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A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Information Technology


Academic year: 2022

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A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Information Technology

Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology International Islamic University Malaysia





Near field communication is short range contactless communication technology that has made users life convenient around the world by offering mobile payment, digital content exchange and connecting electronic devices with a simple touch or wave.

Smartphone technology has brought a new change in our lifestyle whether it is connecting with the world, monitoring self-fitness and undertaking monetary transactions. Within the domain of smartphone, the most recent promising technology development is Near Field Communication (NFC) that has changed the approach of consumers in Mobile Payment (MP) system. NFC enabled payment system acceptance tendency in developing country such as Pakistan is at slow pace comparing to other developing countries where people are using smartphones as a wallet. The purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the significant factors that affect consumer’s behavioural intention to use NFC MP. This study proposed a model to measure the behavioural intention to use NFC MP in Pakistan. In this study, constructs such as Performance Expectancy (PE), Effort Expectancy (EE), Social Influence (SI), Facilitating Conditions (FC), Hedonic Motivation (HM), Habit, Compatibility, Personal Innovativeness in Information Technology (PIIT), Risk, and NFC Payment Knowledge (NFCPK) are measured. The hypothetical relationships were examined through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using Smart-PLS software. Quantitative methodology (survey questionnaire) is used to investigate the correlational paths between constructs. Using a cluster sampling approach, a total of 409 responses were collected from smartphone users. Research findings show that 10 out of 13 hypotheses were found to be statistically significant, leaving 3 as insignificant. The findings revealed that 62.6% variance in behavioural intention is explained by PE, EE, FC, HM, Habit, Compatibility, Risk and NFC PK. Similarly, 45.2% variance in use behaviour is explained by behavioural intention, FC, and Habit.

Furthermore, Risk factor involved in adoption and use of NFC MP have a negative correlation with behavioural intention. Thus, Risk was considered as an obstacle in the acceptance and use of NFC MP. This study expands the use of Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) in Information System (IS) research, extends and validates the UTAUT2 model within the NFC MP context.

Moreover, the findings of this research are valued to the stakeholders interested in developing and implementing NFC MP. Potential stakeholders would benefit from an improved and revised understanding of these aspects. The identification of important factors influencing NFC MP in this study will assist them to develop and implement their system to ensure the full acceptance and use of the NFC MP.



صلاخ ثحبلا ة


ةبيرقلا ةيناديلما تلااصتلاا تيلاو

ه ي تلااصتا ةينقت نع ةرابع ةيكلسلا

،ىدلما ةيرصق ىلع تلهس

لماعلا ءانحأ عيجم في ينمدختسلما برع

،يمقرلا ىوتلمحا لدابتو ، لوملمحا فتالها برع عفدلا يرفوت

وأ ةسملب ةينوتركللإا ةزهجلأا ليصوتو ًايريغت ةيكذلا فتاولها ايجولونكت تبلج .ةطيسب ةج بم و

،انتايح طنم في ًاديدج للاخ نم

تلاماعلمبا مايقلاو ةيتاذلا ةقايللا ةبقارمو ،لماعلا عم لصاوتلا

.ةيدقنلا ت روطت ثدحأ

دعاو يجولونك ةيكذلا فتاولها لامج نمض

، وه ةبيرقلا ةيناديلما تلااصتلاا

(NFC) و

تسلما جنه تيرغ تيلا عفدلا ماظن في ينكله

لاقنلا فتالها برع (

MP ) . ودبي نأ لوبق

ثيح ىرخلأا ةيمانلا لودلا عم ةنراقلمبا اًئيطب ناتسكبا لثم ةيمانلا نادلبلا في عفدلا ماظن سانلا مدختسي كانه

