(2) I declare that this thesis entitled “Above Ground Biomass and Carbon Stock of Liana in 1 ha Plot at Gunung Basor Forest Reserve” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.. Signature. : ..................................................... Name. : NUR SYAFIRA BINTI MOHAMAD PAZOL. Date. :. i. FYP FSB. DECLARATION.
(3) “I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this thesis is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Applied Science (Natural Resources Science) with Honors”. Signature. : ………………………….......... Name of Supervisor : Date. :. ii. FYP FSB. APPROVAL.
(4) Alhamdulillah, thanks to Allah SWT whom with His willing giving me the opportunity to complete this Final Year Project which entitle above ground biomass and carbon stock of liana in 1 ha area of Gunung Basor Forest Reserve. I am very grateful to Allah S.W.T for His blessing. Firstly, I would like to express my deepest thanks to my supervisor, Dr. Norashikin Binti Mohd Fauzi, who always provides support, valuable information, constructive suggestions, constructive comments, and guidance in the compilation and preparation for this final year project. With her timely and efficient contribution, it helps me to runs this project smoothly. Besides, thanks to the Jabatan Perhutanan Negeri Kelantan for granting the permit permission to execute this study. Also thanks to Faculty of Earth Science Universiti Malaysia Kelantan as giving the permission to do this Research Study and not forgetting thanks to all lab assistants for the helping. Next, special thanks goes to the research assistant, Syahmi Bin Hanafi and my teammates, Maizatul Afiqah Binti Mohd Zaki, Rabaitul Athirah Binti Ahmad Azhar, Nik Norain Binti Nik Hassan and Nur Shuhadah Binti Azahari who help me to assemble the parts and gave a lot of suggestion about the study. They also help me a lot during my sampling and support me unconditionally. Their knowledge is what I admire the most and it definitely helps my research indirectly. Moreover, my gratitude also been extended to Balqis Zahari, Siti Nursyamimi and all my classmates for their moral support. Finally, I would like to express my appreciation to my parent, Mohamad Pazol Bin Abdul Talib and Faiza Binti Saad and my siblings for their encouragement and moral support as well as financial support from the beginning until the end of this study. Without their positive guidance, I would not have come this far.. iii. FYP FSB. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.
(5) Basor Forest Reserve, Jeli, Kelantan. Abstract. Lianas are a type of climbing vine found throughout tropical rainforests. Lianas have thick, woody stems and come in various lengths that up to 3,000 ft and varying shapes. The study area was carried out at Gunung Basor Forest Reserve, Jeli Kelantan. Therefore, the primary focus in this study was to determine the aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in Gunung Basor Forest Reserve. The aboveground biomass and carbon stocks were measured in 1 ha plot. The aboveground biomass and carbon stock had been determined by using field measurement and the diameters of all living lianas individuals were measured. The total aboveground biomass of lianas species for 1 ha plot was 915.95 Mg/ha. Meanwhile, the total carbon stock of lianas species for 1 ha plot was 457.98 Mg/ha. Based on the results, the highest aboveground biomass was acquired at diameter classes ranged from 10.0 cm to 10.5 cm, due to the larger diameter of lianas. Based on observation, the contribution of lianas in forest ecosystems may play a vital role in carbon sequestration. The past and present anthropogenic disturbances on forest may cause an increase in invasion of exotic species and contribution to liana abundance. This study is vital in providing data on the carbon storage capacity of tropical forests in Kelantan and may as well aid in the decision making processes for sustainable forest management.. iv. FYP FSB. Above Ground Biomass and Carbon Stock of Liana in 1 ha Plot at Gunung.
(6) Rizab Hutan Gunung Basor, Jeli, Kelantan. Abstrak. Liana adalah jenis pokok memanjat yang terdapat di seluruh hutan hujan tropika. Liana mempunyai batang yang tebal, berkayu dan datang dalam pelbagai kepanjangan sehingga 3,000 kaki dan pelbagai bentuk. Kawasan kajian telah dijalankan di kawasan rizab Hutan Gunung Basor, Jeli, Kelantan. Oleh itu, tumpuan utama dalam kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan biojisim di atas tanah dan stok karbon di Hutan Simpan Gunung Basor. Biojisim di atas tanah dan stok karbon diukur di dalam plot berukuran 1 ha. Biomas dan stok karbon di atas tanah telah ditentukan dengan menggunakan kaedah lapangan dan diameter setiap individu liana yang hidup telah diukur. Jumlah biojisim di atas bagi spesies liana untuk plot 1 ha ialah 915.95 Mg/ha. Sementara itu, jumlah stok karbon bagi spesies lianas untuk plot 1 ha ialah 457.98 Mg/ha. Berdasarkan hasilnya, biojisim tertinggi di atas tanah diperolehi daripada kelas diameter berkisar antara 10.0 cm hingga 10.5 cm, hal ini kerana liana mempunyai diameter yang lebih besar pada kelas tersebut. Berdasarkan pemerhatian, sumbangan liana dalam ekosistem hutan dapat memainkan peranan penting dalam penyerapan karbon. Gangguan antropogenik yang lalu dan sekarang di hutan boleh menyebabkan peningkatan pencerobohan spesies eksotik dan sumbangan kepada kelimpahan liana. Kajian ini adalah penting dalam menyediakan data mengenai kapasiti stok karbon hutan tropika di Kelantan dan juga dapat membantu dalam proses membuat keputusan untuk pengurusan hutan lestari.. v. FYP FSB. Biojisim Atas Tanah dan Stok Karbon bagi Liana dalam Plot 1 ha di Kawasan.
