(2) I declare that this thesis entitled “Determination of Consumer’s Willingness to Pay For Biodegradable Food Container in mukim Kota Bharu, Kelantan” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.. Signature: _________________________ Name: ____________________________ Date: _____________________________. i. FYP FSB. DECLARATION.
(3) It is a great pleasure to address people who helped me throughout this project. First of all, I would like to place my gratitude to Faculty of Earth Science, University Malaysia Kelantan for allowing me to carry out final year project as it enhance my knowledge and practical skills especially in research area. Secondly, I would also like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my supervisor, Mr. Nor Hizami Bin Hassin for lend me a hand in writing and SPSS analysis. Besides that, I am hugely grateful to him for his inspiring guidance and valuable suggestion throughout this final year project. Moreover, I would also like to thank my course mates and friends who helped me a lot in finalizing this project within the limited time frame Lastly, my gratitude also been extended to my parents and siblings that give support, motivation and good wishes. Without their support, I would not have been able to complete my thesis smoothly.. ii. FYP FSB. ACKNOWLEDGMENT.
(4) ABSTRACT. Rapid rising of population and regional urbanization in Malaysia lead to rising in demand and usage of convenience disposable non-biodegradable food container. The amount of mismanaged plastic waste in Malaysia has rose to 0.94 million of metric tons per year in 2015. To overcome the problem, food container that able to undergo biodegradation is introduce to replace those non-biodegradable. This study is conducted in mukim Kota Bharu, Kelantan with the aim to identify the willingness of consumers in this mukim to pay for biodegradable food container. Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation Method applied in this study indicated that the consumers in mukim Kota Bharu, Kelantan are willing to pay RM0.78 for a biodegradable food container which is 28 cent more than the current rate. The finding in the study prove that the 4 factors: age, marital status, household monthly income, awareness and perception toward biodegradable food container are the elements that influence the willingness to pay. Keywords: Biodegradable Food Container. Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation (CVM), Willingness to Pay (WTP).. iii. FYP FSB. Determination of Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Biodegradable Food Container in Mukim Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
(5) ABSTRAK. Peningkatan jumlah penduduk yang pantas dan pembandaran serantau di Malaysia telah menyebabkan peningkatan dalam permintaan dan penggunaan bekas makanan yang tidak mesra alam tapi cepat dan mudah. Jumlah sampah yang tidak diurus dengan cara yang betul di Malaysia telah meningkat kepada 0.94 juta tan metric setahun pada tahun 2015. Demi mengatasi masalah ini, bekas makanan yang mampu menjalani proses biodegradasi telah diperkenalkan untuk menggantukan bekas makanan yang tidak boleh menjalani proses biodegradasi. Kajian ini dijalankan di mukim Kota Bharu yang terletak di Kelantan dengan matlamat untuk mengenal pasti kerelaan pengguna di mukim untuk membayar bekas makanan mesra alam. Kaedah penilaian kontinjent pilihan dichotomous yang digunakan dalam kajian ini menunjukkan pengguna di mukim Kota Bharu rela bayar RM0.78 untuk satu bekas makanan mesra alam, iaitu 28 sen lebih tinggi daripada kadar semasa. Temuan dalam kajian ini telah membuktikan bahawa 4 faktor: usia, status perkahwinn, pendapatan bulanan isi rumah, kesedaran dan persepsi terhadap bekas makanan mesra alam adalah unsur yang mempengaruhi kerelaan untuk membayar. Kata Kunci: Bekas Makanan Mesra Alam, Kaedah Penilaian Kontinjent Pilihan Dichotomous, Kerelaan untuk Membayar.. iv. FYP FSB. Penentuan Kerelaan Pengguna Untuk Membayar Bagi Bekas Makanan Mesra Alam di Mukim Kota Bharu, Kelantan..
(6) DECLARATION. i. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. ii. ABSTRACT. iii. ABSTRAK. iv. TABLE OF CONTENT. v. LIST OF TABLES. Vii. LIST OF FIGURES. viii. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. ix. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study. 1. 1.2 Problem Statement. 3. 1.3 Objectives. 4. 1.4 Scope of Study. 5. 1.5 Significant of Study. 5. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Non-Biodegradable Food Container. 6. 2.1.1 Polypropylene (PP) Food Container. 6. 2.1.2 Polystyrene (PS) Food Container. 9. 2.1.3 Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Food Container. 11. 2.2 Detrimental of Non-Biodegradable Food Container. 13. 2.3 Biodegradable Food Container. 15. 2.3.1 Cardboard Food Container. 15. 2.3.2 Starch Type Food Container. 17. 2.3.3 Plant Fibre Type Food Container. 18. 2.3.4 Biodegradable Plastic Food Container. 20. 2.4 Challenges toward Fully Usage of Biodegradable Food Container. 21. 2.5 Willingness to Pay (WTP). 22. 2.6 Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). 25. 2.6.1 Application of CVM. 27. 2.6.2 Merits of CVM. 28 v. FYP FSB. TABLE OF CONTENT.
(7) 29. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction. 30. 3.2 Study Area. 30. 3.3 Data Collection. 33. 3.3.1 Sampling Size. 33. 3.3.2 Questionnaire Design. 33. 3.3.3 Validation of Questionnaire. 35. 3.3.4 Pilot Test. 35. 3.3.5 Simple Random Sampling. 37. 3.4 Data Analysis. 37. 3.4.1 Descriptive Analysis. 37. 3.4.2 Elicitation of Willingness to Pay. 38. 3.5 Research Flowchart. 41. CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Demographic Profile. 42. 4.1.1 Gender and Age. 42. 4.1.2 Religion. 44. 4.1.3 Marital Status. 45. 4.1.4 Education Level. 46. 4.1.5 Occupation. 47. 4.1.6 Household Monthly Income. 48. 4.2 Daily Practice Pertaining to Biodegradable Food Container. 49. 4.3 Perception toward Biodegradable Food Container. 52. 4.4 Awareness toward Biodegradable Food Container. 55. 4.5 Willingness to Pay. 58. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 5.1 Conclusion. 65. 5.2 Recommendation. 66. REFERENCES. 67. APPENDIX A (QUESTIONNAIRE) APPENDIX B (SPSS RESULT). 74 80 vi. FYP FSB. 2.6.3 Demerits of CVM.
(8) No.. Page. 2.1. Summary of Studies and Research on WTP for green product. 24. 3.1. Population Distribution in Districts of Kota Bharu.. 31. 3.2. Value of Cronbach Alpha. 36. 4.1. Distribution of Respondents that Answer Questionnaire by Age. 43. and Gender 4.2. Distribution of Respondents by Their Occupation.. 47. 4.3. Summary of Daily Practice Related to Biodegradable Food. 51. Container 4.4. Summary of Perception Related to Biodegradable Food Container. 54. 4.5. Summary of Awareness Toward The Biodegradable Food. 57. Container 4.6. Frequency of The Respondents’ Willingness to Pay for Particular. 59. Bidding Amount 4.7. Logit Regression Model’s Result. 62. 4.8. WTP Based on Age. 63. 4.9. WTP Based on Household Monthly Income. 64. vii. FYP FSB. LIST OF TABLES.
(9) FIGURE. PAGE. 2.1. Example of polypropylene food container. 8. 2.2. Example of polystyrene food container. 10. 2.3. Example of expanded polystyrene food container. 12. 2.4. Example of cardboard food container. 16. 2.5. Example of starch type food container. 18. 2.6. Example of plant fibre type food container. 19. 2.7. Example of biodegradable plastic food container. 20. 2.8. Framework illustrate methods to measure willingness to pay. 23. 3.1. Map Area of Study. 32. 3.2. Research Flowchart. 41. 4.1. Religion Profile of Respondents. 44. 4.2. Marital Status of Respondents. 45. 4.3. Education Level of Respondents. 46. 4.4. Household Monthly Income of Respondents. 48. viii. FYP FSB. LIST OF FIGURES.
