Reverse Engineering for Analysis and Design Improvement of Ball Valve Seat

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Tekspenuh

(1)

Reverse Engineering for Analysis and Design Improvement of Ball Valve Seat

by

AlitrAmirul

Hamzah Bin Adenan

Dissertation submitted in partial

fulfillment of

the requirements for the Bachelor of Engineerrng (Hons)

(Mechanical Eng ineering)

MAY

2OI2

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar

31750 Tronoh Perak Darul

Ridalan

(2)

CERTIFICATION OF APPROVAL

Revene Engineering for Analysis and Design Improvement Of Ball vahye Seat

by

AliffAmirul Hamuh

Bin Adenen

A

project dissertation strbmitted to the Mechanical Engineering Programme

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS in

patial fulfillment ofthe

rcquir€ments for the

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (Hons)

(MECHAMCAL ENGINEERING)

Approved by,

(aP Dr.mmadlAeidBin

Abdul Rani)

AP Dr. Ahmad MaJdl Abdul Ranl

t

$I,}i|.f}f, i$rf,iir$ffi

-rrrrEKNoLocrpErRoNAs

TRONOII,

PERAK Ir[ay 2012

(3)

CERTIFICATION OF ORIGINALITY

This is to certi$

that

I

am responsible

for

the

work

submitted

in

this project, that the

original work is my

own except as specified

in

the references and acknowledgements, and

that the original work

contained

herein

have

not

been undertalcen

or

done by unspecified sources or persons.

AMIRUL

HAIVIZAH

BIN

ADENA}.I

(4)

ABSTRACT

This paper

will

discuss how

to

improve seat design

for

ball valve that is used

in oil

and gas industry using Reverse Engineering technology. Seat is an important part in the

ball

valve, since

it

is utilized to prevent

fluid

leakage when the valve is

fully

closed. Today's Reverse Engineering technology

are widely

used

is in

diverse applications such as software engineering, manufacturing,

aviation

industry and consumer products. Th€re are several methods

of

Reverse Engineering Technology

which

are Contact metho4 Noncontact nrethod and

Direct

Measurement

in

order

to

acquire the

CAD Model

This project

will

employ the Noncontact method

of

Reverse Engineering

by rsrng

ViuScan 3D Scanning device and Direct Measurement nrethod as contingencies plan- This project are divided into

two

stages

with

are Reverse Engineering stage where the ball valve

will

be scan prior to get the

CAD

model

of

the ball valve. The second stages followed where the analysis and design improvement

will

take place using

AI{SYS

Software, which are Fluent Computational

Fluid

Dynamic (CFD).

As

conclusion, Reverse Engineering can shorten

the

process

of

analysis

of a product in order to

enbance

or

develop

a

nelv product.

(5)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and

foremost,

I would like to take this opportunity to

express

my

greatest

appreciation to my Final Year Project supervisor, AP

Dr.

Ahmad

Majdi for

his valu,able

guidance and advices tluoughout my entire project. His supports,

patience, and willingness

to

assist me

in

the problem

or difficulties that I frced in my

project have contributed tremendously

to

my project.

A

special thanks goes

to Mr. Zatnil ard

other Laboratory Technicians,

who

has been a great help

to rre in

laboratory

works. I

also wish to take this opportunity to express my utmost gratitude to the individual and parties

that

have contributed

their time

and

ef[orts in

assisting me

to

conrplete

this

projest, directly or indirectly.

Withott

their helps and assistarrces, therc is no doubt that

I

would face some difficulties throughout the whole project. This project would not be in success

without all of their

zupports, guidance and patience.

I

also

would like to take

this

opportunity to thank the Final Year Project coordinator, Dr. Hassan Fawad for his

effort

in enstring the project is progressed smoothly

within

the time frame

given Iast

but not least,

I

would like to give my utmost gratitude and appreciation to my family and

fellow friends for their support and inspiration so that this project can be coryleted

successfully.

(6)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION

OF

APPROVAL...

...

i

CERTIFICATION

OF

ORIGINALITY

...

ii

ABSTRACT...

...

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...

...iv

LIST

OF

FIGURES

....

vii-viii LIST

OF

TABLES

...

viii

CHAPTER I I.INTRODUCTION.. ...I l.l hoject Background

...1

1.2

Problem

Statement

...

l-2 1.3 Objectives

...2

1.4

Scope of

Work

...3

CHAPTER

2

2.INTRODUCTION..

...4

2.1

Reverse Engineering

Technology

...

+5

2.2

Reverse Engineering

Process...

...

GlO 2.3

Ball Valve Design

Overview

10-12

2.4

Ball Valve Seat

Design

...13

CHAPTER

3 3.

METHODOLOGY

...14

3.1

Research

Methodology...

...14-15

3.2

Tools and Software

Required...