(7) TITLE. PAGE. DECLARATION. i. APPROVAL. ii. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. iii. ABSTRACT. iv. ABSTRAK. v. TABLE OF CONTENTS. vi viii. LIST OF TABLE LIST OF FIGURES. ix. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. x. LIST OF SYMBOLS. xi. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of Study. 1. 1.2. Problem Statement. 3. 1.3. Objective. 3. 1.4. Scope of Study. 4. 1.5. Significance of Study. 4. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Liana Ecosystem. 5. 2.2. Liana Abundance and Diversity. 6. 2.3. Biomass. 7. 2.4. Carbon. 8. 2.5. The Vital of Biomass for Carbon Cycle. 9. vi. FYP FSB. TABLE OF CONTENT.
(8) Compartment of Carbon Pool in Terrestrial Ecosystem. 10. 2.7. Methodology to Estimate Biomass. 11. 2.8. Allometric Equation. 12. CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1. Study Area. 13. 3.2. Materials. 15. 3.3. Methodology. 17. 3.3.1. Sampling Plotting. 17. 3.3.2. Coordinate Point. 18. 3.3.3. Diameter Measurement. 19. 3.4. Data Analysis. 19. CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Total Number of Lianas Species and Diameter Classes. 20. 4.2. 22. Aboveground Biomass (AGB) and Carbon Stock. CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1. Conclusion. 26. 5.2. Recommendations. 27. REFERENCES. 28. Appendix A: The Overview of Sampling Plot. 30. Appendix B: Establishment of Sampling Plot and Data Collections. 31. Appendix C: The Overview of Lianas Species in 1 ha Area of Sampling Plot. 33. Appendix D: Planning of Final Year Project. 35. vii. FYP FSB. 2.6.
(9) No.. TITLE. PAGE. 3.1. List of materials. 15. 3.2. The list of coordinate points in sampling site. 18. 4.1. Total number of lianas at twenty one classes of diameter. 21. 4.2. Aboveground biomass and carbon stock at twenty one. 23. classes of diameter D.1. Planning of Final Year Project (Appendix D). viii. 35. FYP FSB. LIST OF TABLES.
(10) No.. TITTLE. PAGE. 3.1. A map of the study area. 14. 3.2. Plot. 17. 4.1. Graph of the total number of lianas at twenty one classes. 20. of diameter 4.2. Aboveground biomass and carbon stock at twenty one. 22. classes of diameter 4.3. Graph of aboveground biomass at twenty one classes of. 24. diameter 4.4. Graph of carbon stock at twenty one classes of diameter. ix. 25. FYP FSB. LIST OF FIGURES.
(11) AGB. Aboveground biomass. ha. Hectare. Mg. Megagram. DBH. Diameter at breast height. m. Meter. Exp. Exponential function. Ft. Feet. Cm. Centimetre. Mm. Millimetre. Ln. Natural logarithm. D. Diameter. C. Celsius. GPS. Global Position System. Asl. Above sea level. IPCC. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. C. Carbon. Pg. Petagram. x. FYP FSB. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.
(12) %. Percent. =. Equal to. +. Addition. -. Subtraction. ×. Multiplication. °. Degree. ∑. Summation. ±. Plus and minus. ÷. Division. /. Division or slash. (). Parentheses. &. Ampersand. . Bracket. ". Minutes. '. Seconds. xi. FYP FSB. LIST OF SYMBOLS.
(13) FYP FSB. CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION. 1.1. Background of Study Lianas are a kind of climbing vine found all through tropical rainforests.. Lianas have thick, woody stems and come in different lengths that up to 3,000 ft and varying shapes. A few of liana families found in the forest of Malaysia are Acanthaceae,. Annonaceae,. Connaraceae,. Convolvulaceae,. Dichopetalaceae,. Gnetaceae, Hippocrateaceae, Icacinaceae, Leeaceae, and Leucinacea (Appanah et al., 1993). Lianas began living on the forest floor however relying upon the tree for support as lianas climb up towards the sunlight that lianas need in order to survive. In time lianas extend into the canopy, lianas reach through the understory and lower canopy trees, and occasionally growing up with the tree that support lianas community. Since lianas are supported by other trees, the stems of lianas do not have to be as strong and massive like a tree trunk. Besides, lianas are a vital feature of the rainforest. This is because of the large crowns of lianas bind adjacently the crowns of canopy trees, so that the trees remain upright even when severed at the base. In addition, if there were no lianas, the crowns of neighbouring trees would suffer more damage when the tree fell.. 1.