فرعتلاو قيقحتلا وه ةساردلا هذه نم ضرغلا .ةظفحمك ةيكذلا فتاولها

لع رثؤت تيلا ةمهلما لماوعلا ىلع مادختسلا ةيكولسلا كلهتسلما ةين ى



هذه مادختسلا ةيكولسلا ةينلا سايقل جذونم ةساردلا MP NFC

هذه في .ناتسكبا في

،ةساردلا م ءاشنا تم

تايرغت ثم نمو

اهسايق عقوتلما ءادلأا لثم


، دهلجا لما عقوت (EE) ،

يعامتجلاا يرثأتلا (

SI ) ليهستلا طورش ، (

FC ) فادلا ، ع لما عتم ( HM ) ،قفاوتلا ،ةداعلا ،

تامولعلما ايجولونكت في يصخشلا راكتبلاا (

PIIT ) و رطاخلما عفدلا ةفرعمو

قيرط نع

ةبيرقلا ةيناديلما تلااصتلاا (NFCPK)

ةجذنم للاخ نم ةيضاترفلاا تاقلاعلا صحف تم .

ةيلكيلها تلاداعلما (


جمنارب مادختسبا Smart-PLS

دختسا . تم

ةيجهنم لا


يمكلا ( حسم نيايبتسا ققحتلل ) كلذو تايرغتلما ينب تاقلاعلا نم

تانيعلا ذخأ جنه مادختسبا

هعوممج ام عجم تم ،يدوقنعلا 409

ًا در .ةيكذلا فتاولها يمدختسم نم ت

نأ ثابحلأا جئاتن رهظ

10 لصأ نم 13

لعج امم ،ةيئاصحإ ةللاد تاذ تناك ةيضرف 3

تفشكو .ةيهمأ تاذ يرغ اهنم

نلا ئات نأ ج 62.6 ٪

ةنيابتم رسفي ةيكولسلا ةينلا في PE

، EE ، FC ، HM ، ةداعلا ،

و رطاخلما ، قفاوتلا NFC PK

مادختسلاا كولس في نيابتلا نإف ، لثلمباو .

رادقبم ناك ةبسنب

45.2 و ،ةيكولسلا ةينلا للاخ نم هيرسفت متي ٪ ليهستلا طورش

(FC) و ، ةداعلا ىلع ةولاع .

لماع نإف ، كلذ ختساو نيبت في نمضتلما رطلخا

ماد NFC MP ةينلا عم ةيبلس ةقلاع هل نوكي

.ةيكولسلا مادختساو لوبق في ةبقع رطاخلما رابتعا تم ،لياتلباو


ةساردلا هذه عسوت .



مادختسا نم لا

( ايجولونكتلا مادختساو لوبقلل ةدحولما ةعسولما ةيرظن UTAUT2

) ثوبح في

تامولعلما ماظن (

IS ) يمو ، يو دت جذونم ىلع قداص (UTAUT2)

قايس لخاد NFC

MP ذيفنتو ريوطتب ينمتهلما ةحلصلما باحصلأ ثحبلا اذه جئاتن مييقت متي ،كلذ ىلع ةولاع .

NFC MP نَّسمح مهف نم ينلمتلمحا ةحلصلما باحصأ ديفتسي فوس .

رّوطمو .بناولجا هذله

ًاضيا ا ديدتح دعاسيس ىلع ةرثؤلما ةمهلما لماوعل

NFC MP ريوطت ىلع ةساردلا هذه في

مادختساو لماكلا لوبقلا نامضل مهماظن قيبطتو NFC MP





The thesis of Imtiaz Ali Brohi has been approved by the following:


Asadullah Shah Supervisor


Norsaremah Salleh Internal Examiner


Sohaimi Zakaria External Examiner


Mukhtiar Ali Unar External Examiner


Saim Kayadibi Chairperson




I hereby declare that this thesis is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degrees at IIUM or other institutions.

Imtiaz Ali Brohi

Signature ... Date ...








I declare that the copyright holders of this thesis are jointly owned by the student and IIUM.

Copyright © 2019 Imtiaz Ali Brohi and International Islamic University Malaysia. All rights reserved.

No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below

1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may only be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgement.

2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.

3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.

By signing this form, I acknowledged that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Right and Commercialization policy.

Affirmed by Imtiaz Ali Brohi

……..……….. ………..

Signature Date




This thesis is dedicated to my dearest mother, father, beautiful wife, lovely daughter and sons.




