it and hence reducing the negative impacts.

In addition, this study also stresses the importance of practicing environmental- friendly operation so that the negative environmental impacts can be reduced while also



being beneficial for the integrated broiler chicken farms owner to increase their productivity.


The study sample was only limited to one commercial broiler chicken farm located at Kalumpang, Selangor. This commercial broiler chicken farm apply the same template chicken farming provided by Leong Hup Poultry (LHP). Leong Hup Poultry is the largest chicken production company in Malaysia that use contract farming to expand their production worldwide. This farm is one of the contract chicken farming of Leong Hup and all the input materials were controlled by the management of Leong Hup to satisfy their objective and expectation.

The farm used a closed house system where all broilers placed in two large double-storey chicken coops. Capacity of all the chicken coops is about 106,000 chicks.

This commercial broiler farm was established in 2016 and has been rearing the broilers for the fifth batch. Their records on mortality rate is rather impressive which is below than 10% and the lowest is 3% of the total broilers. The broiler farm use semi-automated technology in handling the feed, water and temperature of the broilers.

Data obtained in the research study also might be varies for each batch because of the unexpected variation of season. Early 2017, there were a few case of new disease which known as Influenza H5N1 or “avian flu”. This influenza virus can be transmitted to humans via contact with infected birds or environments contaminated with bird influenza viruses. Because of this virus, other livestock production such as broilers and duck also been involved.

Software used for this research study is GaBi Education software. Since it is a free software, some features for a deep understanding of environmental impact and



databases are not available. However, the data obtained is sufficient enough to make a conclusion whether the broiler farm is practicing green manufacturing or not.


This report had been organized using six division which are:

Chapter 1 is the introduction of the research study that consists of the background,

problem statement, objectives, scope, and significance of the study, limitations and overview framework about the basis of this study.

Chapter 2 is the discovered information from the previous articles, reports and any

sources that will help in understanding Life Cycle Assessment, broiler chicken production in Malaysia and research gap of the study.

Chapter 3 covered the methodology in conducting the research study such as the

explanation of the area of study, software used, mathematical modelling and theory behind the framework being chose.

Chapter 4 consist of results of the research study especially on environmental impact

which are the emissions from the broiler chicken operation to air, water and soil. The uncertainty analysis was then made by using Monte Carlo method.

Chapter 5 discussed on the development of conceptual framework to reduce the

significant impact and provide sustainable broiler chicken production.

Chapter 6 is the conclusion of the research study with the summary of results,

limitations and future work study.



This chapter has presented and discussed the background of the study. It explained why environmental impact assessment are important to the poultry industry especially integrated broiler chicken farming production. Additionally, the problem statement of the research study was discussed, as this study set to discover how to analyse the environmental impact of the integrated broiler chicken farm production by using Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). This was followed by introducing the concept of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), which is the theoretical framework of this study, and on the three components which are Goal and Scope definition, Life Cycle Inventories (LCI), Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and Life Cycle Interpretation (LCIP). The research question and objectives also has been presented on this chapter to answer the statement of the problem chosen. In order to highlight the method on how can this study fills the research gap on environmental impact, the significance of the study has been presented in this chapter. This also followed by the introduction of a framework that can help improving the productivity of the broiler chicken farm and reducing significant negative impact towards the environment. Finally, the limitations of the study were mentioned, followed by the solid conclusion of the research study.






This chapter explained about the literature review obtained from various sources especially from books, journal and website. From the information obtained, the loop or research gap is identified. This chapter also explained the information on global poultry industry all over the world and how broiler chicken production system operated in Malaysia. To enhance the basic knowledge on the methodology, this chapter also explained the basic theory of Life Cycle Assessment methods available and why the method was chosen instead of other methods. Previous LCA studies also will be discussed in this chapter to make the gap become clearer and to help getting more information on the research topic.