(10) BPA. Bisphenol A. CEPA. Communication, Education and Public Awareness. CVM. Contingent Valuation Method. EE. Environmental Education. EPA. Environmental Protection Agency. EPS. Expanded Polystyrene. HFC. Hydrofluorocarbon. MMT. Millions of Metric Tons. MLE. Maximum Likelihood Estimation. PBAT. Polybutyrate Adipate Terephthalate. PBS. Polybutylene Succinate. PCL. Polycaprolactone. PHA. Polyhydroxyalkanoate. PLA. Polyactic Acid. PP. Polypropylene. PS. Polystyrene. PVA. Polyvinyl Alcohol. WTP. Willingness To Pay. ix. FYP FSB. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.
(11) INTRODUCTION. 1.1 Background of Study The regional urbanization in the country especially in developing country around the world had a rising trend where the people are moving from rural area to the urban area which is from farmland to the city or town, the pace of life of the people become faster, work load become more busting, and more women enter the workplace like men (O’Donnel, 2018) This tends to increase the usage of convenient, easy and fast disposable non-biodegradable food container as the people are more inclined to takeaway or buy outside food and eat at workplace due to the convenience sake rather than bringing own lunch with own lunch box. Not only mind set, the busy work load also lead to usage of convenient disposable food container as women nowadays are tired of the work and tired out to cook and washing the cooking utensils after use. Malaysia is one of the one hundred and sixty-six developing countries in the world. In the way towards a developed country, Malaysia’s economy, military and education is developing flourishingly. As a matter of fact, population in Malaysia is rising vigorously in the past twenty years since year 1998 with population of 22,113,464 (World Bank Group , 2018). The population is then increase about 43.85 percent to 31,809,660 in the year 2018 (Central Intelligence Agency, 2019). By year 2007, the share of urban. 1. FYP FSB. CHAPTER 1.
(12) 7.09 percent to 75.45 percent in year 2017 (Statista, 2018). The strong population growth, regional urbanization and heavy workload causing higher demand and usage amount of convenience disposable non- biodegradable food container. A biodegradable product is called as a “sustainable” or “green” product that made up from renewable raw material that are able to completely break down by microorganism or other living organism in the ecosystem and next decompose into an essential element of the carbon cycle in the nature at the end of its life cycle in a short time (Heritage Paper, 2016). Nowadays, there are many biodegradable product that can replace those ordinary product that are non-biodegradable and not environmental friendly. For instance, red algae water bottles that replace plastic bottles, edible cutlery instead of disposable tableware, and also beer bottle from biodegradable wood fibre rather than glass (Kerrigan, 2018). To replace non-biodegradable food container that are harmful to human being, animals and environment, biodegradable food container had been launch to market. A biodegradable food container, as its name would suggest is the food ware that put and keep dish which is produce by raw material that can undergo biodegradation after disposal. There are different type of biodegradable food container has produced. For instance, food container made up of cardboard, starch of corn, potato, plant fibre of sugarcane and biodegradable plastic. In Malaysia, a few state had start to ban the usage of polypropylene, polystyrene and expanded polystyrene food container and begin to replace it with those that are biodegradable. Among the state that had been change the usage from non-biodegradable food container into biodegradable food container, Pulau Pinang is the earliest state that 2. FYP FSB. population in total population of Malaysia was 68.36 percent where it had increase about.
(13) of Putrajaya in year 2011. Melaka had been implement the policy of prohibiting polystyrene food container at all cafés and food premises in public areas like government buildings, local authorities and education institution since May of 2015 (The Star Online, 2015). Next, Perak and Selangor which ban the use of these food container in year 2017 start January and June respectively. Whereas Johor state fully implement this policy on January of 2018 (Othman, 2016). In Kelantan, local government has no banned the use of polystyrene food container. Thus, the usage and demand of polystyrene food container in Kelantan is still in high level as this type of food container is the first choice for consumers and food stall owner.. 1.2 Problem Statement According to the study by Jambeck et al. in year 2015, it was estimated that Malaysia government has to manage about 0.94 millions of metric tons (mmt) per year of mismanaged plastic waste. Among this 0.94 mmt, it include of non-biodegradable food container that made up by Styrofoam or non- biodegradable plastic. However, the data of the actual amount of non-biodegradable food container discard is not available. The study conducted in selected areas had stated that container made from expanded polystyrene or other plastic rise to 12.5 million tons in 2009 from 120,000 tons in 1960 (Barnes, ChanHalbrendt, Zhang, & Abejon, 2011). The grow in number of consumption, production and discard of the non-biodegradable food container may be due to swift grow of population and their demand for the low cost and easily use food container. Improper treatment and 3. FYP FSB. start to use biodegradable food container in year 2009. Followed by the Federal territory.
(14) potential hazard such as pollution of air, groundwater, surface water and soil, transmission of disease and fire hazard. As state before, Malaysia is towards on becoming a developed country and having population that is increase gradually. Therefore, the demand and consumption for low cost and easily use food container is very high and thus increase in the amount of nonbiodegradable food container dispose to the landfill and occupied area in landfill. The non-biodegradable food container generated is now a major concern in Malaysia as the landfill areas available in Malaysia has become a major concern in solid waste management. Hence, this project is carried out to figure out the consumers’ willingness to pay for biodegradable food container in mukim Kota Bharu.. 1.3 Objectives 1. To explore the perception and awareness of the consumers in mukim Kota Bharu, Kelantan towards the importance of biodegradable food container for the environment protection. 2. To determine the factors that contribute to consumers’ willingness to pay for biodegradable food container in mukim Kota Bharu, Kelantan. 4. FYP FSB. discard of the non-biodegradable container could lead to white pollution that pose to.
(15) The coverage area of this study is Mukim Kota Bharu located in Kelantan state. This study is focused on the consumers in mukim Kota Bharu. The sampling size is calculated and defined by using particular formula. After the population of interest and the sampling size has been determine, the mode of data collection was selected which is questionnaire. A set of questionnaire is designed specifically for the population of interest before running a pilot test. Throughout the study, the set of questionnaire were distributed to the consumers in study area. The questionnaire design was evaluate on concern about biodegradable food container, usage and practice in daily life and willingness to pay for biodegradable food container.. 1.5 Significant of Study Determination of willingness to pay (WTP) for biodegradable product (food containers) among consumers in mukim Kota Bharu, Kelantan is significant to Green Industry in the area. The study will aid in providing some indispensable insight regarding to the market potential of cheaper alternative raw material use in production of biodegradable food container. Indirectly, this will increase the market of biodegradable food container, follow by increasing consumption of biodegradable food container by the masses and lastly reduce adverse impact on the environment.. 5. FYP FSB. 1.4 Scope of Study.
(16) LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1 Non-Biodegradable Food Container 2.1.1 Polypropylene (PP) Food Container Polypropylene, (𝐶3 𝐻6 )𝑛 or otherwise known as PP is an odourless and milky white high crystalline polymer. PP owning resin identification code of “5” is a type of resin of the thermoplastic polymer (Johnson, 2019). This type of thermoplastic resin is prepared by polymerization of propene (𝐶3 𝐻6 ). In the polymerization process, three types of polypropylene can be formed. According to the position of methyl group, the polypropylene can be divided into atactic, isotactic and syndiotactic (Center for Industry Education Collabration, Department of Chemistry, University of York, 2016). During polymerization, a few processes are applied which are bulk process, gas phase process as well as slurry method. Catalyst is indispensable in the polymerization of propylene. There are a several catalyst applicable for these reaction, for instance catalyst called Ziegler Natta and metallocene. Polymerization begin with bulk process in the liquid propane where the temperature is set between 66.85℃ to 86.85℃. Whereas the pressure is fix in the range of 30 to 40 standard atmosphere in order to maintain the propene in the state of liquid. The purpose of using propene in liquid form is to act as a solvent for polymer when it form and preclude the use of hydrocarbon. After the polymerization stage, 6. FYP FSB. CHAPTER 2.