First of all, my deep thanks to Almighty Allah (SWA) for giving me the courage, strength, patience and willingness to complete this PhD thesis. This piece of work could not have been completed without the help of the Almighty Allah (SWT).

Second, it is my utmost pleasure to dedicate this work to my dearest Mother, Father, Parents-in-law, Wife, Daughter, Sons, Sisters, Brothers, and the rest of my family, who granted me the gift of their unwavering belief in my ability to accomplish this goal: thank you for your support and patience.

I wish to express my appreciation and thanks to those who provided their time, effort and support for this thesis. Especially Mr. Ali Akbar Brohi & Mr. Ubedullah Naveed Channa, thank you for backing for me.

Finally, a very special thanks to my inspiring supervisor Professor Dr.

Asadullah Shah for his continuous support, encouragement and leadership, and for that, I will be forever grateful.




Abstract ... ii

Abstract in Arabic ... iii

Approval Page ... v

Declaration ... vi

Copyright ... vii

Dedication ... viii

Acknowledgements ... ix

List of Tables ... xiii

List of Figures ... xv

List of Abbreviations ... xvi


1.1 Background of the Research ... 1

1.2 Problem Statement ... 5

1.3 Research Questions ... 6

1.4 Research Aim and Objectives ... 7

1.5 Research Scope ... 7

1.6 Significance of Research ... 9

1.7 Context of Study: Pakistan ... 9

1.8 Research Methodology... 11

1.9 Thesis Structure ... 12

1.10 Chapter Summary... 13


2.1 Introduction ... 14

2.2 Mobile Payment ... 15

2.2.1 Mobile Payment Scenarios ... 19

2.3 Near Field Communication ... 22

2.4 Near Field Communication Business Ecosystem ... 26

2.4.1 Mobile Network Operators ... 29

2.4.2 Trusted Service Manager ... 30

2.4.3 Service Providers ... 31

2.4.4 Banks and Financial Institutions ... 31

2.4.5 Payment Service Providers ... 32

2.4.6 Payment Scheme Owner ... 32

2.4.7 Third Party Service Provider ... 32

2.4.8 Merchants/Retailers ... 33

2.4.9 Customers ... 33

2.5 Status of ICT and Mobile Payments In Pakistan ... 34

2.6 Innovation Adoption ... 38

2.7 Information System Acceptance Models and Theories ... 41

2.7.1 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) ... 42

2.7.2 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) ... 44

2.7.3 Theory of Planned Behavior ... 49

2.7.4 Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) ... 50



2.7.5 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

(UTAUT) ... 52

2.7.6 Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) ... 54

2.8 Summary of Past Research on NFC Mobile Payment Acceptance ... 57

2.9 Chapter Summary... 63


3.1 Introduction ... 64

3.2 Proposed Research Model ... 66

3.3 Hypothesis Development ... 71

3.4 Chapter Summary... 80


4.1 Introduction ... 81

4.2 Research Philosophy ... 81

4.2.1 Positivism ... 82

4.2.2 Post-positivism ... 83

4.2.3 Critical Theory ... 83

4.2.4 Constructivism ... 84

4.3 Philosophical Underpinnings ... 84

4.3.1 Ontology ... 84

4.3.2 Epistemology ... 85

4.3.3 Methodology ... 86

4.4 Data Source ... 86

4.4.1 Quantitative Research Approach ... 87

4.4.2 Qualitative Research Approach ... 88

4.4.3 Selection of Research Approach ... 88

4.5 Research Design ... 90

4.6 Questionnaire Design ... 93

4.6.1 Question Content ... 94

4.6.2 Question Phrasing ... 94

4.6.3 The Question Sequence ... 94

4.6.4 Response Format Types ... 95

4.6.5 Questionnaire Layout ... 95