...16

3.3 ActivitieVGanttChartandMilestoneFYP 1...

...17

(7)

3.4 ActivitieVGanttChartandMilestoneFYP2...

...18

CHAPTER

4 4. RESULTS

AI\D DISCUSSIONS...

...19

4.1

Ball valve technical

specification...

...19

4.2

Reverse Engineering development

process

...20-22

4.3

Simulation

Parameters

...22-23

4.4

Simulation result and

discussion...

24-33

4.5

Analysis for design improvement

ofthe seat...

34-42

CHAPTER

5: 5.

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS...

...43

5.1 Conclusion

...43

5.2 Recommendations

...44

REFERENCES ... ..4546

(8)

LIST OF FIGTIRES

Figure l:

Differential between Forward Engineering and Reverse

Engineering

...5

Figure 2:

Phases of Reverse

Engineering...

...6

Figure

3: Data Acquisition

Methods...

...7

Figure

4:

VlUscanr'3D

Laser

Scanner

...8

Figure

5: Trunnion ball

valve...

...1I

Figure

6: Exploded view of Trunnion ball

va1ve...

...12

Figure

7: PTFE Seat

Design

...13

Figure

8: hoject

Mettrodolory

...15

Figure

9: EDM Wirecut

product...

...20

Figure l0:

Ball Valve Dismantle

Process

...20

Figure l1:

CATIA Model of ball

valve...

...21

Figure 12: Meshed Ball

Valve..

...23

Figure 13: Velocity vector of ball

va1ve...

...,..24

Figure 14: Velocity contour of ball

va1ve...

...25

F[ure

15: Pressure contour of ball

va1ve...

...25

Figure 16: Velocity streamline

#l

of ball valve

...

...26

Figure 17: Velocity streamline #2 of ball valve

...

...26

Figure 18: Velocity streamline #2 of ball valve

...

,...27

Figure 19: Graph Flow Rate Vs Valve Opening

Degree

...28

Figure 20: Velocity streamline

#l

vector of the

seat...

...29

Ffure

21: Velocity streamline #2 of the seat

...

...29

Ffure

22: Velocity contour of the

seat...

...30

Figurc 23: Pressure contour of the

seat..

...30

Figure 24: Seat

Mormation

...32

F[ure

25: Von Misses stress of the

seat...

...33

(9)

Figure 26: Deformation of TPU seat

materia1...

...36

Figure 27: Von Misses stress of TPU seat material

...

...37

Figure 28: Deformation

ofNitinol

seat material

...

...38

Figure 29: Von Misses stress of Nitinol seat

material...

...39

Figure 30: Resulted pressure of double layer

seat

...40

Figure 31: Deformation of double layer

sest...

...41

f

igure 32: Von Misses stress of double layer

seat...

...42

LIST OF TABLES Table l:

Data acquisition

problems

...9

Table

2:

Tools and Software

Required...

...16

Table

3:

FYP

I

Gantt ctrart and Key

Milestone...

...17

Table

4:

FYP 2 Gantt

cturt

and Key

Milestone...

...16

(10)

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

l.l Project Background

According

to

Handbook

of Valve

Function and Basic Parts that released by Prof.

Willow

Oguz Salim

from

Istanbul Technical University, valve

is

a device that can control the

flow of fluid

and pressure

by

starting and stopping the

flow of fluid,

increased speed

of fluid flow

by

throttling

method and also controlling the direction

of

the

fluid[].

There are several types

of

valve besides

ball

valve that are used in

oil

and gas industry such as gate valve, globe valve, and butterfly

valve. All the

valves

are

operates

differently and

have owns advantages and disadvantages.

This project will be

focusing

on the

design

of the

seat

of

ball valve that are usually damaged and increase the rate

of

leakage

of

the ball valve.

Reverse Engineering technology

will be

adapted

in this project to make

an improvement from the existing ball valve that currently being used in

oil

and gas industry nowadays.

[n

general, Reverse Engineering

is

a process

of

discovering

the

technology

principle of a

mechanical

application tluough

analysis

of

its structure, function and operation.

1.2 Problem Statement

Today's application of

Reverse

Engineering technology to

analyze the

existing product

in

order

to

made improvement as

long

as

to

speeding

up

the

production have

gained momentum

in recent

years.

This project will

adapt Reverse Engineering technology

to

analyze the design

of

seat

in

the

ball

valve that used

in oil

and gas industry. The

typical

used

of ball

valve

in oil

and gas industry are often related

to

harsh environment such as

high

temperature, high pressure and also operated at lower temperature and cryogenic application such

as in

transportation

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). In order to perform

the Page I 1

(11)

operations, the ball valve that being used must be afford

to

open and closed the

flow

of

fluid

without leakage.

The internal part in the ball valve that is important to avoid leakage other than spherical

ball

inside the valve is a seat. Seat is the internal part in the

ball

valve that are used

to

hold the

ball

when the

valve in

closed position. There are

two

typed

of

seat that currently being used

in

the

ball

valve, which are metal seated and soft seated. The typical problems that contribute

to

leaking are alignment

of

the

seat and

ball with the

internal

wall of the valve [2]. A little

misalignment between the seat and the

ball will

make a space that contribute

to

leakage when the valve

in

closed position.