(17) recycle. In the next stage, gas phase process, the mixture of hydrogen and propene are allowed to passes through a bed that containing catalyst Ziegler Natta at designated condition. The condition require are temperature at the range of 46.85℃ to 86.85℃ and pressure between 8 and 35atm (Center for Industry Education Collabration, Department of Chemistry, University of York, 2016). Cyclone is then used to separate the polymer from the gaseous form propene and hydrogen. The gas that are unreacted will be recycle. Before converting the polymer into pellets, the Ziegler Natta catalyst left over in the products need to be destroy by using alcohol or water. Other than Ziegler Natta catalyst, the metallocene also can be used as a catalyst for polymerization reaction. For example, Ferrocene (Fe(𝐶5 𝐻5 )2 ) that is polar in which two organic ring systems are bonded symmetrically to the Iron atom (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2018). After that polymerization, it is the moulding process. Whether it is hydraulic, mechanical, electrical or hybrid injection moulding machine, it can be used for injection moulding. However, the injection moulding machine used must be a computer injection moulding machine that has high injection pressure about 1500-1800 bar and multi stage control as the crystallinity of polypropylene is high. The two basic functions of injection moulding machine include heat up the plastic into molten state and exert high pressure on the molten plastic to enable it to be ejected into the mould cavity. The machine consist of three main parts which are feed hopper, screw and heating barrel (Injection-marketing, 2018). Feed hopper will feed the powder or granules form of plastic into the heating barrel. The heater bands together with the frictional action of reciprocating screw will become the means to melt all the materials. Polypropylene has a melting point at about 163.8℃. 7. FYP FSB. the polymer particles in solid state will be separate from the liquid propene and being.
(18) injection process cannot be more than 275℃. Thus, the temperature of heater band is prefer to set at 240℃. The plastic melted will be injected into a mould cavity by way of nozzle where the injection volume cannot be more than 85%. Clamping force of the mould cavity generally determined by 3800t/𝑚2 . High speed injection is favourable with the aim to reduce internal stress and deformation. The temperature of the mould need to be maintain in between 50℃ to 90℃. The temperature of core need to be lower than the temperature of cavity by 5℃ or more. Cooling and solidification occur in the mould cavity where the molten material fit the configuration of the mould cavity. Once the part stiffen, the moveable platen where the mould is mounted will open. Then, an ejector pin is employ in order to eject the part from the moveable platen. Drying treatment is not necessary for the product if they are store properly but the product need to soak in hot water. This step is to prevent shrink and deformation of product due to post- crystallization.. Figure 2.1: Example of polypropylene food container. (Source: Jike Group China, 2016). 8. FYP FSB. and decomposition temperature of 350℃ (Steel, 2018). Yet, the setting of temperature for.
(19) Polystyrene is a thermoplastic with favourable moisture resistance which is also known as “PS”. It is discovered by an apothecary named Eduard Simon in the Germany in 19th century when he successfully isolated the substances from the natural resin. But, Mr. Simon did not realize what he had found out. It is an organic chemist, Mr. Hermann Staudinger who realized Mr. Simon’s discovery is a plastic polymer (Ogunsona, Ogbomo, Nar, & D'Souza, 2011). The resin identification codes of polystyrene is “6” which means non- recyclable (SEAMAN, 2012). Polystyrene, (𝐶8 𝐻8 )𝑛 can be produce from polymerization of its monomer called styrene (𝐶8 𝐻8 ). Styrene, in turn is produce from ethyl benzene (𝐶8 𝐻10 ). There are three steps involve in the manufacture of polystyrene. First, the reaction between benzene and ethylene that result in ethyl benzene. The alkylation of benzene is carry out at temperature above 400 ℃ and atmospheric pressure of 20atm while the acid catalyst use in this Friedel- Crafts reaction is an aluminosilica called Zeolite Socony Mobil-5(ZSM-5) (Giuseppe Bellussi*, 2014). The benzene and ethylene is in gas stage. In the second step, the vapour of ethyl benzene produced together with the superheated steam are then inject into mounted fixed bed reactor with the catalyst iron (Ш) oxide, (𝐹𝑒2 𝑂3) (Haslego, 2010). This stage is carry out at temperature of 850K. The products at this stage are styrene and hydrogen gas. Small amount of potassium oxide (𝐾2 𝑂) will added in iron (Ш) oxide in order to keeps the catalyst in in state of iron (Ш) (Centre for Industry Education Collabration, Department of Chemistry, University of York, 2017). Next, the polymerization step. Radical polymerization is employ in this process. Rather than radical polymerization, continuous thermal mass polymerization and suspension polymerization 9. FYP FSB. 2.1.2 Polystyrene (PS) Food Container.
(20) is require in this polymerization. Polystyrene is quite brittle, but through polymerization of styrene that contain 5 to 10 percent dissolved poly (buta-1, 3-diene) rubber, a tougher and translucent product called High Impact Polystyrene (HIP) can be produce. Production of HIP require only continual thermal mass polymerization where heat is need to initiate the reaction. In order to obtain polystyrene with syndiotactic structure, the polymerization technique should be modify by using the metallocene catalyst. Otherwise, the structure of the polystyrene produce is atactic. There are a few method for the moulding of thermoplastic. For instance, thermoforming, vacuum forming, injection moulding, extrusion and blow moulding (Thomas Publishing Company, 2019). Same with polypropylene food container, polystyrene food container moulding by using injection moulding process.. Figure 2.2: Example of polystyrene food container. (Source: Jike Group China, 2016). 10. FYP FSB. also apply in polymerization of styrene. An initiator such as benzoyl peroxide (𝐶14 𝐻10 𝑂4 ).
(21) Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) which is well known as trademarked name of The Dow Chemical Company’s, Styrofoam is one of the raw material that use to produce nonbiodegradable food containers (Johnson, 2018). Volume of Expanded Polystyrene to the volume of original polystyrene granule is about 40 to 1. However, EPS is extremely light and enable to float on the water. Similar to polystyrene, expanded polystyrene made up from styrene monomer. Expanded polystyrene is manufacture through three steps. Three steps are pre-expansion, conditioning and moulding respectively. First of all, pre-expansion in which the density of the final product will be set. The density is delegate by the number of cell. At this stage, the polymer particles that contain blowing agents will soften during heating. The blowing agent is then volatilize. This result in expansion in each bead to about 40 times of the primary volume and formation of many cells. The density of the final product will be dominate by the temperature and time taken during heating. In this step, the beads must be disperse and in free flowing state. The foaming process in the industrial production will be carried out by putting the polystyrene in steam. In a stirred tank, the beads and steam are continuously mixing in order to complete the reaction. Foamed beads will spilled from the top of the reaction equipment. Next, the conditioning step. The beads that undergo foaming need to subject to maturing treatment so that air can be incorporate into the cells. Third, the moulding step where the mature pre-expand beads will put in a mould that have specific cavity. Mould use is made from aluminium and the inner wall dimension is cast into shape of the food container. There is air holes on the inner wall that enable steam to pass through the foam and allow hot air to diffuse out. Steam pass through a steam. 11. FYP FSB. 2.1.3 Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Food Container.
(22) moulding process require a moulding pressure than not more than 276kPa. Venturi devices like filling guns are apply for certain structures that are small and complex. The filling guns send the bead into the cavity by the means of air flow. In the other hand, large product can fill in the cavity by their own weight. The cavity that has been fill up with beats will seal and undergo heating. When heating, the beads will soften and the cells will expand. The beads foaming and expand to fill the voids between each other and next bond to each other to form a uniform foam. The foam at this moment remain soft and still able to withstand the pressure of the hot gas in the cell. Water is then spray onto the inner wall of the mould before taking out the product from the mould. This is done purposely to seep out the gas inside the cell and lower the temperature so that shape of product can be stabilize. Low moulding pressure and low cost of moulding equipment make this process an economical production method of EPS.. Figure 2.3: Example of expanded polystyrene food container.. (Source: Stearns, 2013). 12. FYP FSB. chamber that form between double walls in the mould to heat up the beads. Mostly of the.