4.6.6 Measurement and Scale Measurement ... 95

4.6.7 Scale Items Development ... 96

4.6.8 Questionnaire Development in this Study ... 96

4.7 Sampling Approach ... 101

4.7.1 Research Population ... 101

4.7.2 Sampling ... 102

4.7.3 Sampling Method Used in this Research ... 102

4.8 Sample Size ... 103

4.9 Data Collection... 104

4.10 Pre-Testing and Pilot Study ... 107

4.10.1 Pre-testing ... 107

4.10.2 Pilot Study ... 108

4.10.3 Demographics of the Respondents of Pilot Study ... 109

4.10.4 Pilot Study Data Analysis ... 111



4.11 Data Analysis ... 112

4.11.1 Preliminary Data Analysis ... 113

4.11.2 Structural Equation Modeling ... 116

4.11.3 Measurement Model... 120

4.11.4 Structural Model (SM) ... 122

4.12 Ethical Considerations ... 123

4.13 Chapter Summary... 124


5.1 Introduction ... 126

5.2 Response Rate ... 127

5.3 Data Screening ... 128

5.3.1 Missing Data Identification ... 128 Missing Data Treatment ... 131

5.3.2 Outliers Examination ... 131

5.3.3 Demographic Data Analysis ... 133

5.4 Descriptive Analysis ... 136

5.5 Reliability Test ... 143

5.6 Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) ... 144

5.6.1 Measurement Model... 146

5.6.2 Structural model ... 155

5.7 Chapter Summary: ... 170


6.1 Introduction ... 172

6.2 Overview of the Research ... 172

6.3 Discussion ... 174

6.3.1 Response Rate ... 174

6.3.2 Respondents Demographical Characteristics ... 175

6.3.3 Constructs and Items ... 176

6.3.4 Hypotheses Testing Results ... 184

6.4 Implications of Research Findings ... 193

6.4.1 Industrial Implications ... 193

6.4.2 Theoretical Implications... 195


7.1 Introduction ... 198

7.2 Review of Research Background and Research Objective ... 198

7.3 Summary of the Research Contributions ... 201

7.4 Limitations ... 203

7.5 Suggestions For Future Research ... 204

7.6 Chapter Summary... 204







Table 2.1 Mobile Payment Enabling Methods 21

Table 2.2 Comparison of NFC and other Wireless Technologies 23

Table 2.3 3G/4G Subscribers (in Millions) 35

Table 2.4 IDT Key Characteristics 52

Table 2.5 Key Constructs of UTAUT 54

Table 2.6 Summary of Previous Research on NFC MP Acceptance 58

Table 4.1 Research Philosophy, Approach, and Strategy 93

Table 4.2 Survey Questionnaire 98

Table 4.3 Questionnaires Response Rate 106

Table 4.4 Demographic Data of Pilot Study Respondents (N=36) 110

Table 4.5 Values of Cronbach’s α for Pilot Study 112

Table 5.1 Item-Level Missing Data 129

Table 5.2 Construct/Variable-Level Missing Data 130

Table 5.3 Randomness of Missing Data 131

Table 5.4 Multivariate Outlier Detection 132

Table 5.5 Demographic Details of the Respondents 133

Table 5.6 Respondents MP Familiarity and NFC MP Usage 135

Table 5.7 Descriptive Statistics of PE Construct 136

Table 5.8 Descriptive Statistics of EE Construct 137

Table 5.9 Descriptive Statistics of SI Construct 137

Table 5.10 Descriptive Statistics of FC Construct 138

Table 5.11 Descriptive Statistics of HM Construct 138

Table 5.12 Descriptive Statistics of Habit Construct 139

Table 5.13 Descriptive Statistics of Compatibility Construct 139



Table 5.14 Descriptive Statistics of PIIT Construct 140

Table 5.15 Descriptive Statistics of Risk Construct 141

Table 5.16 Descriptive Statistics of NFC Payment Knowledge Construct 141 Table 5.17 Descriptive Statistics of Behavioural Intention Construct 142 Table 5.18 Descriptive Statistics of Use Behaviour Construct 142