(14) should be flexible in order to avoid from being snap when the trees that support lianas sways. Lianas must be able to run all the water that need by their large crown and all the food produced in the leaves, which are essential to support and develop the root system of lianas species. Moreover, lianas stems might be extremely long. So, if the trees that support lianas fall, lianas stem will lie on the forest floor in a tangle of coils and the crowns leaves will die quickly in the dense shade. However, a new long shoot will appear and climbing up into the canopy. Thus, a lianas stem may rise into one tree and drop down to the forest floor but lianas definitely will climb up back to another tree. Furthermore, tropical forests play a double role in global climate change where their high potential for stocking biomass may be vital in reducing climate change, and their destruction contributes to increasing greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere (Zarin, 2012). However, there is less prediction on the impact of forest degradation on climate change. From one viewpoint, human-mediated disturbances can lead to biomass loss in to tropical forests in the further. But on the other hand, such disturbances may prevent the recovery of pre-disturbance biomass stocks (Ghazoul et al., 2015). The study was executed at Gunung Basor Forest Reserve because there is no previous research done on aboveground biomass (AGB) and carbon stock of liana species.. 2. FYP FSB. Nevertheless, lianas must be able to support their own weights. Lianas also.
(15) Problem Statement There are a few of human activities such as changing of land uses in. Gunung Basor Permanent Forest Reserve that can cause long term disturbance of forest ecosystem. The existence of lianas in a healthy forest ecosystem gave an effect to the growth of trees. Liana emerged when there is a wide forest gap due to either anthropogenic activities or natural disaster. The high percentage of forest gap will stimulate the growth of liana and soon it will start to strangle the trees. As the time goes by, those trees strangled by liana will not be able to survive due to the constriction of water and food vessels. The existence of liana caused mortality among the trees. This will bring a big loss to timber industry and forestry department whenever the trees with DBH exceeding 30 cm felled down by virtue of lianas’ strangling. For the time being, the selected study site had been untouched for almost 30 years after it was harvested in late 1990s. However, the existence of forest gaps in this study site had stimulated the growth of lianas. Unfortunately, for the time being, no study on liana has been conducted in this study site. Henceforth, it is vital to determine the biomass of lianas in this harvested area and the carbon storage within the lianas. By estimating the carbon stocks in lianas, this assists the local authority in carbon stock management.. 1.3. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the aboveground biomass and. carbon stock of liana species in 1ha plot at Gunung Basor Forest Reserve.. 3. FYP FSB. 1.2.
(16) Scope of Study In this study, the primary focus was to determine the aboveground biomass. and carbon stock in Gunung Basor Forest Reserve. The aboveground biomass and carbon stock had been determined by using field measurement. The diameters of all living liana individuals were measured. Besides, the aboveground biomass of lianas was estimated using the allometric equation and biomass estimation.. 1.5. Significance of Study From this study, the baseline data assisted The Kelantan State Forestry. Department particularly Silviculture Department in taking an appropriate action to control the growth lianas in the forests such as trimming or cutting down the liana that can cause potential harm to dipterocarp trees. Apart from that, the data can be used as a guideline for the government to take further action in good environmental management practices. This study also provides pertinent information about the value of carbon stock of liana species in Gunung Basor Forest Reserve. Furthermore, the result of this study can also be used for future researchers in the same field.. 4. FYP FSB. 1.4.
(17) LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1. Liana Ecosystem Lianas, also spelled as liane has a long stems and a woody vines that are. rooted in the soil and climbing around the other plants. Lianas are a tropical forest ecosystem component that is easy to see and represent one of the most essential structural differences among tropical and temperate forests. Flattened or twisted lianas frequently turned out to be tangled together to form a hanging network of vegetation. Besides, lianas belong to some different plant families and can grow up to 60 cm which is about 24 inches in diameter and 100 metres which about 330 feet in length. In order to place their own leaves into the bright part of the forest canopy, these structural parasites the trunks and limbs of tropical trees to support it. The presence of large lianas gives an excellent indication of the older or more mature stands of forest. Lianas are a prominent characteristic in many tropical forests. As climbing plants, lianas have a much reduced requirements for the woody tissue investments that need to stand freely. However, lianas successfully managed to obtain access the upper canopy of their host trees. By doing that, lianas are often to capture a maximum available solar radiation, so that lianas presence can alter a cascading range of ecosystem processes (Putz, 1984; Schnitzer & Bongers, 2002). 5. FYP FSB. CHAPTER 2.
(18) of the forest biomass and smothering the crowns of the host trees, lianas also profoundly affect the structure of forest canopies (Putz, 1983; Gerwing & Farias, 2000; Ferment et al., 2001). Lianas were classified as autotrophic plants which include mechanically independent and dependent plants (Richards, 1952; Whitmore, 1975).. 2.2. Liana Abundance and Diversity Despite the fact that lianas species are common in many temperate forest. but in tropical forest lianas contribution to forest diversity, abundance, and structure is more considerable. Gentry (1991) reported that, in many tropical forests, lianas usually comprise of 25% of woody stems density and species richness. Even though the abundance of lianas species is higher in Africa, the composition of taxonomies, abundance, and decent variety of lianas in lowland tropical moist and wet forest are comparable among tropical regions. Liana abundance varies with some of the major abiotic factors, including soil fertility, the seasonality of rainfall, total rainfall, and disturbance. In the neotropics, lianas abundance increased with the seasonality of rainfall (Gentry, 1991). Based on studies conducted throughout the neotropics and in Asia which is in Sarawak suggests that liana abundance tends to increase with soil fertility (Putz, & Chai, 1987), but this relationship is weak.. 6. FYP FSB. Lastly, by modifying the light environmental of sub canopy, the partitioning.