This

occurs when the seat are having deformation.

Besides, an erosion also occur when

the ball valve

are

partially

open

or

close.

The impingement

of

the

high

speed

flow of fluid will

damage the seat and also the ball. Since ball valve are

typically

been used to carry a crude

oil,

the material used in constructed the seat also contributed the leakage. For example, the metal seated

will

experience scratch

and pitting as the

crude

oil

contains abrasive particles that can damage the surface

of

the seat and also the

ball.

These kinds

of

action also shorten the life of the seat.

1.3

Objective

The objectives of this project are:

Use Reverse Engineering technology to analysis and made

further improvement to the seat design.

To

determine

the effect of fluid flow to the

seat design

of ball valve

by conducting Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis.

To

determine maximum seat deformation when subjected

to

pressure using Static Structural analysis.

To

propose

new

design

and

material

that can

enhance

the valve

sealing capability.

(12)

1.4 Scope of

Work

This project is research and analysis based that emphasize on improvement

of

the

ball

valve seat design

for oil

and gas application. This project

will

focus on using Reverse Engineering technology in order to achieve a better seat design

for ball

valve. The project

will

be accomplished

in two pds, FYP I

and FYP 2.

In

FYP 1, all the mechanism and material used in

constructiontle curent

ball valve that being used in

oil

in gas industry in detailed

will

be determined. For this part, it required the ball valve that currently used in

oil

and gas industry

to

study in

tb

detail all the design and the material being used in construction the ball valve.

In

FYP 2, the Reverse Engineering stages

will

commence where the ball valve

will

be scanning

to

the

CAD

drawing. Then, the Finite Element Analysis

(FEA) will

be done

using

ANISYS

for its

mechanical properties and

using Coryutational

Fluid Dynamic (CFD) to analysis the

fluid flow

inside the ball valve.

Page | 3

(13)

CHAPTER

2

LITERATURE REYIEW

2.1 Reverse Engineering

Technolory

Engineering

can be defined as the

process

of

designing, manufacturing, assembling and maintaining product and systems. Vinesh Raja and

Kiran

Jude Fernandes,

in theh book

stated

that

engineering

can be classified into

two categories,

which is forward

engineering and reverse engineering

[3].

Forward

engineering also

known

as

traditional

engineering

is

the process

to

transforms engineering concepts and model

into

real

parts [3].

Reverse Engineering as

it

name implied is the process

of

duplicating an existing component, subassembly,

or

product, without the aid

of

drawings, documentation,

or

computer model

[4].

The

process sometimes

involves taking

something

apart and analyzing

its working in detail, usually with the intention to construct a new device or program that does the same thing without applying anything from original.

The general process

of

Reverse Engineering is examined how the component work rather than examined why

it

is designed. This kind of method allowed us to study about the technology

that

is used

in

order

to

make

further

improvement.

Reverse

engineering is very common in such diverse fields as

software engineering, aviation industry, automotive, consumer products, and mechanical designs.

There are several reason why Reverse Engineering is

widely

use today, such as

the original

manufacture

of a

product

is no

longer produce

the

product, to explore the ways to enhance the product

or

component perficrmance and features that

will

be focusing

in this

project. Besides, Reverse Engineering also used

to

gain competitive benchmarking methods to understand competitor's products and develop a better product.

(14)

l-rrr

I nEVEnSE I

l*. -*r- I

Figure

1: Differential between Forward Engineering and Reverse Engineering

Page I 5

(15)

2.2 Reverse Engineering Process

Reverse Engineering process can be divided into

four

steps as shown in Figure 2

below [5].

Figure 2: Plnss of Reverse Engircering

The first step in Reverse Engineering is to gererate conceptrnl model based

fiom

physical model. The process of capturing data from physical model is achieved using 3D Scanner also known as data acquisition There are

two

methods of data acquisition which are tactile (contact) and noncontact method

[s].The further explanation of the data acquisition methods is illushated in

Figrrc

3. During the scanning process, the 3D Scanner eitber contact or noncontact

will

move back and forth across the physical model and the system

will

records

t

(16)

information about the surface that can vary from point clouds to complete boundary representation (B-Rep) model.

A

point cloud is a set of vertices in a three-dimensional coordinate systenl These vertices are usually defined by

X, Y,

andZ coordinates, and

tl,pically

is intended to be representative

ofthe

external surface

ofan

object [6].

Figure

3: Data Acquisition Methods

2.2.1

Tactile Contact Method

The Tactile or

Contact method

is

most popular approach

to

shape

capture since

it useful for

inspection purpose

due to high

accuracy

l7l.