(23) As well known, plastic food container will endanger environment and harm to human health. From the production stage until the disposal stage, the plastic food container will bring negative impacts on environment, human being and animals. In the production of plastic container, plastic additive may effluence to the river and cause water pollution. During stage of product use, plastic container will threaten human health. Chemical in the plastic container such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates will leach into the food particularly hot stuff like soup. Intake of these food will cause BPA and phthalates enter human body and influence fertility and body process like growth and cell repair (Petre, 2018). At last of product life cycle, the dispose food container will lead to visual pollution called white pollution and also death of marine life due to ingestion of plastic container that cannot be digest. Food container made up by polypropylene is highly flammable (Flynt, 2018). The flash point of polypropylene food container is about 260℃. As it is a thermoplastic, it will melt when exposed to heat. Thus, the discarded polypropylene food container will lead to happening of fire disaster if not handle properly. Not only that, polypropylene has high value of thermal expansion coefficient. Hence, it is very dangerous when people use polypropylene food container to take food that are just cooked with high temperature. When temperature is higher than 100℃, polypropylene will undergo chain degradation and susceptible to be oxidize. This result in cracks and crazing on the food container. In polystyrene food containers, toxic substances that bring harmful effect on human health such as carcinogens, styrene, benzene and neurotoxin are present. When the PS food container fill with hot food and liquid, the plastic starts to break down and release 13. FYP FSB. 2.2 Detriment of Non-Biodegradable Food Container.
(24) human body will attack both central and peripheral nervous system. Furthermore, production of m-xylene, 2, 6-dimethylnaphthalene and toluene from decomposition of vitamin A in the food with addition of heat will also endanger human health (Future Centre Trust, 2010). This is because the toluene that produced will disband the polystyrene vigorously. In year 1986, there was a report announced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which stated that production process of polystyrene was ranging in the fifth place for the source of hazardous waste in United State (Farelly & Shaw, 2017). Environmental impact come from the product life cycle of polystyrene food container ranked second highest, which is just behind the aluminium (Future Centre Trust, 2010). Some people would burn the polystyrene food container together with the garden rubbish like dry leaves and branches. This could release carbon monoxide and styrene monomers into the atmosphere that will lead to air pollution and cause health effect like respiratory diseases. Same with plastic food container, Styrofoam food container also bring negative effect on environment, human being and animal. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs) use in production of Styrofoam may leak out to the atmosphere and causing damage on the ozone layer (Robson, 2018). During usage of Styrofoam food container, the container will release toxic chemical when fill with acidic stuff as the acidity of orange and lemon can erode the food container. The container also releases toxic substances such as styrene monomer and ethyl benzene when filling hot stuff. At disposal stage, the Styrofoam food container would float on the ocean and becoming one of the marine debris. These food container will accumulate along waterway and shoreline (Robson, 2018). As the. 14. FYP FSB. these content into the food which then will be consumed by humans. Styrene that enter.
(25) plenty of space in landfills and leads to pollution at the landfill such as air pollution, water pollution. If the food container is littered, it maybe breaks down into smaller pieces that causing clean-up process more difficult.. 2.3 Biodegradable Food Container 2.3.1 Cardboard Food Container Application of cardboards in the food industry can be trace back to the 17th century but the application of these stuff had been widespread and accelerate in the later part of 19th century (Marsh & Bugusu, 2007). Cardboard are actually a sheet materials that produce from interlaced cellulose fibre’s network which is derived from wood by make use of sulphate and sulphide. The cellulose fibre will pulp, bleach and handle with chemical substances like antiseptic and intensify agents so that to produce food containers. The cardboard food containers are made in multiple layers. There are about four types of cardboard use as raw material for the manufacturing of food container. For instance, white board, solid board, chipboard and fibreboard. Bleached chemical pulp that use in formation of white board are those that are thin. To maintain the heat seal ability of white box, there are two ways can be use. First, coating with wax. Second, laminating with polyethylene. Differ from the white board, solid board is made from bleached sulphate board that have well strength and durability. Product obtain from laminating solid board with polyethylene can be use in preparation of milk 15. FYP FSB. Styrofoam food container are not biodegradable, the food container dispose will fill up.
(26) use in food packaging. This type of cardboard containing blemishes and impurities as it is manufacture from recycled paper. To have better appearance and strength, chipboard will sometime line with white board. Fibreboard can be divided into two type which are solid and corrugated. Inner part of the solid type fibreboard is a white board layer while the outer part is a layer of cowhide. This enable the fibreboard to possess good protection from impact and compression. The barrier properties of solid fibreboard can be improve by laminating it with aluminium. This type of fibreboard can be used as packaging for coffee powder and milk powder. Corrugated fibreboard differ from the solid type as both layers is made up of cowhide with corrugating material at the central. The cardboard food container is biodegradable after its disposal and eliminate a lot of pollution as in production of plastic food container. However, the cost of the production for this food container is high as the quality requirement for cardboard is quite high.. Figure 2.4: Example of cardboard food containers. (Source: Lindgren, 2012). 16. FYP FSB. board that use in packaging of drinks. Chipboard is the cheapest choice of cardboard that.
(27) Saccharides has a meaning of ‘sugar’ in the Greek Word. Saccharides which is more familiar with the name “carbohydrates” are refer to the organic compounds that have empirical formula (𝐶𝑚 (𝐻2 𝑂)𝑛 ). Starch is a carbohydrates reserve in most plants. It is a polysaccharides that will give many carbohydrate on hydrolysis with a chemical formula of (𝐶6 𝐻10 𝑂5 )𝑛 . Starch composed of long chains of 𝛼-glucose polymer (Dolson, 2019). Starch can be categorized into two, linear amylose polymer and branched amylopectin polymer. Starch type food container, as the name suggest, is using starch as raw material. The starch apply can be starch of corn with 25% amylose, cassava starch with 15% amylose, potato starch with 20% amylose, sweet potatoes with that contain one third of amylose and two third of amylopectin and other plants that grow within a year (Hegenbart, 1996). Starch is mixed with dietary fibre or annual plant fibre and other edible additives before kneading process. The chemical and physical technology that employ in the production of starch type food container include bio- compounding, glycan cross- linking and calcium ion chelation. These food container can be used in the temperature range between −10℃ 𝑡𝑜 + 120℃, thus it is suitable to put in hot food. Rather than put in hot food, it can also heat in a microwave oven and refrigerate in a refrigerator. The starch type food container is biodegradable as the raw material, starch is a natural polymer that is biodegradable. Starch can be break down into glucose by the microbes in the air and lastly decompose into water and carbon dioxide. Moreover, the dietary fibre and edible additives that mix with the starch also material that can fully. 17. FYP FSB. 2.3.2 Starch Type Food Container.
(28) kind of food container dispose.. Figure 2.5: Examples of starch type food container. (Source: Laizhou Guoliang Packing Products Co., Ltd, 2015). 2.3.3 Plant Fibre Type Food Container Plant fibre is widely distributed in the spermatophyte no matter in stems, roots, fruits or husk. The plant fibre are thick wall tissue which it is made up by cells that are long, thin and sharp at the both ends. The cells consist of thick secondary cell walls with simple pit. Generally, they contain no protoplast when they mature. Filamentous or floc plant fibre is the product from the combination of cellulose and the nutrients present in the plants. These filamentous or floc will provide filling, wrapping, connecting and supporting functions to the plants. 18. FYP FSB. degradable. Hence, it can be said that no harmful effect on the environment when these.
(29) that extract from the agriculture left over such as rice straw, wheat straw, corn stalk, rice husk and bagasse of sugarcane. Moulding agent, water resistant agent and adhesive agent are added to the plant fibre before moulding, drying, shaping and sterilizing take place. This type of food container has obvious advantage in term of eco-friendly as the raw material come from crop straw and annual grow plants. They are renewable resources in nature and can totally biodegrade. The usage of these food container can reduce application of plastic and next decrease the consumption of oil resources and energy.. Figure 2.6: Example of the plant fibre type food container. (Source: Jike Group China, 2016). 2.3.4 Biodegradable Plastic Food Container Biodegradable plastic can be defined as plastics that will undergo degradation by the microbial action and produce end products that are natural in a period of time. For example, water, carbon dioxide and biomass (PlasticsEurope, 2019). Oxo-biodegradable plastics and hydro-biodegradable plastic are the two major group of biodegradable plastics. 19. FYP FSB. Raw material for the production of plant fibre type food container are plant fibre.