(19) abundance in the forest interior but not near to the forest edge, whereas forest disturbance and tree biomass significantly predicted liana abundance throughout the forest (Laurance et al., 2001).. 2.3. Biomass Wood has long been used as a form of energy. Even in the modern world,. more wood is used for fuel than for all other uses combined. Biomass is defined as the weight of all of the material in a tree that can be used as a source of energy. In more realistic terms, it is the portion of the tree that is above the ground that can be used as fuel. Biomass production is measured as net weight of dry matter. One of the contributing factors to its potential as an energy crop is that whole tree harvest methods convert the entire tree into biomass. This included the branches, bark, and even the leaves. All of this plant material is used and none of the plant is wasted (Burton, 2012). A significant number of biomass fuels utilized today come in the form of wood products, dried vegetation, crop residues, and aquatic plants. In the last two decades, biomass has turned out to be one of the most commonly used renewable sources of energy. It is such a widely utilized source of energy, presumably because of its minimal cost and indigenous nature, which represents relatively 15% of the world's total energy supply and as much as 35% in developing countries, mostly for cooking and heating.. 7. FYP FSB. For example, in central Amazon, soil richness significantly predicted liana.
(20) Carbon In earth’s atmosphere, carbon exists as the gas which is carbon dioxide and. establishes a little rate in the atmosphere just about 0.04% approximately. Nevertheless, carbon plays a vital role in supporting life on earth. As example, plants make themselves from carbon. During photosynthesis, plants take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, converting them into carbohydrates and release oxygen into the atmosphere. At the time this plant dead or burned, the carbon stored in the plants will be released back into the atmosphere. Due to the processes of decay, combustion and respiration, forest can often represent a net source of carbon. Besides, there are few activities such as deforestation, forest degradation, and forest fire that act as sources of carbon. Hence, depending on the type of activity that forest experience, forest can switch between being a source and a sink of carbon over time. Due to both carbon sources and sinks, forest has the potential to form an important component to combat global change. That is the reason why forest plays an important role in the global carbon balance. However, the carbon accounting focus is always on the net change in carbon stock, as the bottom-line of the influx and efflux process. Carbon stock can be defined as a mass of carbon contained in a carbon pool. Carbon stock also known as the amount of carbon stored in the world’s forest ecosystem, especially in soil and living biomass, but also a bit on the dead wood and litter (Houghton, 2005). In addition, it is vital to estimate the forest carbon stocks in order to evaluate the magnitude of carbon trade between the forest ecosystem and the atmosphere. Assessing the amount of carbon sequestered by a forest can give the estimation amount of carbon emitted into the atmosphere when this particular forest area is degraded or deforested.. 8. FYP FSB. 2.4.
(21) how to measure carbon stocks which in turn allow students to comprehend the present status of carbon stocks and also derived future changes in carbon stocks.. 2.5. The Vital of Biomass for Carbon Cycle Biomass is an interesting object for an assortment of reasons. It is vital for. the energy sector as a renewable raw material for solid fuel and food. Nevertheless, biomass is importance for two main reasons in the carbon cycle and climate change prospect. First of all, the biomass in an ecosystem determines the amount of carbon that will be emitted to the atmosphere in form of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide or methane in the case of disturbance. Furthermore, it is utilized for the expulsion of existing carbon in the atmosphere. In addition, half of the total biomass is roughly equal to the carbon amount of vegetation. This feature allows biomass and carbon terms to be used in similar significance for the study of biomass. Thus, the biomass of earth shapes the sinks of carbon called carbon pools. Carbon pool is a system which has the ability to accumulate or release carbon, for example, wood products, soil, forest biomass, and atmosphere. Organic matter in the soil generally holds around three times more carbon than biomass but the carbon in the soil is physically and chemically secured and not easily oxidized (Davidson & Janssens, 2006). Yet, aboveground biomass can easily be released to the atmosphere with a couple of procedures, such as fire, logging, land use change, pests, and some more. Forests accommodate 70% to 90% of terrestrial aboveground and belowground biomass. As a result of the vast majority of biomass. 9. FYP FSB. Additionally, estimating forest carbon stocks can help students figure out.
(22) et al., 1997).. 2.6. Compartment of Carbon Pool in Terrestrial Ecosystem According to the Tanabe and Wagner (2003), the carbon pools of terrestrial. ecosystems involving biomass are theoretically divided into aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, dead mass, soil organic matter and litter. Aboveground biomass can be described as all living biomass above the soil such as bark, stem, stump, branches, seeds, and foliage. The next compartment of carbon pool is belowground biomass. Belowground biomass is all living biomass of live roots below the soil including fine roots that have less than 2 mm diameter, small roots with diameter between 2 mm to 10 mm, and large root which have more than 10 mm of diameter. Unfortunately, fine roots are normally excluded because fine roots usually cannot be empirically distinguished from soil organic matter or litter. Furthermore, dead mass is all non-living woody biomass that not contained in the litter neither in standing and lying on the ground, nor in the soil. Besides, wood lying on the surface, stumps, and dead roots that have diameter equal or larger than 10 cm and greater than 1 m in length also include as a dead wood.. 10. FYP FSB. in forest ecosystems, trees turn out to be more emphasized in biomass studies (Cairns.