Table 5.19 Cronbach’s Alpha Values 144

Table 5.20 Multivariate Analysis Methods 145

Table 5.21 Criterion for Assessment of Measurement Model 147

Table 5.22 Summary of Measurement Model Results 149

Table 5.23 Outer/Factor Loading with Cross-Loadings 151

Table 5.24 Correlations and Discriminant Validity 153

Table 5.25 Criterion for Assessment of Structural Model 158

Table 5.26 Hypotheses Testing Results 159

Table 5.27 Results of Q2 for Model Predictive Relevance 169

Table 5.28 Results of Effect Size (ƒ2) Values 170

Table 7.1 Summary of Research Objectives Achievement 201




Figure 2.1 NFC Interaction Styles 24

Figure 2.2 NFC Touch Paradigm 25

Figure 2.3 Stakeholders in the NFC Ecosystem 28

Figure 2.4 M-Wallet and OTC Transactions 36

Figure 2.5 Theory of Reasoned Action 43

Figure 2.6 Actual TAM 45

Figure 2.7 TAM Excluding Mediator 46

Figure 2.8 TAM 2 47

Figure 2.9 TAM3 48

Figure 2.10 Theory of Planned Behaviour 49

Figure 2.11 Innovation Diffusion Theory 51

Figure 2.12 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 53

Figure 2.13 UTAUT2 55

Figure 3.1 Proposed Research Model 70

Figure 4.1 Research Design 92

Figure 4.2 Sampling Techniques 102

Figure 5.1 Data Analysis Flow Chart 127

Figure 5.2: Measurement Model 154

Figure 5.3 Result of Bootstrapping 157

Figure 5.4 Structural Model 161

Figure 5.5 Final model 167




AGFI Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index AMOS Analysis of Moment Structure

BL Business Line

C.R. Critical Ratio

df Degree of Freedom

DOI Diffusion of Innovation

EMV Europay, MasterCard, and Visa FI Financial Institution

GFI Goodness Fit Index

GL Group Leader

GOF Goodness of Fit

GPS Global Positioning System

GSM Global System for Mobile Communications

GSMA Global System for Mobile Communications Association ICT Information and Communication Technology

ID Identification

IS Information System

ISO International Organization for Standardization IT Information Technology

MNO Mobile Network Operator

MO Mobile Operator

MP Mobile Payment

NFC Near Field Communication

OTA Over-The-Air

PC Personal Computer

PDA Personal Digital Assistant PIN Personal Identification Number PLS Partial Least Squares

POS Point of Sale

QR Quick Response

RF Radio Frequency

RFID Radio Frequency Identification

SE Secure Element

SEI Secure Element Issuer

SEM Structural Equation Modeling SET Secure Electronic Transaction SIM Subscriber Identity Module SMC Secure Memory Card SMS Short Message Service

SP Service Provider

TAM Technology Acceptance Model

TLI Tucker-Lewis Index

TOE Technology-Organization-Environment TPB Theory of Planned Behaviour

TPBE Theory of Planned Behaviour Extension


xvii TRA Theory of Reason Action TSM Trusted Service Manager

UICC Universal Integrated Circuit Card

UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

UTAUT Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

UTAUT2 Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology VIF Variance Inflation Factor





The way human started the barter system in which services or goods were offered in lieu of services or goods is as old as a human himself and it follows this that the historical development of money and finance (Glyn, 1994). The reason why human turned to paper and coin to use as a currency was the inequality of goods and service offered by trading parties (eCash Money, 2016). The most preferred mode of payment has been in cash and still, it is the centre point of human living and social system.

During the start of 20th-century cash and cheques were the most common methods of payment between person to person and organizations (Evans & Schmalensee, 2005;

Runnemark et al., 2015). Thus, mid of 20th century witnessed the emergence of cards based payment system for reducing the risk of carrying cash every time with the capability of withdrawing cash from Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) when required (Evans & Schmalensee, 2005). The revaluation of Information Technology (IT) changed every aspect of human living and financial institutions grabbed the advantage of information technology offerings in the payment system to substitute the traditional payment system by introducing the internet banking for serving faster and secure payment transactions.

The invention of mobile phone technology and its rapid adoption almost changed everything in the world. Two decades ago mobile phones were capable of voice communication and text messages only. Nowadays, the purpose and capabilities of the mobile phone have changed its usability. Modern smartphones have the capability of personal computers with features such as web browsing, gaming,



watching online videos, and social networking with a massive amount of internal storage which makes it ideal for payments (Nahari & Krutz, 2011). The developments and innovations in recent past years in mobile phones have profound effects on our society. Moreover, this development attracted the financial industry to give secure and faster payment services any time any place.