Coordinate Measuring Machines

(CMMs) and robotic

arms

with a

touch probe sensing device are the example

of

3D device that being used in Tactile

method. CMMs are often used when high precision is required. It

is considered a contact

tlpe

method that is Numerical Control-driven and can program sampling of points for predefined features

efficiently [7].

CMMs are

very

accurate and

nearly

noise-free

when collecting data from the

object surface due

to it

can

be

programmed

to follow the path

along

the

object surface.

A

part

from

that, there

a

several disadvantages

ufien

using CMMS

La*r

Triragulelioo

SarcoAot5nir

Stuctg1dlilfilrig

Tim.of-Fligtt

Iftrftroctcrs

Page | 7

(17)

such as, slow

to

capture data and also can damaged

the

surface

of

the soft object [7].

2.2.2

Non- Contact Method

Non-contact methods as

its

name suggested,

is a

method where the scanner had no contact

with

the physical object to obtain the point

of

clouds.

Non-contact methods use

light,

sound

or

magnetic

fields to

acquire shape

from objects [5]. In the

case

of contact and

non-contact,

an

appropriate analysis must be performed

to

determine the positions

of

the points on the objects surface. Each method has strengths and weaknesses that require the

data acquisition

system

to be carefully

selected

for the

shape capture functionality desired. The

optical

method is the method that

widely

uses to capture data

for

surface because

of the

fast acquisition rate. There are five important categories

of optical

methods

which

are laser

triangulatioq

time-

of-flight,

interferometers, structured

lighting and

stereo analysis

[5].

This

project will be using VlUscanrM 3D Laser

Scanner manufactured by Creaform

[8].

VIUsca.rrM

3D

Laser Scanner

is a

portable

self

positioning device that allows the user

to

move the object. These features enable the user to get accurate surface data.

Figure 4:

VIUscan"

3D Laser Scanner

(18)

There are several problems occur during data acquisition which is

[9]:

Pnoblem

Explanation

Calibration Occur when setting up the measuring

device. The measuring device should be calibrated first

to

get an accurate data.

Accessibility Occur because

ofthe

configuration

or

topology

ofthe

parts. Required multiple scanners to acquire the data such a part that have hole.

Occlusion Occlusion is the blocking

ofthe

scanning rnedium due to shadowing or obstruction. Required more than one scanner to solve the problern

Fixuring

Fixturing can be classified as

occlusion. The physical object typically must be clamped before scanning, and this result to the fixtrne image also being scanned

\riththe

physical object.

Surface Finish Smoothness and rnaterial coating on the physical object

will

bring a problem during data acquisition The rough surface

will

produce more noise when using both method data acquisition

Table

l:

Data acquisition pnoblems

Page I 9

(19)

The second step in Reverse Engineering is preprocessing data point. The preprocessing data required thLree steps which are

filtering,

smoothing, and reduction of data

[0].

Filtering process need to be done in order to removed noisy point to prevent error in the surface generation

I l].

Preprocessing step take care the acquired data for segmentation and surface

fitting. After

done the preprocessing step, the segmentation and surface finish take place. The process

of

divided each point into subset is called segmentation. Every divided subset only contain those point sampled from a particular natural surface

[2].Then,

the

surface type of each subset

will

be classified such as planar, cylindrical or others.

The surface

fitting

is a process where the surface type

will

be

fit

to each subset accordingly. There is several method of segmentation which is Edge Based, and Region Based or Face Based

[2].

2.3 Ball

Valve Design

Ovewiew

Valve

is a device that can control the

flow of fluid

and pressure

by

starting and stopping the

flow of fluid,

increased speed

of fluid flow

by throttling method and also

controlling the

direction

of the fluid []. A ball valve is a

rotational

motion

valve

that

uses

a

spherical disc

to

stop

or

start

the flow of fluid.

The sphere has a hole

or

port through the middle. When the valve handle is turned to open

the

valve,

the

sphere

will

rotates

to a point

where

the hole

through the sphere

or

ball

will

in line

with

the valve inlet and outlet that resutt the

fluid flow

through the valve.

The flow-control characteristic that arises from a round port moving across a circular seat and from the double pressure drop across the

two

seats is very good.

However, if the valve is left partially open for an

extended

period

under conditions

of

a high pressure drop across the ball, the soft seat

will

tend

to flow

around the edge of the ball orifice and possibly lock the ball in that

position Ball

valves

for

manual control are therefore best suited

for

stopping and starting

flow

and moderate

throttling. If flow

control is automatic, the

ball

is continuously on

(20)

the move, thus keeping this failure from normally occurring [13]. The ball moves across the seats with a

wiping

motion, ball valves

will

handle fluids

with

solids

in

suspension. However, abrasive solids

will

damage the seats and the ball surface.

Figure 5: Trunnion ball valve

Page | 11

(21)

Trunalqr Dcr$a

l.