(30) based plastic and fossil fuel based plastic. Bio-based plastic are those that made up from polyster derived from plants. Polyactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) are the polyster that use in production of bio-based plastic. Raw material that use to produce biomass-based plastics can be cellulose acetate or starch. Cellulose acetate is produced from a four stages process which consist of activating, acetylating, ripening and purifying stage (United States Patent No. US 4306060, 1980). The fossil fuel based plastic that can biodegrade are polycaprolactone (PCL), polybutylene succinate (PBS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polybutyrate adipate terephthalate (PBAT) (Kinhal, 2019). Certain amount of additives like photosensitizers and plant material are added during the production of biodegradable plastic food container. Thus, the food container can be broken down into pieces in a period of time after discard in the nature.. Figure 2.7: Example of biodegradable plastic food container. Source: (Alibaba, 2019). 20. FYP FSB. There are a few kind of biodegradable plastic. For instance, bio-based plastic, biomass-.
(31) In the way to convert the usage of non-biodegradable food container into the biodegradable food container, there are a few challenges face by the local government and environmental protection agency. For example, lack of awareness and knowledge toward environmental issue among the masses, lack of technology, low business viability and enforcement. As stated by Monroe and Athman (2000), the awareness and knowledge toward environmental process and system play an indispensable role in environmental education (EE). The main goal of formal or non-formal environmental education is to bring out awareness among the national in a country (Shobeiri et al., 2007). In Malaysia, EE was lead into the national education system where the students need to study in standard 3 to standard 6. In Form 1, Form 2 and Form 3, the pupils will further learning about EE in a compulsory subject known as “Geography”. However, this subject is not a compulsory subject for students at the level of Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia and Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (Lateh & Muniandy, 2010). Unfortunately, citizen in Malaysia still having low awareness toward environmental issue as they only learning from the books, in the classroom but not practicing in daily life. They are still using food container that are not biodegradable for the sake of convenient and cheap. Their unsustainable consumption habits make the way to convert usage of non- biodegradable food container to biodegradable food container more difficult. Next, low business viability. This is because the price of biodegradable raw material and the alternative for plastics are much higher than the plastics (Ministry of Energy Science,Technology, Environment & Climate Change (MESTECC),Malaysia, 21. FYP FSB. 2.4 Challenges toward Fully Usage of Biodegradable Food Container.
(32) parties about the biodegradability of the plastic alternatives make the business viability lower. Hence, the production and flowing of product in the market is lesser. Third, lack of relevant technology. Production of biodegradable food container require some advance technology that are not able to afford by the merchant. Not only that, it may due to lack of talents in that aspect. Thus, there are some biodegradable food container that are not able launch to the market. Lastly, lack of law enforcement in this field. Cooperation from all parties are required in order to successfully convert the use of non-biodegradable food container into those biodegradable one. Yet, some parties may default the action call from the government. To alleviate this circumstance, the citizen action that nurture by the Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) can be applied.. 2.5 Willingness to Pay (WTP) Production, usage and disposal of non-biodegradable food container has becoming a severe problem for the government and environmental protection agency in Malaysia as a result of lacking in law enforcement and poor awareness. Willingness to pay can be abbreviated into WTP which can be decoded as maximum dollar amount that an individual ready to defray to purchase a product or service (Leszczyńska, 2014). There are about nine factors that will lead to the consumers willing to pay for certain products. The factors are price and quality, unique value of the product, 22. FYP FSB. 2018). This make the merchant step back. Furthermore, the arguments from various.
(33) element, fairness of price, customer’s research on price and also 2 for the price of one strategy (McCormick, 2015). The willingness to pay for biodegradable food container can be obtain through an approach known as Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). This is a survey-based method that inquire people to directly tell whether they are willing to pay for a specified good instead of deduce from the regular markets place based on their buying behaviours. CVM creates a hypothetical market to estimate the values of goods not traded in economic markets (Carson, 2000).. Market Data. Laboratory Experiment. Experiment. Field Experiment. Prevealed Preference. Auction Measurement of WTP Indirect Survey Stated Preference. Conjoint Analysis Discrete Choice Analysis Expert Judgement. Direct Survey Customers Survey. Figure 2.8: Framework illustrate methods to measure willingness to pay. (Source: Breidert et al., 2006). Among the measurement methods of willingness to pay, there are revealed preference that revealed someone preference by analysing his behaviour and stated 23. FYP FSB. expenditure of buyers, characteristics of customers, macro environmental factors, fashion.
(34) locate beneath the direct survey in stated preference will be use where questionnaire will be answer by respondents. Nowadays, there are even more studies and research done on the WTP of society toward the environmental goods. Table 2.1 show the example of the research and studies on society willingness to pay for green or eco product.. Table 2.1: Summary of studies and research on WTP for green product. Year 2010. Title. Author. Are consumers’ willing to pay more for. Yue et al.. WTP value When𝑝-value of Wilcoxon rank. biodegradable container than for plastic. sum test for two sample is <0.01.. one? Evidence hypothetical conjoint. Conjoint analysis:. analysis. Mean =$4.68. and. nonhypothetical. experimental auctions.. Experimental. auction:. Mean=$5.29 2011. Consumer preference and willingness to. Barnes et al.. For switching from non-water. pay for non-plastic food containers in. resistant to water resistant:. Honolulu, USA.. Class one: $0.3005 Class two: $0.0874 Class three $0.1621 Class four: $0.0383. 2014. Consumers’. response. for. price. Fatimah et al.. Mean: RM 3.53. Ellison et al.. PLA/Soy: $1.123. increment of biodegradable shopping bags in. selected. hypermarkets in. Selangor, Malaysia 2015. Consumer’s willingness to pay for bioplastic. plant. container.. An. PLA/ BioRes: $1.051. experimental auction approach.. PLA/ Lignin: $0.669. 24. FYP FSB. preference that obtain through directly asking people. In this project, customer survey.
(35) PHA/DDGS: $1.015 Paper Fiber: $0.76 2017. Consumers’ willingness to Pay a. Seo et al.. Premium for. Mean addition WTP per product: KRW 29,007. Eco-Labelled LED TVs in Korea: A Contingent Valuation Study 2019. Willingness to pay for sustainable. Yi. Mean. of. low. NEP. group:. aquaculture products: Evidence from. KRW45,633.96. Korean Red Seabream Aquaculture. Mean of high NEP group: KRW 51,535.48. 2.6 Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) Contingent valuation, as the name suggest is any technique that valuate a commodity (Seller et al., 1985). CVM act as one of the approach to forecast the economic value in environmental evaluation. In this approach, a hypothetical market will be introduce to the respondents. The hypothetical markets would imitate a private product or a political market where the respondents own the chance to buy or consume the product list in the question. This method is so called a contingent valuation method because the WTP identify by this method are contingent and depends on the hypothetical market that deliver to the respondents in order to ask the maximum amount that the respondent ready to pay (Mitchell & Carson, 1993). In order to obtain WTP by using CVM, a five steps application is required. First step is the creation of hypothetical market follow by the bids 25. FYP FSB. Recycled PLA: $0.862.
(36) aggregation (Rahmatian, 2005). In CVM, there are four formats commonly used for elicitation of WTP. There are open-ended format, dichotomous choice format, payment card format and bidding game format respectively (Heinzen & Bridges, 2008). In the open-ended format, there are questions that asked the respondents directly on the amount they will willing to pay for. Second, the dichotomous choice is asking a questions with two choices providing which are “Yes/No” on an individual willingness to pay for a definite price. Next, the elicit format called payment card will ask the respondents about the maximum value that he/she willing to pay through a list of prices (Heinzen & Bridges, 2008). Lastly, the bidding game format. It is similar to dichotomous method, questions with two choices are asked. When individual answer ‘yes’ for initial price, the price will be raise higher and even higher until he/she answer ‘no’. In contrast, if the respondents gave an answer of ‘no’, the price will be deduce until the respondents answer ‘yes’. Contingent valuation method, is a stated preference method to measure the willingness to pay as it involve the application of direct survey. According to Hassin (2013), this method play an important role in empirical analysis of issue regarding to allocation of resources. Not only that, CVM also able to apply in prediction of the profit and costs for the changes in level of supply of certain goods or product. CVM studies capable of providing a more comprehensive picture for the advantages of the project put forward or the alteration of policy as the estimated value for the commodity state in question are derived (Nuva et al., 2009).. 26. FYP FSB. capture. Next, the estimation of average willingness to pay and bid curves. Lastly, the data.