Mobile Payment (henceforth, MP) is defined as use of smartphone / mobile phone, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) and/or use of other handheld device for the payment of goods and services by using the conveniences of telecommunication or proximity technologies. The application of MP can be executed in variety of situations such as payment for flight ticket, digital content, bus, car parking, and train ticket.

Also, the use of MPs can be made at Point of Sale (POS) terminals, ticketing and vending machines for payment of physical goods (Dahlberg et al., 2008). MPs are a convenient and natural evaluation of electronic payments (e-payment). The mobile banking and MP are distinct in operations. As the mobile banking services are offered by the banks for own customers, while MP is offered as new payment service for the retail market. The services are based on a combination of banks and Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) and the adaptors are consumers and merchants (Niina Mallat, 2007). The union of MNOs and banks offered a new era for business and banking services to manage accounts and business from anywhere and anytime without any trouble. This service expanded the financial inclusion by offering services to an unbanked and underbanked population of remote areas of any country (Kazi et al., 2013).

Near Field Communication (henceforth, NFC) is short-range, low bandwidth, high frequency and wireless communication technology built on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology (Ozdenizci et al., 2010; Madlmayr, 2008). NFC



enabled mobile phone can manage multiple smart cards and the benefits of NFC enabled mobile phone over smart cards are interactive, simple and the ability to network allows consumers to manage payments, loyalty and access (Madlmayr, 2008). NFC has attracted the attention of main organizations in telecommunication, transport, banks and others. NFC telecom industry has the authority to get the benefits of the value chain with NFC installed on SIM (Das, 2008). The merger of NFC technology into the mobile phone has offered many attractive applications;

particularly in the identification, access control, content exchange and distribution, payment, smart advertising, and peer-to-peer money/data transfer (Ozdenizci &

Aydin, 2010).

NFC enabled mobile payment (henceforth, NFC MP) is also called

“Touchless” or “Proximity” payments, with this approach consumers can make payments by waving their mobile phones over NFC enabled terminals, such as point of sale (POS) and vending machines (Ezell, 2009). Many NFC trials are conducted around the world, especially in payment domain and conclusion of all trails declared that with the arrival of NFC, mobile phones have become more convenient, safer, fashionable and faster (Chen et al., 2011). NFC technology assures secure storage of personal data on the secure element which makes sensitive data such as debit or credit cards information on a mobile phone more secure, and NFC technology has created new opportunities for banks and merchants to empower faster transactions (Coskun et al., 2013). Apple Pay stations are over 2 million with NFC enabled terminals facilitating consumers in stores (Hilary Brueck, 2016). Contactless payment growth has exceeded from the prediction with 70% consumers who make proximity payments are using Apply Pay and Samsung Pay, and around 148 million payments are expected in the year 2016 (Meola, 2016).



NFC enabled mobile phone authorizes individual to store various information about debit and credit cards across the broad gadgets that the consumer is carrying. It eliminates the unnecessary trouble of messaging or swiping through menus to make payments yet still offers the security of a charge card. The survey indicates that there is no issue with contactless payment but customers are devoted to the traditional payment system (Meola, 2016). Pakistan telecom industry has transformed the mobile services from high-income groups to middle and low-income communities (Gao &

Rafiq, 2009). Each month 2 million customers are looking for a smartphone with low price by end of 2016 smartphone users will reach 40 million in Pakistan (Farooq Baloch, 2015). Although branch-less banking is one of the solutions for payments, but then transaction charges are high and a lot of hassle is involved, thus Pakistan needs a new digital payment solution (Aamir Attaa, 2014).

Regardless of the advantages NFC enable mobile payment offers over traditional payment system, it is supported from literature that technological development could not guarantee itself for acceptance and use of IT/IS systems and challenges to IT/ IS researcher is to provide a systematic way to explore what factors influence acceptance and use of information systems (Benbasat & Barki, 2007). Thus, it is important to find out what factors influence the adoption of NFC enabled mobile payment.