Body

2. Closure 3. Glsket 4. Body Sn/d 5. B@ N'.t 6. Ball

7. Se.lt Ring 8. Seat Sp'irg 9. Gasket

I O. Stem I

l.lq/

12. Drive Pin 13. G6ket 14. Body Cover I S. G6ket 16. Capsc'ew 17. B..rshrng I 8. Adapter Fbnge

19. Capscrevv 20. Thrust Wasfier 21. Trunnkyr 22. Beanrg_

23. Galket

24. Trunniqr Cover 25. Gasket

26. Capscrerr 27. Dowel Pln

Figure 6: Exploded view of Trunnion ball valve

(22)

2.4Ba,ll Valve Seat Design

The

most popular seat material

for ball

valves

is

PTFE,

which is inert

to almost

all

chemicals

[3]. This

property

is

combined

with a low

coefficient

of

frictioru a wide range of temperature applicatioru and excellent sealing properties.

However,

the

physical properties

of PTFE include also a high

coeffrcient

of

expansion, susceptibility

to cold flow, and poor

heat transfer.

The

seat must therefore be designed around these properties. Elastomers such as Buna-N are also used

for

the seats,

but they

impose restrictions

on fluid compatibility

and range

of

temperature application.

In

additioru elastomers tend

to grip the

ball, unless

the fluid

has

sufficient lubricity. For

services unsuitable

for soft

seating, metal and ceramic seating are being used.

Figure

7: PTFE Seat design

Page | 13

(23)

CHAPTER

3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research

Methodolory

In order to make realization of this project, the main objectives highlighted

in

the Chapter

I

need to be accomplished. Apart

ofthat,

gaining understanding

ofthe

project must be done in order to make sure the project's progress

work

smoothly according to plan

Thorough research and literature review

will

be undertaken through the selected and related journal papers and books that including detailed analysis involving data and information gathering that only concentrated on the Reverse Engineering including ball valve design and mechanism in detail.. The relevancy between selected papers, books and project objectives need to be taken into account to ensure the credibility

ofthe

project.

Next, development of the

CAD

model

ofthe

original ball valve is done accordingly. The modification process to enhance the seat design

will

be done using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) to ensure the

reliability oftbe

improved seat design.

(24)

ffi*m*I

tr'igure 8: Project Methodology

Page I 15

(25)

3.2 Tools and Softwarc

Required

Table below shows the tools and software that required completing this project. The tools and software might change depending on situation.

Tools and Software Description

Noncontact 3D Scanner

-

ViuScan The ViuScan noncontact 3D scanner

will

be use in the data acquisition step. As

for

backup plan in case the equipment is down, the contact 3D scanner that available in UTP which is Coordinate Measurement Machine

(CMlv! will

be

use.

EDM Wirecut This machine

will

be use to cut the ball valve into have for a preparation

for

scanning.

CATIA

and

Mimic CATIA will

be use when the data acquisition is done. The point cloud that was obtained during data acquisition

will

be interpreted using

CATIA

to generate surface.

Mimic

software

will

take place to complete the meshing and volume generation.

ANSYS When the volume mesh is done, AI.ISYS

software

will

take place for Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and also Computational Fluid Dynarnic (CFD) Table 2: Tools and Software required

(26)

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(28)

CHAPTER

4:

RESULT AI\iD DISCUSSION

The very

fust

steps before proceed to the Reverse Engineering process is

amlyzngthe

ball valve that were obtained. The ball valve was being dismantled into each part to enable the study of the mechanism that occurred in the ball valve itself,

After

carefully study each part of the ball valve as shown in the Figure 10, all the parts of the ball valve was assemble back into one piece before proceed to the next steps which is cutting the ball valve into half symmetry.

The ball valve was cut into half using Wirecut Electric Discharge Machine

(EDM

Wirecut) with the helps from lab technician. The purpose

ofthe

cutting process is to get the clear view of all the parts in the ball valve without dismantle

it.

Beside, this also help to measure all the parts accurately using vernier caliper as part

of

Reverse Engineering process which is same as scanning the product.

4.1

Ball

Valve Technical Specification

o

%

nchBall

valve size for water/oiVgas application

o

Padlocking device

o

Body: Stainless Steel316 (SS316)

o

Stern: Stainless Steel316 (SS316)

o

Seat: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

o

End Connections : Threaded Ends Ball valve

o

Working Pressure: 1000 psi

o

Temperature Range: -50o F to 400o F

o

Test Standard and Specification:

API

598 and

API6D

Page | 19

(29)

4.2 Reverse Engineering Development Process

Figure

9: EDM

Wirecut product

v.L." r lEh lm WOC Flo.tlrra a.ll V.lw

Figure

10: Ball valve Dismantle process

Page | 20

(30)

The CAD model of the ball valve was

obtained

by using Direct

Measurement

Method of

Reverse Engineering.

AII the

measurement

was

entered

into CATIA

software to develop the

CAD

model of ball valve as shown in Figure 11.