(37) environmental quality. Choice experiments also can be used as a means for valuation of changes in environmental quality. Either contingent valuation method or choice experiment will ask the individuals about their favouritism in the aspect of environmental qualities. Although both of them can be used to identify the WTP, but the values that obtain from these two methods will have significant differences. Choice experiment is different compare with CVM since choice experiment need the respondents to do repeat selection among the attributes (Boxall et al., 1996). Fatimah and friends (2014) had stated that Contingent Valuation method is simpler, direct and more flexible technique and often applied in environmental valuation. Therefore, CVM is commonly employ in the identification of WTP.. 2.6.1 Application of CVM Since the survey of public opinion first proposed by Bowen and Ciriacy-Wantrup in 1940s, this method had become a tool for valuation of public goods (Bowen, 1943; Ciriacy-Wantrup, 1947). The foundation of this method is the idea which believe that voting maybe the most suitable substitute for consumers’ choice (Hoyos & Mariel, 2010). However, CVM is first employed only in 1960s when Davis (1963) conducted a survey on the hunters in order to estimate the benefits obtained by goose hunting. As time change, the application of Contingent Valuation method has becoming more common in valuing environmental goods or green product besides elicit willingness to pay universally (Fatimah et al., 2014). As stated before, CVM played an important role 27. FYP FSB. Not only contingent valuation method can be utilize in the valuation of changes in.
(38) economics, CVM also can be used in other branch of economics. For instance, transportation safety and economics (Md. Nor & Mohd Yusoff, 2003), health economics (O’ Shea et al., 2008) and cultural economics (Kim et al., 2007). Rather than that, this method can be used to conduct damage assessment of natural resources such as spilling of oil from Exxon Valdez into the Prince William Sound (Carson et al., 2003). In the past twenty years, contingent valuation method had become more popular and being used by even more people in the field of environmental economies with the aim of accessing the value of non-market product (Chung, 2008). Those non-market goods include the environmental amenities (Mitchell & Carson, 1989), reduction in risk of suffering from chronic disease (Krupnick & Cropper, 1992) and lessening in risk of mortality of being injured (Jones-Lee et al., 1985).. 2.6.2 Merits of CVM Recently, CVM had been widely used around the world especially in the developing countries. This is due to its simplicity, flexibility and also straightforward (Fatimah et al, 2014). Compare to other method, CVM can be easily understand by everyone and do not require the consideration of resources’ precise value (Hassin, 2013). As this method is flexible, it may modified in order to examine different natural resources or goods.. 28. FYP FSB. in forecasting the economic value in environmental evaluation. Not only environmental.
(39) matter those non-use value or use value. For example, measurement of the impact of irreversible change without modelling the change. Not only that, values like bequest values, existence value and option values also can be estimate by this method.. 2.6.3 Demerits of CVM Although CVM had been proposed for more than 70 years, but there are still people unfamiliar with this method. This may due to lack of understanding of respondents on the hypothetical market that create or describe by the researcher. Unfamiliar with measurement of value for environmental products and service that are non-price also lead to failure in conducting CVM. Thus, there are many criticisms arise especially those concerned with the problem of bias in which the true value of WTP is overestimated or underestimated. According to Rahmatian (2005), there are about five type of biases which are bias of starting point, bias of payment vehicle, bias that are hypothetical, bias of strategic and bias in mental account. Bias of starting point occur when the respondents is affected by choice of starting bid in the survey. Differ in coverage of payment vehicles and suspicion on one-time payment lead to occurrence of payment vehicle bias (Morrison et al., 2000). When someone wish to give a different response to the hypothetical market but not the same scenario as in the real world, hypothetical bias occur. Next, strategic bias happen when an individual misrepresent their favouritism to influence the result. Lastly, the mental account bias or scope bias occur when the respondents have a specific constraint of mental account. 29. FYP FSB. Moreover, this technique can help in measurement of total economics value no.
(40) METHODOLOGY. 3.1 Introduction In this chapter, the methodology applied in the study were described. Other than that, the study area and questionnaire design also discussed in this chapter.. 3.2 Study Area Kelantan is one of 14 states that located in Malaysia. Up to year 2016, the area of Kelantan is 15,101𝑘𝑚2 (Department of Statistics Malysia, Official Portal, 2019). Kota Bharu is the capital of Kelantan state. The area of Kota Bharu is about 115.6𝑘𝑚2 and the population is about 468,438. Table below shows the population distribution in 15 mukims of Kota Bharu.. 30. FYP FSB. CHAPTER 3.
(41) Kota Bharu Mukims. Population. Badang. 35,957. Banggu. 23,049. Beta. 11,205. Kadok. 19,554. Kemumin. 41,392. Kota. 24,364. Limbat. 18,796. Kubang Kerian. 57,259. Ketereh. 41,835. Panji. 73,315. Pendek. 17,254. Peringat. 24,137. Salor. 11,255. Sering. 24,309. Kota Bharu. 44,757. (Source: Department of Statistics (DOS) Malaysia, 2010). Mukim Kota Bharu with population of 44,757 had been chosen as the place to conduct the study. This is due to the catering, manufacturing and service industry in Kota Bharu is flourishing. Most of the local resident of this mukim run a business such as restaurant, small manufacturer, mini market, caféand hardware store. Other that running own business, there are also residents that work as civil servant.. 31. FYP FSB. Table 3.1: Population distribution in districts of Kota Bharu..
(42) police station, educational institutions, medical institutions and mass traffic. The medical institutions in this mukim including hospital, medical centre and clinic. The education institutions in this mukim provide primary and secondary education. In mukim Kota Bharu, there is a bus terminal and a bus station for taking the ride of intercity bus and short-distance bus respectively. In the selected place, three major ethnic groups which are Malay, Chinese and Indian and the other indigenous form a harmonious society where the Malay and the indigenous allocated for almost 94% of the population in the mukim.. Figure 3.1: Map area of the study Source: Google Map. 32. FYP FSB. The basic facilities in mukim Kota Bharu are completely build. For example,.
(43) 3.3.1 Sampling Size Population of interest for this study were targeted at the consumers in mukim Kota Bharu in Kelantan. The sampling size is calculated by using Cochran’s (1963) formula. 𝑛0 =. 𝑍 2 𝑝(1−𝑝) 𝑒2. (3.1). 𝑛0 stand for the sample size. In the formula, 𝑍 represent the z score which is determined by the confidence interval. The confidence level is selected as 90%. Thus, the z-score is 1.645. The ‘p’ in the equation stand for the estimated population proportion of certain attribute whereas e stand for amount of error that can be tolerate or the margin of error (Singh & Masuku, 2014). p is assumed to be 50% and therefore is 0.5 while the marginal error is take as 5% which is equal to 0.05. Population of Kota Bharu is 44,757. Thus, the sample size require for the project is 270.. 𝑛0 =. (1.6452 )(0.5)(1 − 0.5) = 270.60 (0.05)2. 3.3.2 Questionnaire Design In this study, a set of questionnaire had been designed in order to act as a data collection instrument (Khoo, 2015). By referring to the studies in the field of social science, a questionnaire that contained 36 questions had been designed. 36 questions in the questionnaire enclose several extents so that the respondents’ daily practice, perception, awareness and willingness to pay for the biodegradable food container can be accessed. 33. FYP FSB. 3.3 Data Collection.
