REVISIT INTENTION OF RURAL TOURISM AMONG LOCAL TOURIST IN KELANTAN
Academic year: 2022
(2) FHPK. DECLARATION. I hereby certify that the work embodied in this report is the result of the original research and has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution.. OPEN ACCESS. I agree that my report is to be made immediately available as hardcopy or ononline open access.. CONFIDENTIAL. Contains confidential information under the Official Secret Act of 1972.. RESTRICTED. Contains restricted information as specified by the organization where the research was done.. I acknowledge that University Malaysia Kelantan reserves the right as follows.. The report is the property of the University Malaysia Kelantan. The library of University Malaysia Kelantan has the right to make copies for the purpose of research only. The library has the right to make copies of the report for academic exchange.. Certified by. AISHAH. GHAZALIAHMAD. ……………………………………. ………………………………….. Signature. Signature of Supervisor. AISHAH BINTI ABDUL JALA Group representative: T005. Name: PROF. MADYA. DR GHAZALI BIN AHMAD. Date: 20 JUNE 2021. Date: 20 JUNE 2021. II.
(3) FHPK. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. Thank you and dedication to University Malaysia Kelantan for giving us this. opportunity to conduct our research. This research is conducted to fulfil a subject requirement of Bachelor of Entrepreneurship (Tourism). We learn a lot of valuable knowledge from conducting this research.. Besides, we would like to express our deepest to our supervisor Prof. Madya Dr. Ghazali Bin Ahmad who has been our backbones throughout the whole research time. Without her, we could not complete this research on time as he helped and given much valuable advice based on knowledge. Prof Dr Ghazali is given us a lot of encouragement in solving problems. Furthermore, thank you to our group members who have cooperated to accomplish this research. Contribution and help of each other of the group members helped in making the completion of this research easier. Finally, sincere thank your to our family for being understand about our needs and wants. Their prayers and support are main strengths in completing this research despite the difficulties that we have been through towards completing this research.. III.
(4) Page TITLE PAGE. i. CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION. ii. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. iii. TABLE OF CONTENTS. iv-vi. LIST OF TABLES. vii. LIST OF FIGURES. viii. ABSTRACT. ix. ABSTRAK. x. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Introduction. 1. 1.2. Background of the Study. 1-2. 1.3. Problem Statement. 2-4. 1.4. Research Objectives. 4. 1.5. Research Questions. 5. 1.6.. Significant of Study. 5-6. 1.7. Definition of Term. 7. 1.7.1 Customer Satisfaction. 1.8. 7-8. 1.7.2 Price. 8. 1.7.3 Destination Image. 9. Summary. 9-10. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Introduction. 11. 2.2. Revisit Intention. 11-12. 2.2.1 Rural Tourism. 13-15. 2.2.2 Local Tourist. 15. 2.2.3 Customer Satisfaction. 16. 2.2.4 Price. 17 IV. FHPK. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
(5) 17-19. 2.3. Hypothesis. 19-20. 2.4. Theoretical Framework. 20-22. 2.5. Conceptual Framework. 22-24. 2.6. Summary. 24. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1. Introduction. 25. 3.2. Research Design. 3.3. Population. 26. 3.4. Sample Size. 27. 3.5. Sampling Method. 27-28. 3.6. Data Collection Methods. 28-29. 25-26. 3.6.1 Primary Data. 29. 3.6.2 Quantitative Methods. 29-30. 3.7. Research Instrument. 30-31. 3.8. Data Analysis. 3.9. 32. 3.8.1 Reliability Analysis. 32-33. 3.8.2 Descriptive Analysis. 33-34. 3.8.3 Pearson Correlation. 34. Summary. 35. CHAPTER 4: RESULTS & DISCUSSION 4.1. Introduction. 36. 4.2. Result of Descriptive Analysis. 36. 4.2.1 Age. 37. 4.2.2 Gender. 38. 4.2.3 Status. 38-39. 4.2.4 Ethnicity. 39-40. 4.2.5 Education. 40-41. 4.2.6 Employee Status. 41-42. V. FHPK. 2.2.5 Destination Image.
(6) 42-43. Kelantan 4.2.8 What is respondent visit purpose to Kelantan. 43-44. 4.2.9 With who that respondents revisit intention in. 44. Kelantan 4.2.10 The ranking of attraction in Kelantan that. 45-46. respondent visited 4.3. Reliability Analysis. 4.4. Result of Inferential Analysis. 36-38 46-48. 49. 4.4.1 Revisit Intention. 49-50. 4.4.2 Customer Satisfaction. 51-52. 4.4.3 Price. 52-53. 4.4.4 Destination Image. 53-54. 4.5. Pearson Correlation Coefficient. 54-58. 4.6. Summary. 58. CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 5.1. Introduction. 59. 5.2. Recapitulation of the Findings. 59. 5.2.1 Customers Satisfaction. 59-60. 5.2.2. Price. 60-61. 5.2.3. Destination Image 5.3. Limitations. 5.4. Recommendation. 62 63-64 64. 5.4.1 Theoretical Recommendation for Future Research. 64-65. 5.4.2 Methodological Recommendation for Future. 65-66. Research. 5.5. 5.4.3 Practical Recommendation for Future Research. 66. Summary. 67. REFERENCES. 68-71 VI. FHPK. 4.2.7 How many times that you visited rural tourism in.