(23) minimum diameter chosen by a given country such as 10 cm, lying dead, in various decomposition conditions on organic or mineral soil. To consider an original material like needles as a litter, the material should need to be identifiable first. These are also including litter, fumic and humic layers. Live fine roots with diameter less than the limit recommended for belowground biomass are included in litter or soil organic matter when the fine roots cannot be distinguished from it empirically. While the difference between litter and soil component should be based on particle size that have been recommended by IPCC (2006). Lastly, soil organic matter comprised organic carbon in mineral and organic soils including peat to a specific depth. Live fine roots with diameter recommended for belowground biomass are included with soil organic matter when the live fine roots cannot be distinguished from it empirically.. 2.7. Methodology to Estimate Biomass There are two types of methodology for field measurement to estimate the. tree biomass. The first methodology is the destructive method. This methodology also known as the harvest process is the most direct method for estimation of aboveground biomass and the carbon stocks stored in the forest ecosystems (Gibbs et al, 2007). This methodology involves harvesting all trees in known areas and measuring the weight of different components of harvested trees such as leaves, tree trunks, and branches (Devi & Yadava, 2009). Then, the components will be weighted after oven dried.. 11. FYP FSB. Moreover, litter is all non-living biomass that has a diameter less than a.
(24) small area or small sample size of tree. For a large scale analysis, this methodology is not feasible due to the time and resource consuming, destructive, expensive and strenuous even though this procedure accurately determines the biomass for a particular area. In addition, this methodology also does not apply for degraded forest that contains threatened species (Montès et al., 2000). The next methodology is the non-destructive method. This methodology estimates the tree biomass without felling. The non-destructive method can be used for the protected or rare species. The ways of estimating the aboveground biomass by using non-destructive method is by simply measure the diameter of the tree at the height of breast, the height of the tree, the volume of the tree and the wood density and calculate the biomass using allometric equations (Nowak, 1993). In this study, the non-destructive method had been used.. 2.8. Allometric Equation There are several methods that can be used to determine the aboveground. biomass and carbon stocks. An allometric equation for a tree is developed by calculating the relationship from field measurement of the tree parameter such as diameter of the trunk, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree species, tree height, crown density, age, and also bioclimatic variable (Brown et al., 1997). In this study, the aboveground biomass (AGB) of lianas was estimated by using the following allometric equation from Schnitzer et al. (2006) which is AGB = exp [– 1.484 + 2.657 ln (D)] where D is the diameter of the tree. While the carbon stock was calculated using formula Carbon Stock = Total AGB × 0.5.. 12. FYP FSB. Unfortunately, this methodology of biomass estimation is limited just to a.
(25) MATERIALS AND METHODS. 3.1. Study Area The study was carried out at Gunung Basor Forest Reserve, Jeli Kelantan at. latitude 5°35'57.12"N and longitude 101°48'31.32"E. The total area that covered by Gunung Basor Forest Reserve is 40,613 hectares and 34,762 hectares of Gunung Basor were gazetted as permanent forest reserve. Mean annual rainfall of 2750 to 3000 mm with a temperature between 32°C and 25°C (Norashikin et al., 2016).. 13. FYP FSB. CHAPTER 3.
(26) FYP FSB Figure 3.1: A map of the study area.. 14.
(27) FYP FSB. 3.2. Materials Table 3.1 shows the list of materials used in this study.. Table 3.1: List of materials. No. Item. Image. Description. Was 1. Measuring Tape. used. to. measured. the. diameter. of. plants. (Source: ©Google image). GPS. is. satellite. a based. navigation system that have. 2. Global Position. three. basic. System (GPS). parts. The uses. navigator. of GPS for this field study was to. locate. the. coordinates. of. study area.. Used 3. Rope. established sampling site. (Source: ©Google Image). 15. to.
(28) the distance by taking the actual size. In this field 4. study,. Measuring tape. measuring tape was (Source: ©Google Image). used. to. measured. the. distance. of. study area.. Was 5. Machete. used. to. cutting off the bush. (Source: ©Google image). was 6. Tag. used. identified tree. (Source: ©Google image). 16. to the. FYP FSB. Vital to measure.
(29) Methodology. 3.3.1. Sampling Plot The study site was located within the hill dipterocarp forest at elevation of. 1045 to 1100 m above sea level. The contour of study site was undulating and slightly steep. In this study, one quadrant plot with seven checkpoints had been established. The size of the plot was 1 ha with a measurement of 100 m × 100 m as shown in Figure 3.2. The plot was established by using the red tape.. Figure 3.2: Plot.. 17. FYP FSB. 3.3.
(30) Coordinate Point In this study, seven coordinate points were taken at the sampling site and. each point has been marked in different areas. In addition, the distanced between each point was 50 m and the distanced between each point was fixed. By using GPS, the coordinate at each point was taken. Table 3.2 shows the list of coordinate points in sampling site. Table 3.2: The list of coordinate points in sampling site. Point. Latitude. Longitude. Elevation (m). A. N 05° 30’ 47.1. E 101° 47’ 41.0. 1045. B. N 05° 30’ 47.1. E 101° 47’ 41.7. 1047. C. N 05° 30’ 44.7. E 101° 47’ 43.8. 1094. D. N 05° 30’ 44.0. E 101° 47’ 42.9. 1066. E. N 05° 30’ 44.1. E 101° 47’ 40.8. 1010. F. N 05° 30’ 45.2. E 101° 47’ 44.2. 1097. G. N 05° 30’ 45.0. E 101° 47’ 43.7. 1100. 18. FYP FSB. 3.3.2.