(44) there are questions that asked about some of the personal information of respondents. Second part of the questionnaire inquired about daily practice of respondent pertaining to biodegradable food container. Next, part three covered the respondents’ perception and awareness toward the biodegradable food container. The last part contained questions that asked about the WTP of consumers. The questions constructed for the survey include open-ended questions and closeended questions. Open-ended questions allowed the respondents to give their answers freely. This type of questions also helped researcher to identify the most possible answer that will be given by respondents (Hassin, 2013). For example, the maximum value that the respondent willing to pay for the biodegradable food container. In contrast, closeended questions provided several choices for the respondents and asked them to tick on the most favourable choice. In the questionnaire, there are several questions that employed the five point Likert scale. Among the five responses, each responses represent by a number that can be used for measurement of attitude. The scale applied in the questionnaire was: Digit 1 represented “strongly disagree” and digit 5 represented “strongly agree”. Not only that, options such as yes and no also used in the questionnaire. As the conciseness of sentences in the questionnaire played a significant role in obtaining the best response of the respondents. Therefore, the sentences used in the questionnaire are short, clear, straight forward and easily understand. Simple sentences also can avoid given of bias of the real situation to the respondents (Roopa & Rani, 2012).. 34. FYP FSB. The questionnaire was designed into four parts. In the first part of questionnaire,.
(45) Bharu. Thus, the questionnaire was prepared in Malay version as Malay is their mother tongue. Another reason to prepared questionnaire in Malay was due to Malay is the official language in Malaysia that everyone understand. This allowed the respondents to clearly understand the questions no matter what race they are.. 3.3.3 Validation of Questionnaire Validation of the designed questionnaire had been carried out by supervisor before distributed for pilot test and complete survey. The questions that were not conform and concrete were corrected or removed whereas ambiguous words were change in order to lessen the chance of the question being misunderstanding (Roopa & Rani, 2012).. 3.3.4 Pilot Test A pilot test had been conducted on 25th August of 2019. The test carried out on 30 respondents which is about 10% from the total number of respondents for the project before further carried on by handed out the questionnaire to 270 consumers The purpose to conduct a pilot test was attempted to determine the practical problem that are possible when following the research sequence (Teijlingen, 2002). Rather than that, the test also helped to determine the framing and order of questions (Roopa & Rani, 2012). According. 35. FYP FSB. Malay and indigenous make up almost 94% of the population in mukim Kota.
(46) of the total sample size. The reliability of the questionnaire designed was analysed with the application of test called Cronbach’s Alpha in Software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS 25.0. Based on the 22 questions from all of the part of questionnaire apart from demographic and willingness to pay, the result of the test showed values that range between 0.711 and 0.858. This represented that the questionnaire is reliable and acceptable as the alpha value lined between 0.70 and 0.95 (Tavakol & Dennick, 2011). Table 3.2: Value of Cronbach Alpha. Section. N. Cronbach alpha (∝). B. Daily Practice Pertaining to Biodegradable Food Container. 6. 0.758. C(I). Perception toward Biodegradable Food Container. 9. 0.858. C(II). Awareness toward Biodegradable Food Container. 7. 0.711. 22. N represent number of questions that used in reliability test. Source: Author’s survey (2019). 36. FYP FSB. to Khoo (2015), appropriate number of sample require for pilot test is about 10% to 20%.
(47) The sampling technique used in this study was simple random sampling. To ensure the data can be collect smoothly, mode of data collection was set as questionnaire and face-to-face. Face-to-face method only employed when people unable to understand what is trying to bring out by the questionnaire. Consumers in mukim Kota Bharu were the respondents for this study. Sampling had been conducted for 25 days started from 1st of September to 25th of September. A total of 270 questionnaires had been distributed to the consumers within mukim Kota Bharu. However, only 258 set questionnaires had been answered completely by the respondents. The respond rate was about 95.6%. 258 270. × 100% = 95.6%. (3.2). 3.4 Data Analysis 3.4.1 Descriptive Analysis Software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS 25.0 was employed in this study to analyse statistical data. The questions that associate with the personal information of respondents, daily practice of respondents pertaining to biodegradable food container, respondents’ perception and awareness toward non-biodegradable food container and their willingness to pay for biodegradable food container were analysed by using this software. The result came from the questionnaires fill in by respondents.. 37. FYP FSB. 3.3.5 Simple Random Sampling.
(48) In this study, dichotomous choice approach of contingent valuation method is applied with the aim to draw forth the willingness of consumers in mukim Kota Bharu to pay for biodegradable food container simultaneously achieving the first and second objectives stated before. This is because CVM can determine both use and non-use economic values for all types of ecosystem service and environmental goods that do not have market price (Carson, 2000). Each respondents are required to answer either “yes” or “no” to the question that asking their willingness to pay for biodegradable food container at a particular price (bidding). To discover the relationship between willingness to pay and the factor that influence willingness to pay, a classification algorithm called logistic regression model was utilized. This model was used because it able to estimate the probability of the incident either occur or not by making prediction of binary dependent outcome from a set of independents variables. Not only that, the features of the model such as asymptotic and comparative mathematical simplicity also lead to utilization of this model (Aggrey & Douglason, 2010). The variables resolved in this study include all the socio-demographic variables asked in Part A of the questionnaire. The consumers’ willingness to pay for the biodegradable food container were regressed against socio-demographic of the respondents. All of the variables are tested by using binary logit regression with the aid of SPSS.. 38. FYP FSB. 3.4.2 Elicitation of Willingness to Pay.
(49) 1. P = 1+𝑒 −𝑥. (3.3). Where P stand for the probability of the respondents willing to pay the amount where they answer yes (1). While the lower case 𝑥 represented the estimated equation of logit regression. 𝑥 equal to the summation: 𝛽0 + 𝛽1 𝑋1 + 𝛽2 𝑋2 + 𝛽3 𝑋3 + ⋯ … 𝛽7 𝑋7. (3.4). in which 𝛽0 = estimated constant 𝛽1 , … , 𝛽7 = estimated parameter of the coefficient. (That are demographic profile of respondents and awareness and perception toward biodegradable food container) 𝑋1 , … , 𝑋𝑛 =explanatory variables’ mean value The mean value of WTP was estimated as area under the probability function. To estimate the area under the curve of the probability function, integration technique was applied with equation: 𝑈. 𝑀(𝑊𝑇𝑃) = ∫𝐿 (1 + 𝑒 𝑎+𝑏𝑃𝑅𝐼𝐶𝐸 )−1 𝑑𝑃𝑅𝐼𝐶𝐸. (3.5). Where the element in the bracket stand for probability of answering (1), capital U is the upper limit while capital L is the lower limit of the integration. Usage of this framework for estimation of mean WTP depended on several assumption that related to the upper limit and lower limit of the integration. For instance, recognize the amount of price where the probability to answer (0) is zero and probability to answer (1) is one. Value of WTP 39. FYP FSB. The sigmoid function was employed in this study..
(50) integration when this assumption is applied to the price behaviour (Fatimah et al., 2014). If P is the probability of answering yes, then the different between 1 and p is Q which represented the probability of answering no (0). Q can be calculated by 1. Q = 1 − 1+𝑒 −𝑥. \. 40. (3.6). FYP FSB. that are negative can be exclude and zero can be employ as the lower limit of the.
(51) Identification of problem statement, objectives, scope of study and significant of study Determination of research questions and hypothesis Study area selection and specified population of interest. Identification of sample size. Questionnaire design and validation. Pilot test on 30 respondents Questionnaire distribution. Data collection. Data analysis with the aid of SPSS 25 and Microsoft Excel. Data interpretation. Conclusion Figure 3.2: The figure showed the research flowchart in this study.. 41. FYP FSB. 3.5 Research Flowchart.
(52) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 4.1 Demographic Profile In the first part of the questionnaire, there were 7 questions that asked about the demographic profile of the respondents. The parameter that employed including gender, age, religion, marital status, education level, occupation and household monthly income. These questions were aim to determine the majority and minority of the respondents.. 4.1.1 Gender and Age From the data obtained from questionnaire, it found that female respondents (155) was 52 more than male respondents (103). The result analyzed from the SPSS showed that the respondents with aged of 18 to 25 years old had the largest amount (70 respondents) compare to other 6 six groups of age. In the other side, respondents with age less than 18 make up the group that had the least number of participants in this survey. (5 respondents). 42. FYP FSB. CHAPTER 4.