Although lots of research models have been developed by researchers to investigate and understand the acceptance and use behaviour of the end user.

Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) theory was developed in year 2012 to understand consumer acceptance and use of technology. (Venkatesh, 2012) suggested testing UTAUT2 on different technologies and countries, as the constructs incorporated in UTAUT2 are to find acceptance and



use of technology in a consumer context. Thus, to understand consumer’s adoption behaviour of NFC enabled mobile payment, this study intends to use some widely tested acceptance and psychology theories such as UTAUT2, Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) by adding few constructs available in the literature to understand NFC MP acceptance in the context of emerging economies like Pakistan.


Smartphone and tablets are becoming more and more popular and gaining a place of personal computers and laptops (Nasir, 2013). The consumers are aware of smartphone usage context and the services and value they pursue in the smartphone- related services. MP is one of the fastest growing service offered by wireless technology. Although various industries are involved in the MPs, promising advantages have yet not been acknowledged and accepted in actual means by every user around the globe particularly in emerging economies where the capability of MPs is realising tremendous consideration (Chen & Adams, 2005). Smartphone as wallet has shown huge business opportunity for financial technology providers and other stakeholders due to the unique nature of the operation and prominent features.

Innovations create new business opportunities, NFC MP is the type of technology that is an exciting and useful addition. It has appeared as one of the substitutes over traditional payment system such as credit/debit cards, cash and cheques which is being practised all over the world (Coskun et al., 2011). Whilst, the consumer is the one who determines its usefulness and value of the business, consumer and their acceptance of smartphone-related products and services, rather than developments in the technology which identifies the new era of business (Coskun et al., 2013). Consumer acceptance of a new innovation or services shows the value of



the product or services, as new innovation requires huge investment for the R&D and execution, if the services are unable to meet the needs of the customers, eventually it will lead to business loss for service providers (Arcese et al., 2014).

NFC enabled vending machines are launched to promote digital payment, as evident from statistical reports, the use of digital payment is limited in Pakistan (Farooq Balooch, 2015). NFC MP system has huge potential in Pakistan. However, consumers in Pakistan are inclined to use new payment methods, if properly launched and implemented (Haseeb Ahmed, 2016). Accordingly, massive financial investment has been done in contactless payment system which has not been fully explored and accepted at consumer level in Pakistan. Therefore, understanding the factors that determine the acceptance of MPs by consumers in emerging economies would lead to more effective and meaningful strategies that would allow MPs to expand significantly and remain competitive (Chen, 2007).

Thus, the aim of this study is to explore, examine and measure conceivable important factors of acceptance of NFC MP in Pakistan and empirically examine the essential factors that influence the potential users from accepting or rejecting the usage of NFC MP.


The remarkable growth of smartphone users in Pakistan is a strong reason for future growth and acceptance of NFC MP. To study the acceptance of NFC enabled mobile payment; the following questions need to be answered:

1. What are the significant factors that affect the acceptance of NFC MP in Pakistan?

2. How individual behaviour influence acceptance of NFC MP in Pakistan?



3. How to validate the proposed research model that helps to identify the significant factors that affect the acceptance of NFC MP?


The aim of this research is to examine and identify the significant factors that influence potential user’s behaviour to accept NFC MP. To achieve the research aim following objectives were identified:

1. To identify the significant factors that affect the acceptance of NFC MP.

2. To propose a research model using Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) as a baseline theory.

3. To evaluate and validate the hypotheses in the proposed research model of NFC MP acceptance.


The main purpose of this study is to explore the benefits of NFC MP and investigate the acceptance of NFC in MP system. NFC MP is recently added domain in the payment system, therefore, it is important to investigate the usage and impact of NFC MP in the early phase of the technology. NFC MP refers to the use of handheld devices such as smartphones, rings, watches, and other accessories to pay for goods and services.

The benefits of smartphones for business and personal activities are clear, as they offer fast, convenient, consistent, and location free services to consumers. In addition, the smartphone offers potential opportunities and new channels for various businesses. The NFC MP is one of the exciting and new payment methods with the



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