Figure 1l: CATIA

Model of Ball Valve

Page | 21

(31)

Figure 12 has shown the

CAD

model

of

ball valve during meshing operation. This operation was done by using

A){SYS

Software as the

first

steps of analyzing the ball valve.

After

completed this meshing process, the

CAD

model can be available

for

Computational Fluid Analysis (CFD) to get the

flow profile

in the ball valve. In this research, the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis

will

be use to analyze the effect

of fluid flow

to the ball valve seat. Since the ball valve being experimented is a safety control valve, where it only used to open or close the

fluid flow

not for

throttling

applicatiorq the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD)

will

be done to the ball valve at

l00oh opening and obtained the velocity and pressure

profile

inside the valve that affect the seat.

4.3

Simulation

parameters

V.lo(it,inl.t conrtant.t 3 m,r5

'Vclocaty oud(t

Fluid flor" diraction

Material Water as

liquid

Stecl as solid

Density

(Kg/m')

998.3 8030

Viscosity

(I(dm-s)

0.001003

Page I 22

(32)

\ V

t

.\t

\

/ )

I I

t

I t

>+

,l

Figure l2:

Meshed Ball Valve

Page | 23

(33)

4.4

Simulation

Result and Discussion

The ball valve was analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis

by ANSYS FLUENT

software

to

check

the effect of fluid flow on variation

valve's opening degrees.

The fluid

domain has been set

to

water where

the velocity of

water travel through

is 3

m/s.

Figure

13

to

17 that were obtained

from Coryutational Fluid

Dynamic (CFD) analysis using ANSYS

FLUENT

clearly indicated the increasing speed and pressure

of

the

fluid flow right

after

it

travel through the orifrce where the seat and the

ball

were placed. This situation can bring a damages to the seat

of

the

ball ralve

as the erosion occurred where the high

velocity fluid tavel to

the surface

of

the seat. The particles that contained

in

the

fluid

can damages the surface

of

the seat and caused the ball valve leaked.

o

Result of Ball valve

at

l00o/o opening

O O-O. (m)

I

o,o2

Figure

13: Velocity vector of ball valve

r

F.-

Page | 24

(34)

Figure

14: Velocity

contourof

ball valve O.O. (m)

-_---__,:-..:l

o.02

O.(}. (rn) o.02

Figure

15: Pressure contour of ball valve

Page | 25

(35)

o

-

o.02

O,O4 (m)

t, i- , ....,:1 , ,..,;

Figure

16: Velocity streamline

#l

of ball valve

O O.O4 (m)

E"r -'r

Figure

17: Velocity streamline #2 of ball valve

e.78re1

o.(xrcc+oo(, [m.^-11

l..

?

Page I 26

(36)

Figure

18: Flow Rate Vs Valve Opening Degree

The graph Flow rate Vs Valve Opening Degree above shown that the incneases of the valve opening

will

be affecting the

flow

rate. The relationship is linear where when the valve opening increases, the

flow

rate also increasing.

Page | 77

(37)

In

order to validate the result obtained from the analysis of the ball valve, the seat of the ball valve were analysis using the same method to see clearly the effect

of fluid flow

the seat itself. As shown in Figure 19 to 23,

it's

proved that the high velocity and pressure occurred around the seat as the

fluid

travel through

it.

The increasing in speed as the

fluid

travelled through the seat as shown in Figure 19,

will

resulted the seat to darnage as the erosion occurred.

O.Ot (m)

---_]

o.q)5

Figure

19: Velocity vector of the seat

t-

2

Page | 28

(38)

o

o.ol (m)

-orou

I

F'igure 20: Velocity streamline #1 vector

ofthe

seat

o

o.o1 (m)

-;s;.--r

Figure 2l:

Velocity streamline #2 of the seat

Page | 29

(39)

Figure 22: Velocity contour of the seat

-7 -1.

-t

-1 -2

o

-

o.oo5

o.o1 (m)

O O.O1 (m)

-

o.oo5

Figure

23: Pressure contour of the seat

I

I I I

Page | 30

(40)

For

additional testing, the seat also being tested using Static Structural analysis method where

the

seat subjected

to

pressure

which is 6.9

MPa

or

equal

to

the valve working pressure, 1000

psi.

Based

on the result obtained from the simulation

analysis, the deformation occurred as the valve subjected

to

6.9 MPa pressure. Although the value is small which is 0.124 mm, but is

will

gradually increases over time which

will

contribute to valve leaking. The Von Misses stress is 50.875 MPa.

o

Seat Static Structural Analysis Parameters

Meteriel

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

Youngts

Modulus

500 MPa

Poisson

Ratio

0.46

Seat

Diameter 6mm

Prcssure Subjected 5.9 MPa

Page | 31

(41)

D IIPL}CEilETT

t[EDrt llrD .1

rltc.r

Dt'I .. L2q211

tDD 3 eole

02 : ll9: Il

Flgure

24: Seat Deformation

Page | 32

(42)

roDll. lour"10, 'IED'I

t,ul -l' tlE.l'

llaQv (lu6) E -.laata?