(53) GENDER. AGE. Below 18. 18-25. 26-30. 31-40. 41-50. 51-60. Above 60. Total. Total (%). MALE. FEMALE. N. N. (%). (%). 2. 3. 5. (0.78). (1.16). (1.94). 17. 53. 70. (6.59). (20.54). (27.13). 18. 23. 41. (6.98). (8.91). (15.89). 20. 39. 59. (7.75). (15.12). (22.87). 21. 21. 42. (8.14). (8.14). (16.28). 17. 15. 32. (6.59). (5.81). (12.40). 8. 1. 9. (3.10). (0.39). (3.49). 103. 155. 258. (39.92). (60.08). (100). N-number of students. 43. FYP FSB. Table 4.1: Distribution of respondents that answered questionnaire by gender and age..
(54) According to Robertson (1970), religion is the superhuman beings that presence in life which can governing effect on life. Each religion will offer different set of moral values and rules to guide their believer in their relationship with the environment. Respondents with different religion had the different choice when answering the questionnaire. Figure 4.1 illustrated the frequency and percentage of the religion of the respondents in this survey. Majority of the respondents were Muslim with a total of 194 respondents which accounted for 75.2% of the total respondents. Buddhist respondents made up the second largest group after Muslim (19.8%). There was a big gap between amount of Muslim respondents (194) and Hindu respondents (7) which was a different of 187 people. Only 6 respondents which is equivalent to 2.3% of the total sample size was Christian.. Religion of Respondents 2.30%/6 people. 2.70%/7 people. 19.80%/ 51 people Islam Buddha Christian Hindu 75.20%/ 194 people. Figure 4.1: Pie chart showed the percentage and frequency of respondents based on the religion.. 44. FYP FSB. 4.1.2 Religion.
(55) Marital status was included in the question of demographic profile so as to identify the burden that the respondent need to bear in life. A married people need to bear heavier burden compare to those that was single. For example, the expenses for food, children education, insurance, house loan and many more. Respondents who are single give different answer compare to those whose are married. The bar chart in Figure 4.2 revealed that more than half of the respondent were married. Respondents that are married accounted for 63.2% of the total sample size which was equivalent to 163 people. In contrast, respondents that are single only 95 person which represented 36.8% of the total number of respondents.. Figure 4.2: The bar chart showed the frequency of respondents and their marital status.. 45. FYP FSB. 4.1.3 Marital Status.
(56) Education acted as a means to improve knowledge regarding to the environment where one can change his or her environmental attitude and next act friendly to the environment. Different level of education instill different knowledge and skills. For example, knowledge on the awareness of environment are emphasize during primary education. Secondary education will stress on the understanding of real time situation and conservation of natural resources. Furthermore, tertiary education such as college and university pay attention to attitude and evaluation during sustainable development by solving the issue of environment. Nearly half of the total respondents having education level which is SPM or lower. A total of 117 respondents (45.3%) have education level that is SPM or lower. About a quarter of the respondents having diploma or the equal level of education (25.6%). Respondents with degree level (54) and masters level (19) each accounts for 20.9% and 7.4% of the total respondents respectively. Only 2 respondents having PhD education level which represented 0.8% of the total 258 respondents.. 140 45.3. Frequency. 120 100 80. 117 25.6. 60. 20.9 66. 40. 54. 20. 19. 7.4. 0.8 2. 0 SPM AND LOWER. DIPLOMA/ STPM/ ALEVEL. DEGREE. Frequency. MASTERS. 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0. Percentage (%). Education Level of Respondents. PHD. Percentage. Figure 4.3: The figure illustrated the number and frequency of respondents and their education level.. 46. FYP FSB. 4.1.4 Education Level.
(57) A job give an income for a person. Having a stable job guarantee a stable income every month. Different workplace would lead to different money spending concept and pattern. Respondents that have stable job answered differently compare to those who are deviate from workplace. Respondents that served as civil servant made up the majority part of the total respondents (46.1%). There were 22.9% which equivalent to 59 respondents are working in private sector. There is only 37 respondents (14.3%) was self-employ. Respondents that worked as housewife allocated for 1.9% of the 258 respondents. Similarly, the number of respondents that work as occupation other than the 5 choices given also allocated for 1.9% which is equal to 5 person. “Others” including those who retired, unemployed, baby sitter, farmer and etc. Table 4.2: Distribution of respondents by their occupation.. Frequency. Percent. (N). (%). SELF EMPLOY. 37. 14.3. GOVERNMENT. 119. 46.1. PRIVATE SECTOR. 59. 22.9. STUDENT. 33. 12.8. HOUSEWIFE. 5. 1.9. OTHERS. 5. 1.9. 258. 100.0. Total Source: Author’s survey (2019). 47. FYP FSB. 4.1.5 Occupation.
(58) Household monthly income stated in the questionnaire refer to the sum of income of both of the husband and wife instead of income of all family members in the house. Majority of the respondents have a household monthly income in the range of RM1000 to RM3000 with a total of 120 respondents or 46.5% from the total respondents. Based on the date obtained from the questionnaire, it showed that about a quarter from the total respondents having household monthly income in the range of RM3001 to RM5000. (25.2%) There is only 13.2% of respondents having household monthly income less than RM1000. Respondents with household monthly income between range RM5001 to RM7000 and above RM7001 each allocated for 8.1% and 7% of the total respondents respectively. 140. 50 46.5. 45. 120. Frequency. 35. 120. 30. 80 25.2. 25. 60 40. 20. 65. 13.2. 15 8.1. 20. 7. 34 21. 18. 0. Percentage(%). 40 100. 10 5 0. LESS THAN RM1000. RM1000-3000 RM3001-5000 RM5001-7000 MORE THAN RM7001. Household Monthly Income Frequency. Percentage. Figure 4.4: The figure showed the frequency and percentage of respondents and their household monthly income.. 48. FYP FSB. 4.1.6 Household Monthly Income.
(59) Questions about daily practice of the respondents which respect to the biodegradable food container was asked in order to identify their willingness to perform environmental protection. Respondents’ practice pertaining to the biodegradable food container in their daily life were tabulated in Table 4.7. Among 258 respondents, there were 187 respondents gave respond that they have experience of using biodegradable food container in their daily life. Most of them stated that the biodegradable food container that they had been used was those provided in fast food restaurants. For instance, pizza box from Pizza Hut or Domino and takeaway food container from KFC or Mc’s Donald. Take along biodegradable food container in the bags at anytime, anywhere can reduce the use of non-biodegradable food container. Most of the people in mukim Kota Bharu does not have the habit of preparing biodegradable food container in the bags to be use on anytime. A total of 212 respondents stated that they do not bring along biodegradable food container in their bags. In the other hand, only 16 respondents which equivalent to 6.2% of the 258 respondents prepare biodegradable food container in their bag to be used on anytime and anywhere. Although there was only 16 respondents who prepare biodegradable food container in the bags to be used on anytime, but there were 26 respondents said they were using biodegradable food container when buying food. Those 10 people does not bring biodegradable food container anytime, anywhere. But they brought along their own biodegradable food container only they want to purchase and take food out from the restaurant or food stall. 49. FYP FSB. 4.2 Daily Practice Pertaining to Biodegradable Food Container.
(60) various type of biodegradable food containers were invented with the aim to reduce those waste. In some circumstances, the packaging of the food by biodegradable food container become the decisive factor of consumer whether or not to buy the food. There are only 18 people answered that they purchased food which packaged in biodegradable food container. Yet, there are 191 person (74%) either strongly disagree or disagree with the statement “Purchase food that packaging in biodegradable food container.” Due to concern to the environment, some people start to have awareness and prefer to use biodegradable food container. 81% of the respondents said that they prefer to use biodegradable food container due to their concern to environment from now on. However, there are still 22 respondents do not prefer to use biodegradable food container. However, when asking the respondents their willingness to pay for biodegradable food container when they does not bring food container for takeaway, only 68.2% of the respondents willing to pay. Those 12.8% only prefer to use the biodegradable food container when it is free. A total of 70 respondents stated that they are not willing to pay for the biodegradable food container when they does not bring their own food container for takeaway.. 50. FYP FSB. As human produced numerous non-biodegradable food container every day,.