(7) 72-78. VII. FHPK. APPENDIX.
(8) Tables. Title. Page. Table 3.1. Cronbach’s Alpha on Testing Reliability. 33. Table 4.1. Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. 37. Table 4.2. The Age of Respondent. 39-40. Table 4.3. The Gender of Respondent. 40-41. Table 4.4. The Status of Respondent. 41. Table 4.5. The Ethnicity of Respondent. 42. Table 4.6. The Education of Respondent. 43. Table 4.7. The Employee Status of Respondent. 44. Table 4.8. How Many Times that Respondents visited in Kelantan. 45. Table 4.9. The Respondents Visit Purpose to Kelantan. 46. Table 4.10. With Who That Respondents Revisit Intention in Kelantan. 47. Table 4.11. The Ranking of Attraction Places in Kelantan. 48. Table 4.12. Descriptive Statistic for Revisit Intention. Table 4.13. Descriptive Statistic of Customer Satisfaction. 51. Table 4.14. Descriptive Statistic of Price. 52. Table 4.15. Descriptive Statistic of Destination Image. Table 4.16. Rules of Thumbs on the Strength of Correlation. 49-50. 53-54 55. Coefficient Table 4.17. Pearson Correlation Coefficient of Customer Satisfaction. 55-56. with revisit Intention to Rural Tourism Among Local Tourists in Kelantan Table 4.18. Pearson Correlation Coefficient of Price and Revisit. 57. Intention to Rural Tourism Among Local Tourists in Kelantan Table 4.19. Pearson Correlation Coefficient of Destination Image and Revisit Intention to Rural Tourism Among Local Tourists in Kelantan. VIII. 58. FHPK. LIST OF TABLES.
(9) Figures. Title. Page. Figure 2.1. ACSI Model. 20. Figure 2.2. Conceptual Framework. 22. IX. FHPK. LIST OF FIGURES.
(10) FHPK. ABSTRACT. This research observes the relationship of revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan in 3 aspects which is customer satisfaction, price and destination image. The objectives of this research is firstly to investigate the relationship of customer satisfaction with revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan. Secondly, this is to identify the relationship between the price and revisit intention to ruraltourism among local tourist in Kelantan and thirdly is to determine the relationship of destination image with revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan. From 300 local tourists from Kelantan have been targeted to be the respondent and fortunately the total of 387 respondents has successfully answered the investigation through online survey which is questionnaire. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used in order to evaluate the data collection. The function of SPSS is to statethe whole statistical analysis process which is to plan, to collect the data, report for the best decision making and also performance. Then, the result shows that the strength of the association for revisit intention which is customer satisfaction, price and destination image was a very good level. Through this research we can comprehend about the revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan.. Keywords: Revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist, customer satisfaction, price, destination image. X.
(11) FHPK. ABSTRAK. Penyelidikan ini melihat hubungan tujuan lawatan semula pelancongan desa di kalangan pelancong tempatan di Kelantan dalam 3 aspek iaitu kepuasan pelanggan, harga dan citra destinasi. Objektif penyelidikan ini adalah pertama untuk mengkaji hubungan kepuasan pelanggan dengan tujuan lawatan semula ke pelancongan luar bandar di kalangan pelancong tempatan di Kelantan. Kedua, adalah untuk mengenal pasti hubungan antara harga dan tujuan lawatan semula ke pelancongan desa di kalangan pelancong tempatan di Kelantan dan ketiga adalah untuk menentukan hubungan citra destinasi dengan tujuan lawatan semula pelancongan desa di kalangan pelancong tempatan di Kelantan Dari 300 pelancong tempatan dari Kelantan telah disasarkan untuk menjadi responden dan mujurlah seramai 387 responden berjaya menjawab siasatan melalui tinjauan dalam talian yang merupakan soal selidik. Pakej Statistik untuk Sains Sosial (SPSS) digunakan untuk menilai pengumpulan data. Fungsi SPSS adalah untuk menyatakan keseluruhan proses analisis statistik yaitu merencanakan, mengumpulkan data, melaporkan untuk membuat keputusan terbaik dan juga kinerja. Kemudian, hasilnya menunjukkan bahawa kekuatan persatuan untuk meninjau semula niat, kepuasan pelanggan, kekuatan harga dan imej tujuan berada pada tahap yang amat baik. Melalui penyelidikan ini kita dapat mengetahui tentang tujuan lawatan semula pelancongan desa di kalangan pelancong tempatan di Kelantan.. Kata kunci: Mengkaji semula tujuan pelancongan luar bandar di kalangan pelancong tempatan, kepuasan pelanggan, harga, imej destinasi. XI.