I -E-Ort r .to-c?l

tEP 3 eOIt

O2 : il6: 3?

lo. I?9 20. 353 30. 528 {0. ?o2 so.8?6

Figure 25: Von Misses stress of the seat

Page I 33

(43)

4.5 Analysis

for

Design

Improvement

of the seat

There are two material have been tested in order

to

improve the sealing capability

of

the seat. The materials that been tested using Static Structural anelysis are Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) and

Nitinol which

is the combination

of nickel

and

titanium alby.

TPU

usually used

for

pipes and hoses as

it

resistance

to

abrasion and also resistarce

to oil

and grease. On the other hand,

Nitinol

are

the

material

with

unusual propertic.s

It

super elastic characteristic have made

it

suitable

for

medical purposes such as the

wires

which are used to locate and mark the breast tumor

to

get the accuracy

in

surgery. Thp1G are

nnny

advantages of TPU and

Nitinol

as shown below:

i.

ThermoplasticPolyurethane(TPU)Features:

o

Resistance to abrasion

o

Outstanding low temperature performance

o

High shear strength

o

High

Elasicity

o

Good

oil

and gr€ase resistance

ii. Nitinol

(Nickel and Titanium

alloy)

Features:

o

Super elastic material

o

Biocornpatibility and corrosion resistance

o

Can withstand high

te,ryeratue

Pr:13.

(44)

*

Static Structural analysis parameters

Materiel

Thermoplastic Polyurethane

(TPU)

Nitinol

Young's Modulus

27lvlPa

83000 MPa

Poisson

Retio

0.45 0.33

Seat

Diameter

6mm 6mm

Pressure Subjected

1000 psi

@6.9MPa

1000 psi @ 6.9 MPa

Based on the result obtained,

Nitinol

had less deformation comFared to

Tpu

aod

abo

PTFE. The rnaximum deformation occurred when 1000 psi pressure subjectc4 it onty deformed about 0.000698 which is far better

coryared with

the

origi"al st lratcri.l

which

is PTFE. Based on the this analysis only, we can determined

rhrt Nitiml

is

tb

zuitable material to replace PTFE in constructed the seat for ball nalve as it

hd

supcr elastic characteristic that

will

decreased the seat leakage due to

deformatbn

PXC 135

(45)

D IIPLACEIIEN

trEP=l lntl =t llE=l D8, =?-268

s, t toL

05.

l,

.ta

Diarneter after defrlrrratl nn

Figure

26: Deformation of TPU seat material

P.ge | 36

(46)

roDel. lol.ultotr

'TEPEl.

tul EL I lllf =l

lEQl, ( Av6!

DE,, =2.286 lE =s-096 Iq =50-Esl

E' t tolt

O5: ltl: Ot

IO. I8 20. 3.tg 30 _ srs {o- 643

Figure

2TzYonMisses stress of TPU seat material

Another solution to overcome the valve leakage due to seat

faild to gir€ sting

capability is by design the

two

layer seat. The

first

layer

will

used to hold thc ball insidc the valve to give the sealing capability as the other layer

will

acts as

redrdam

in

ca*

tbe

first

layer is failed to give sealing capability to the ball. By this way, thc valrrc

will still

operate with optimum performance. Figure 29

until32

has shown

tb Stfih

stnrctural result of the double layer seat. Although the deformation arc

slightl! higb

from the single layer seat that were used in the original design,

hrt it will afEalng tb

performance of ball valve to operate. The ball valve still can operate errcn thortrh

tb

firs

layer of the seat failed due to darnages as the other hyer

will

gives

tb

sc-lrqg

capability to the valve.

Et

137

(47)

D I'DLACEtrEN ttEP=l SIrl =.1.

t lllE=l E =.69EE-03

lar r tcll

03 0a aa

Dr arreter aftcr dtfrrrnrat on

Orr3tnal

Dr rr'rcttr

Figure

28: Deformation

ofNitinol

seat material

Pra ltt

(48)

toDal. 30l.urI0r trEP=l

'ul -r

llErJ,

EQl' (Alre )

E =-69C8-03 3 E5-106 E 150.?9

sGt t tctl

Ot: et:

tt

lo. r82 zo- 334 30. {46 ro- 638 as. ?la EO.7t

Figure

29: Von Misses stress

ofNitinol

seat rnaterid

PGIT

(49)

t,oLurEl

t'!E! m

1' PAES

6-9

IEP S l0l,l Ol: tlt: l{

Figure 30: Resulted pressure to the double layer seat

PIa ItE

(50)

D ISPLACEUf,TT

stf,P=r

slrl =l

T IIE=I

DID( =. r5024

IDP S aole 0l: 52: l5

[rr arreter aftrr ritf,irrratr r'n

Orr gr nal Diarrtrr

Figure

3l:

Deformation of double layer seat

Page | 41

(51)

ttoDAL sol.ufI0r

TEP=I SlrD =l

T IIIE=I

SEQV (AVG)

DID( =- t502.1 3lltr =5.031 3lo( =50-?2{

IED S aol2 0l: tlS: 0?

s_03r Is"I8s 2s-339 3s_493 t-a

{s-6{?

r0 - 108 zo-262 30-.u6 {0. s? so. ?2a

Figure 32: Von Misses stress of double layer seat

Page | 42

(52)

CHAPTER

5

CONCLUSION AI\D RECOMMENDATION 5.I CONCLUSION

In

a conclusion,

this

project

is

a comprehensive research study about how

to

adapt Reverse Engineering technology in order to improve an existing design of the ball valve.