According to the latest global information, global production of poultry meat shows a huge transformation throughout the year and expected to give a rise by 1 percent in 2019. By comparing the recent data, the total poultry meat supply chain shows approximately 17% of increment from 2010 until 2017. Estimation of 117 million tonnes total poultry meat can be produced for the next year (Kearney, 2010). Other meat production such as pigmeat has held the number one spot from year 2010. Table 2.1 shows the statistic of different type of poultry meat produced in Malaysia from year 2015 to 2017. The growth of the meat production in 2010 to 2015 has been illustrated in Figure 2.1.



CHAPTER 2 Figure 2.1: Framework from Theory of Reasoned Action CHAPTER 4 Figure 4.1: Age of respondent chart Figure 4.2: Gender of the respondent’s chart Figure 4.3: Level of

Selepas proses pemilihan pencerai 1×4, proses seterusnya ialah pencantuman 4 unit pencerai 1×3 dan 1 unit pencerai 1×4 sehingga diperolehi pencerai satu set lengkap pencerai

Figure 4.6 Box-plots of water depth of each geomorphic unit within the study reach during base flow discharge, 14.00m 3

Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR 143 Figure 5-2-4-4-2-F8 Figure shows the output screen after successful update of a block slot on a

Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4 shows the analysis of paddy leaves that affected with Brown Spot Disease by using Color Slicing Method.. The original images shows the surface of

This study aimed to compare the chemical changes and microbiological quality of broiler chicken meat slaughtered by Halal and Non-Halal slaughter methods during

Even though, the selling price per unit of broiler is marginally higher than the cost of production in the Northern, Southern and the Central regions, the economy of scale

Even though, the selling price per unit of broiler is marginally higher than the cost of production in the Northern, Southern and the Central regions, the economy of scale

Figure 1. Growth curve of mesophilic microorganisms, Staphylococcus spp. and psychrotrophic spp. for industrialized processed cooked chicken breast stored at 2°C and 4°C..

Figure 4: Use Case Diagram for Administrative module Based on use case in Figure 4, when a mobile user triggers something on the mobile phone app with the intention to

Figure 3-4 Activity Diagram for Staff and Chef to Change Order Status of Customers The staff and chef must login to the system before they view the order details of the customers..

Figure 4 show steady state simulation of ssi (easily degradable substrate), xsi (slowly degradable substrate), shaci (organic acid), xbsi (acid production

Figure 2.10 Optoelectronic sensor for electric field measurement 21 Figure 3.1 Research methodology flow chart and procedures 26 Figure 3.2 Functional block diagram of

From Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5, it is apparent that the viscosity decreases with increasing temperature and with increasing concentration of potassium carbonate and

Table 4: The observer design for output1 and output 2 for the system as a transfer functions.. Figure 6 : The graph for The behavior of distance travelled by trolley Figure 7A:

Figure 1: Operating Principle of Carbon Electrode in Capacitor 9 Figure 2: Process Flow for Characterization of Carbonaceous Waste 11 Figure 3: Process Flow of

Figure 4-2 Temperature versus Time for Dehumidification Phase 26 Figure 4-3 Water Concentration versus Time for Dehumidification Phase 26 Figure 4-4 Temperature versus Time

Figure 3: Equilibrium conversion of Methyl Oleate by manipulation of temperature Figure 4: Equilibrium conversion of Ethyl Oleate by manipulation of temperature Figure 5:

Figure 4-29: Utilization of Moulding Section in CPN after Improvement 78 Figure 4-30: Utilization of Wire Section in CPN after Improvement 78 Figure 4-31: Utilization of

Figure 3 shows the procedure of flying the Cropcam UAV and location of the Ground Control Station while Figure 4 shows the study area and two strips of

Figure 3.38 A schematic diagram for flow measurement setup 78 Figure 3.39 The image of (a) system measurement (b) flow measurement 79 Figure 3.40 Schematic drawing

Figure 4.36 Block diagram of the proposed system 134 Figure 4.37 Block diagram of the proposed all-optical learning processes 136 Figure 4.38 Block diagram of the