(12) INTRODUCTION. 1.1. INTRODUCTION. FHPK. CHAPTER 1. This research is study about the revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan. In this chapter, it has the contain of the background of the study, problem statement, research questions, research objectives, scope of study, significant of study, definition of terms about the impact, type of sport and summary.. 1.2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. Nowadays we can see in tourism sector become a very important of income and resources to help country. According to the author of Chief Statistics Datuk Seri Dr Mohd Uzir Mahidin, show that in comparison to 2018, Malaysian tourism had a better year. A total of 239.1 million visitors1 were reported in 2019, representing an increase of 8.1% over the previous year. Domestic visitors spent a total of RM103.2 billion, representing an annual increase rate of 11.5 percent. Rural tourism is characterized as the movement of people for a minimum duration of twenty-four hours to a maximum of six months from their local place of residence to rural areas for the sole purpose of leisure and pleasure.. 1.
(13) FHPK. Based on the current issue and challenges of rural tourism is rural tourism needs. to conserve the environment as a natural resource, the need for education, a better understanding of tourists and local people, and the need to create a political movement. that allows people at all levels to engage in the growth of tourism. Other than that, a lot of tourist is forgetting the important of the rural tourism and choose to visit other place instead of rural tourism.. To identify the problem which facing among the local tourist in Kelantan. List out the problem and choose the serious problem. Next, is to prepare the needs or demand for student. Fourthly, form the way to solve the problem and choose the best way to be solving the problem. It also will be set up some questionnaire for this research for more detail information or view from public. This research also made the researcher to know what is the definition of term of revisit among local tourist in Kelantan. The reason we want to research rural tourism is because rural tourism plays an important role in the tourism sector and provides a lot of benefits to the society in rural areas. They will boost the local economies as visitors come to rural and local areas and aid in different ways. Other than that, rural tourism contributes to the development of rural areas and communities as well.. 1.3. PROBLEM STATEMENT. Attractive and tasteful tourism assets are a priority for tourists who want to travel in the rural tourism. This is because a tourism asset is able to provide the best experience. 2.
(14) FHPK. to tourists. Even tourists will come back to the destination as a repeat tour. According to Harifah Mohd Noor et al. (2015), who stated that repeated visits are important in the field of tourism planning and marketing as well as contributing to the economic income of a. country. Repeated travel is also used as a 'guide' to identify the attractions that encourage a tourist to visit a destination. There are differences of opinion between repeat tourists. and first-time tourists on tourism assets in a destination. First-time tourists are more inclined to culture, nature and accommodation facilities while repeat tourists are more concerned with food, hospitality and entertainment. The rural tourism sector is the main driver other than urban in Malaysia ((Nur. Atiqah et al. 2015; Afifah 2013; Fatimah Hassan 201, Habibah Ahmad et al. 2012). According to (Kalsom Kayat & Nor Ashikin Mohd Nor, 2005; Jabil Mapjabil et al 2012, 2011; Mohd Jirey et al 2015), although there are many tourism products such as homestays, etc. but many remote tourist areas have not been explored. According to the Deputy Minister of Rural Development, RSivarasa, said districts such as Gua Musang, Jeli, Kuala Krai, having infrastructure problems such as communication roads and water is still a major factor in the village area. For example, the Jeli area is understood by many villages still use tandak water (hill water) which used to be clean, but now may not be safe. This received attention from the implementers because it is considered an area that is difficult to reach by road. Tourists who have visited the village will voice dissatisfaction with the water supply disruption and it is feared that they will no longer choose this village as a holiday destination. According to Murphy et al. (2000), the tourist experience at the destination is influenced by the results of use or exposure to two elements of the destination namely the service infrastructure and the attractive destination environment. Therefore, this study aims to identify tourism assets that have the potential to be developed as rural tourism products, especially in the state of Kelantan. The scope 3.
(15) FHPK. of the study focuses on the approach of tourism assets to developing remote tourism areas as tourism products. Rural tourism products that can be developed at the same time have a positive impact on the local community.. In addition, price also element that important to attract the local tourist to revisit. again in rural tourism especially in Kelantan. Without understanding this factor, it will. be difficult to identify revisit intention in rural tourism industry. Thus, due to the importance of factor that influence revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan. This study is going to explore this topic among local tourist in Kelantan.. 1.4. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE. The objective of this research is: From the problem statement above, there are two research questions have been formed: i) To investigate the relationship between customer satisfaction with revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan. ii) To identify the relationship between price and revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan. iii) To determine the relationship of destination image with revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan?. 4.