This project

will

be beneficial for the

oil

and gas industry as the improved design

of

the

ball

valve can served better

with

great sealing capability that can prevent

fluid

leakage and extend the

life

service

of

the

ball

valve. Computational

Fluid

Dynamic

(CFD)

was selected as an analysis method

to

determine

the flow profile

inside

the ball

valve the

fluid

passage through

it.

Based from the result obtained from the CFD result,

it

clearly shows that the increasing speed as the

fluid

travel through the

orifice of

the

ball

valve where the seat were located can bring damages

to

the surface

of

the seat as the erosion occurred. The repeatable impingement

of

high

velocity fluid

that contained particle can bring damages to the surface of the seat that reduced the

life

services and also potentially caused

a leaking as the

sealing

capability

has been reduced.

This problem can

be overcome by using different type

of

material

to

construct a seat that can withstand high

velocity fluid

impact.

The

double layers seat also can be used

to

overcome

the

seat damages. The

frst

layer

of

the seat

will

used

to

hold the

ball

and the other layer

will

used as redundant in case the

fust

layer

of

the seat

friled to

give the sealing capability.

Overall, the objectives

of this

project have been successfully achieved

within

ttrc time frame given. Reverse Engineering technology have been proved that the analysis and improvement can be done less

in time

compared

to

conventional engineering method where starts again from the conceptual design.

Page ! 43

(53)

5.2

RECOMMENDATIONS

For a suggested future

worlq

anotlrer simulation

onthe

ball valve seat can bc done

in

order to validate further the simulation rezuh obtained from this

simulation Coryrable

studies between the resuh obtain

from

the actual

e:periment in the

laborafiory and the resuh obtain

the

simulation

is highly

recommend as

the validation work

can

bc

more accurate.

P.lp

l aa

(54)

REFERENCES

l. DOE-HDBK-101812-93;VALVE

FUNCTIONS

AND BASIC

PARTS, http://www.sidb.itu.edu.trlsaf7sogut/den322lNoteyvalves.pdf ; Viewed on 2810212012

2.

R.W.Zappe, Valve Selection Handbook, Fourth

Editiorr

(1999)

pp

I

l-14

3.

Vinesh Raja and Kiran Jude Fernandes, Reverse Engineering :

An

Industrial Perspective, (2008) pp 2

4. H.A. Khalili, A.

Maleki, and S.Ayatollahi, Using Combination

of

Reverse Engineering and Value Engineering for Improvement in Designs,

Construction Projects and Manufacturing Industries, in Proceedings of the

4lst

International Conference on Computers

&

lndustrial Engineering.

5.

Varady. T, Martin. R

&

Cox. J, (1996), Reverse Engineering of geometric

modeFan

introduction. Computer Aided

Desigrl

6.

Point Cloud, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Po

int-cloud:

Viewed on 2810212012

7.

W. B. Thompson, H. J. de St. Gerrnain,

T.

C. Hendersoq J. C. Owen, and S.

R. Starh Feature- Based Reverse Engineering of Mechanical Parts,

IEEE

Transactions on Robotic and Automation" Yol.

l5

(1999)

8.

The

VlUscanr"

3D Laser Scanner,

http://www.creaform3d.cony'en/handyscan3d/productVviuscanaspx?ic:Hld+

link&ie=equest+information+viuscan; Viewed on O910312012

9.

Varady. T, Maftin,

& &

Cox, J. (1997). Reverse Engineering of geometric

modeHan

introduction. Computer Aided Design,

Vol.

29,

No.4, pp.255-

268, ISSN 0010-4485

Page | 45

(55)

10.

I.

Budak,

M.

Sakovic, J. Kopac, and J. Hadolic, Point Data Pre-Processing Based on Fuzzy

Logic

for Reverse Engineering

Modelling,

Journal

of

Mechanical Engineering (2009)

I

l. M.

Salman

A.

Mansor, Free-Form Surhce Models Generation Using Reverse Engineering Technique- An Investigation

12.

M.

Rahayem,

An

Industrial Robot as Part of an Automatic System

for

Geometric Reverse Engineering

13. R.W.Zappe, Valve Selection Handbooh Fourth Editioru (1999)

pp l0l-l

12

PaSc

l,f6

Figura

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