(31) Diameter Measurement A non-destructive method had been used in this study to calculate the. aboveground biomass of lianas species by calculating the diameter of the lianas. In this study, all living lianas with circumference 1.0 cm and above were enumerated, tagged and identified. Enumeration of lianas species were quite challenging because of the stems of lianas exhibits great morphological diversity which requires a more flexible measuring technique. Therefore, the diameter of the measurement point had been followed the method proposed by Schnitzer et al. (2006). Lastly, the formula of diameter has been used to calculate the diameter of lianas species.. Equation 1: Diameter of tree.. 3.4. Data Analysis Allometric equation is the method that has been used to estimate biomass of. the forest. In this study, the aboveground biomass of lianas species was estimated by using the allometric equation that suggested by Schnitzer et al. (2006). In the formula, D is the diameter of the tree. [. ( )]. Equation 2: Aboveground biomass formula.. 19. FYP FSB. 3.3.3.
(32) FYP FSB. CHAPTER 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Total Number of Lianas Species and Diameter Classes. 4.1. From this study, Table 4.1 shows the total number of lianas from twenty one classes of diameter. The numbers of lianas that had been enumerated, tagged and identified were 344 in total. Each of the lianas has been placed in a particular class to facilitate the processing of data. The classification had been made based on the diameter of the tree which are classified into different classes starting from 0.0 cm to 0.5 cm till 10.0 cm to 10.5 cm. Based on the table below, the most quantity of lianas was in range 1.0 cm to 1.5 cm which has 125 quantities of lianas.. Total no of lianas 140 100 80 60 40 Total no of lianas. 20 0. 0.0 - 0.5 0.5 - 1.0 1.0 - 1.5 1.5 - 2.0 2.0 - 2.5 2.5 - 3.0 3.0 - 3.5 3.5 - 4.0 4.0 - 4.5 4.5 - 5.0 5.0 - 5.5 5.5 - 6.0 6.0 - 6.5 6.5 - 7.0 7.0 - 7.5 7.5 - 8.0 8.0 - 8.5 8.5 - 9.0 9.0 - 9.5 9.5 - 10.0 10.0 - 10.5. Total no of lianas. 120. Diameter classes (cm). Figure 4.1: Graph of the total number of lianas at twenty one classes of diameter.. 20.
(33) Diameter classes (cm). Total no of lianas. 0.0 - 0.5. 3. 0.5 - 1.0. 18. 1.0 - 1.5. 125. 1.5 - 2.0. 74. 2.0 - 2.5. 53. 2.5 - 3.0. 29. 3.0 - 3.5. 16. 3.5 - 4.0. 7. 4.0 - 4.5. 9. 4.5 - 5.0. 2. 5.0 - 5.5. 3. 5.5 - 6.0. 1. 6.0 - 6.5. 0. 6.5 - 7.0. 2. 7.0 - 7.5. 0. 7.5 - 8.0. 0. 8.0 - 8.5. 1. 8.5 - 9.0. 0. 9.0 - 9.5. 0. 9.5 - 10.0. 0. 10.0 - 10.5. 1. TOTAL. 344. 21. FYP FSB. Table 4.1: Total number of lianas at twenty one classes of diameter.
(34) Aboveground Biomass (AGB) and Carbon Stock Carbon stock is the quantity of carbon stored in the forest ecosystem, mainly. in living biomass and soil, but to a lesser extent also in dead wood and litter which has the capacity to accumulate or release carbon. But, this study focused more on carbon stock of lianas species. The value of carbon stock has been calculated by the estimation of the aboveground biomass. Thus, this showed that carbon stock and aboveground biomass is related to each other. From this study, Figure 4.2 and Table 4.2 show the value of aboveground biomass and carbon stock at twenty one classes of diameter. Total AGB of lianas species for the twenty one classes of diameter was 915.95 Mg/ha. In the meantime, total carbon stock of lianas species for the twenty one classes of diameter was 457.98 Mg/ha. From this result, the biomass of lianas species in Gunung Basor is importance so that the accumulation of carbon where the vegetation growth remains. However, the size of lianas species also contributes the most to the high biomass for this species.. 100.0 80.0 AGB (Mg/ha). 60.0 40.0. Carbon Stock (Mg/ha). 20.0 0.0 0.0 - 0.5 0.5 - 1.0 1.0 - 1.5 1.5 - 2.0 2.0 - 2.5 2.5 - 3.0 3.0 - 3.5 3.5 - 4.0 4.0 - 4.5 4.5 - 5.0 5.0 - 5.5 5.5 - 6.0 6.0 - 6.5 6.5 - 7.0 7.0 - 7.5 7.5 - 8.0 8.0 - 8.5 8.5 - 9.0 9.0 - 9.5 9.5 - 10.0 10.0 - 10.5. AGB and Carbon Stock. 120.0. Diameter Classes (cm). Figure 4.2: Aboveground biomass and carbon stock at twenty one classes of diameter.. 22. FYP FSB. 4.2.
(35) Diameter Classes (cm) 0.0 - 0.5 0.5 - 1.0 1.0 - 1.5 1.5 - 2.0 2.0 - 2.5 2.5 - 3.0 3.0 - 3.5 3.5 - 4.0 4.0 - 4.5 4.5 - 5.0 5.0 - 5.5 5.5 - 6.0 6.0 - 6.5 6.5 - 7.0 7.0 - 7.5 7.5 - 8.0 8.0 - 8.5 8.5 - 9.0 9.0 - 9.5 9.5 - 10.0 10.0 - 10.5 TOTAL. AGB (Mg/ha) 0.05 2.46 54.80 72.26 100.99 99.78 82.38 52.86 93.38 26.69 53.57 26.02 0.00 77.54 0.00 0.00 64.97 0.00 0.00 0.00 108.20 915.95. Carbon Stock (Mg/ha) 0.03 1.23 27.40 36.13 50.50 49.89 41.19 26.43 46.69 13.35 26.79 13.01 0.00 38.77 0.00 0.00 32.49 0.00 0.00 0.00 54.10 457.98. Figure 4.3 shows that the aboveground biomass of lianas species in Gunung Basor Forest Reserve assorted among the diameter classes ranged from 0.00 Mg/ha to 108.20 Mg/ha. Based on the result, the highest value of aboveground biomass was acquired at diameter classes ranged from 10.0 cm to 10.5 cm which were 108.20 Mg/ha. While the lowest aboveground biomass was obtained at diameter classes ranged from 0.0 cm to 0.5 cm with just 0.05 Mg/ha of AGB.. 23. FYP FSB. Table 4.2: Aboveground biomass and carbon stock at twenty one classes of diameter.
(36) 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 AGB (Mg/ha) 20.0 0.0 - 0.5 0.5 - 1.0 1.0 - 1.5 1.5 - 2.0 2.0 - 2.5 2.5 - 3.0 3.0 - 3.5 3.5 - 4.0 4.0 - 4.5 4.5 - 5.0 5.0 - 5.5 5.5 - 6.0 6.0 - 6.5 6.5 - 7.0 7.0 - 7.5 7.5 - 8.0 8.0 - 8.5 8.5 - 9.0 9.0 - 9.5 9.5 - 10.0 10.0 - 10.5. 0.0. Diameter Classes (cm). Figure 4.3: Graph of aboveground biomass at twenty one classes of diameter.. Figure 4.4 shows the value of carbon stock recorded among the diameter classes in ranged from 0.03 Mg/ha to 54.10 Mg/ha. The value was calculated by multiplying the aboveground biomass of each diameter classes with 0.5. Brown (1986) said that, fifty percent of biomass was considered as the carbon stock of the tree. Besides, based on this result the highest value of carbon stock was acquired at diameter classes ranged from 10.0 cm to 10.5 cm which were 54.10 Mg/ha and the lowest carbon stock estimation was recorded at diameter classes ranged from 0.0 cm to 0.5 cm that was 0.03 Mg/ha.. 24. FYP FSB. Aboveground Biomass (AGB). 120.0.
(37) Carbon Stock. 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 Carbon Stock (Mg/ha). 10.0 0.0 0.0 - 1.0 - 2.0 - 3.0 - 4.0 - 5.0 - 6.0 - 7.0 - 8.0 - 9.0 - 10.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 Diameter Classes (cm). Figure 4.4: Graph of carbon stock at twenty one classes of diameter.. In addition, the total aboveground biomass of lianas species in 1 ha area of Gunung Basor Forest Reserve was 915.95 Mg/ha while the total of carbon stock of lianas species in 1 Ha area of Gunung Basor Forest Reserve was 457.98 Mg/ha. Feldpausch et al. (2012) said, tropical forests store about 285 ± 64 PgC worldwide in aboveground biomass which is over 30% of the earth’s terrestrial carbon, whereas Priyadi et al. (2014) reported that, an ecosystem which is dominated by trees can store more than 70% of the total carbon. Because of the distinction in carbon gains by tree growth, the aboveground carbon stocks of tropical forest will change over time. While, the carbons will loss due to the tree mortality, tree branch loss, and the decomposition of tree branch and stem. In addition, lianas reduce carbon capture of tropical forest by competing with the trees and thus reduce tree growth and prevent the amount of carbon trees are able to sequester (Heijden et al., 2015).. 25. FYP FSB. 60.0.
(38) CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION. 5.1. Conclusion Overall, the objective stated in this study which was to determine the. aboveground biomass and carbon stock of liana species in 1ha plot at Gunung Basor Forest Reserve had been achieved. The total aboveground biomass for 1 ha plot was 915.95 Mg/ha. Meanwhile, the total of carbon stock for 1 ha plot was 457.98 Mg/ha. Based on observation, the contribution of lianas in forest ecosystems may play a vital role in carbon sequestration. The past and present anthropogenic disturbances on forest may cause an increase in invasion of exotic species and contribution to liana abundance. Schnitzer and Bongers (2011) said, this situation is not a good indication as lianas never pay off for the tree biomass that liana displace. This study emphasizes that the knowledge about liana biomass and carbon stocks is essential in the scenario of global climate change and anthropogenic disturbances.. 26. FYP FSB. CHAPTER 5.
(39) Recommendations As a recommendation, there was some study limitation such as the period. time of fieldwork. Thus, it should be given a longer period of time so that the studies are more accurate and concise. Besides, students should also study the weather conditions in the study site so that the weather does not interfere with the study. Lastly, this study also can be a reference for future research.. 27. FYP FSB. 5.2.
(40) Appanah, S., Gentry, A. H., & LaFrankie, J. V. (1993). Liana diversity and species richness of Malaysian rain forests. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 116123. Brown, S. (1997). Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests. FAO Forestry Paper - 134, 1-42. Burton, L. D. (2012). Introduction to forestry science. Cengage Learning. Cairns, M. A., Brown, S., Helmer, E. H., & Baumgardner, G. A. (1997). Root biomass allocation in the world's upland forests. Oecologia, 111(1), 1-11. Davidson, E. A., & Janssens, I. A. (2006). Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change. Nature, 440(7081), 165. Devi, L. S., & Yadava, P. S. (2009). Aboveground biomass and net primary production of semi-evergreen tropical forest of Manipur, north-eastern India. Journal of Forestry Research, 20(2), 151-155. Eggleston, S., (2006). IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES). Feldpausch, T. R., Lloyd, J., Lewis, S. L., Brienen, R. J. W., Gloor, E., Mendoza, A. M., & Murakami, A. A. (2012). Intergrating height into tropical biomass estimates. Biogeosciences, 9, 3381-3403. Ferment, A., Picard, N., Gourlet-Fleury, S., & Baraloto, C. (2001). A comparison of five indirect methods for characterizing the light environment in a tropical forest. Annals of Forest Science, 58(8), 877-891. Gentry, A. H. (1991). Distribution and evolution of climbing plants. Biology of vines, 3-49. Gerwing, J. J., & Farias, D. L. (2000). Integrating liana abundance and forest stature into an estimate of total aboveground biomass for an eastern Amazonian forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 16(3), 327-335. Ghazoul, J., Burivalova, Z., Garcia-Ulloa, J., & King, L. A. (2015). Conceptualizing forest degradation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 30(10), 622-632. Gibbs, H. K., Brown, S., Niles, J. O., & Foley, J. A. (2007). Monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks: making REDD a reality. Environmental Research Letters, 2(4), 045023. Heijden, G. M. V. D., Phillips, O. L., & Schnitzer, S. A. (2015). Impacts of lianas on forest‐level carbon storage and sequestration. Ecology of lianas, 164-174. Houghton, R. A. (2005). Aboveground forest biomass and the global carbon balance. Global Change Biology, 11(6), 945-958.. 28. FYP FSB. REFERENCES.
(41) Montes, N., Gauquelin, T., Badri, W., Bertaudiere, V., & Zaoui, E. H. (2000). A nondestructive method for estimating above-ground forest biomass in threatened woodlands. Forest Ecology and Management, 130(1-3), 37-46. Norashikin. F., Hambali, K., Nawawi, S., Busu, I., & Yew, S. (2016). Biomass and carbon stock estimation along different altitudinal gradients in tropical forest of Gunung Basor, Kelantan, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal, 69(1), 57-62 Nowak, D. J. (1993). Atmospheric carbon reduction by urban trees. Journal of Environmental Management, 37(3), 207-217. Priyadi, A., Sutomo, S., Darma, I. D. P., & Arinasa, I. B. K. (2014). Selecting Tree Species with High Carbon Stock Potency from Tropical Upland Forest of Bedugul-Bali, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Life Science, 4(3), 201-205. Putz, F. E. (1983). Liana biomass and leaf area of a" tierra firme" forest in the Rio Negro Basin, Venezuela. Biotropica, 185-189. Putz, F. E. (1984). The natural history of lianas on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Ecology, 65(6), 1713-1724. Putz, F. E., & Chai, P. (1987). Ecological studies of lianas in Lambir national park, Sarawak, Malaysia. The Journal of Ecology, 523-531. Schnitzer, S. A., & Bongers, F. (2002). The ecology of lianas and their role in forests. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 17(5), 223-230. Schnitzer, S. A., Bongers, F., & Wright, S. J. (2011). Community and ecosystem ramifications of increasing lianas in neotropical forests. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 6(4), 598-600. Schnitzer, S. A., DeWalt, S. J., & Chave, J. (2006). Censusing and Measuring Lianas: A Quantitative Comparison of the Common Methods 1. Biotropica, 38(5), 581-591. Tanabe, K., & Wagner, F. (2003). Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry. Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry. Zarin, D. J. (2012). Carbon from tropical deforestation. Science, 336(6088), 15181519.. 29. FYP FSB. Laurance, W.F. et al. (2001) Rain forest fragmentation and the structure of Amazonian liana communities. Ecology 82, 105–116..
(42) The overview of sampling plot. 30. FYP FSB. APPENDIX A.
(43) Establishment of sampling plot and data collections. 31. FYP FSB. APPENDIX B.
(44) 32. FYP FSB.
(45) The overview of lianas species in 1 ha area of sampling plot. 33. FYP FSB. APPENDIX C.
(46) 34. FYP FSB.
(47) The table below shows the planning of Final Year Project Ⅰ and Final Year Project Ⅱ. Table D.1: Planning of final year project. Final Year Project Ⅰ Research Activities. Date. Proposal Writing. February 2018. Submission and Proposal Defences. May 2018. Completion of FYP Ⅰ. July 2018. Final Year Project Ⅱ Field Sampling. July – September 2018. Data analysis. September – December 2018. Completion of Chapter 4 and 5. December 2018. Submission of Final Report. December 2018. Presentation of FYP Ⅱ. December 2018. Hardbound Submission. January 2019. 35. FYP FSB. APPENDIX D.