(16) FHPK. 1.5. RESEARCH QUESTION. From the problem statement above, there are two research questions have been formed:. i) What is the relationship of customer satisfaction with revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan?. ii) What is the relationship between the price and revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan? iii) What is the relationship of destination image with revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan?. 1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY. Rural tourism is one of the tourism that very important to boost people or tourists to try it. According to data from the Office of Tourism, the interest of tourism-affected visits can be used as a reference point for rural business enterprise service providers from the authorities, business enterprise service providers, travel attraction managers and indecisive policies and decisions (Murdiyanto, 2011). In Malaysia, there have tourist that still don’t know and not realized about rural tourism and it is well-known in Malaysia but unfortunately not too much people already join it.. 5.
(17) FHPK. One of the tourism sub-sectors with the potential to boost growth is village. tourism, a significant feature of rural tourism. Several scholars have found that. community-based development of tourist villages must be includes different social services (Cawley and Gillmor, 2008). The rural tourism is able to all communities. It is. training all tourists to appreciate natural resources and preserve it for future. Rural tourism has been recognized as a significant instrument for enhancing indigenous health. and living characteristics (Peptenatu et al., 2009; Probstl-Haider et al., 2014; Aliman et. al., 2016). Likewise, many visitors find a place to relax and unwind in a normal and continuous holiday experience (Buffa, 2015). Besides, economic is one of the significant of rural tourism. This is connected to the decline in the conventional agricultural industry so that' tourism stakeholders (i.e. indigenous communities, government, and industries) have shifted to concentrate on tourism villages and the ability to generate revenue as alternative solutions' (Ruiz Molina et al. 2010; Moric, 2013). Over the past few years, the commercial enterprise of the village has grown and expanded, there square measure many challenges faced as traveler destinations by commercial enterprise villages. Previous studies have identified an increase in competition between traveler goals (Chen and Gursoy, 2001; Zainuddin et al., 2013; Ramseok-Munhurrun et al., 2016) to draw in a large number of foreign tourists and domestic tourists (Chon et al., 2014). Moreover, according to AdeyinkaOjo and Nair (2016), it is gradually important to match destinations between traveling villages to take care of their place in the market for commercial enterprises.. 6.
(18) FHPK. 1.7. DEFINITION OF TERM. 1.7.1 Revisit Intention. Rural tourism is characterized as a category of tourism that covers all activities. that occur outside municipal areas and encompasses rural regions' natural and cultural. heritage. Its important role in contributing to the creation of local territories has been well emphasized by several studies. Rural tourism is characterized as a combination of various types of tourism, such as cultural and heritage components, according to (Maksimovic, Urosevic, & Mihajlovic, 2015), and contributes to rural economic growth at the same time.. The intention of revisiting was described as the intention to return to or visit a specific place again. Gitelson and Crompton were the first to expose the importance of repeat travelers to destinations (1984). They found that many destinations relied heavily on repeat visitors during the tour. According to Um, Chon, and Ro (2006), the purpose of tourist reviews was considered to be an extension of satisfaction.. 1.7.2 Customer Satisfaction. Zeithaml et al. (2006) reported that, in relation to attitudes, customer satisfaction relates to a particular transaction (the discrepancy between expected service and perceived service). A variety of hypotheses were suggested in terms of tourist satisfaction,including the theory of anticipation and disconfirmation, the equity theory, the standard 7.
(19) FHPK. theory and the perceived overall success theory (Yoon & Uysal, 2005). Kozak and. Rimmington (2000) reported that it was perceived that tourist satisfaction was very significant, as it was very important in the choice of destinations, the consumption of. products and services, and the decision of tourists to revisit. Level of service had a positive impact on the satisfaction of visitors and possible behavioral intentions (Canny, 2013).. 1.7.3 Price. Price was a measurable thing that came in many levels and forms, such as affordable price, equal price, discounted price, rival price, and price suitability (Kotler & Keller, 2012). The price contained all the prices that travelers had to pay in order to profit from the goods or services they enjoyed in one destination (Wirtz & Lovelock, 2016). Cost influenced consumer perceptions at the level of service (Zeithaml et al., 2006). According to Williams and Soutar (2009), when the benefits received were greater than the costs incurred, visitors considered a positive value.. 8.
(20) FHPK. 1.7. 3 Destination Image. One of the most common research topics in the academic literature of tourism. was destination picture (Pike & Page, 2014). The final end of tourism was the destination (Leiper, 1979). In this study, the destination image was described as a general impression of the tourist destination and divided into the cognitive image and the emotional image. The picture of the destination could be viewed as a pull factor that had an effect on whether tourists chose or avoided a place to visit (Gartner, 1994). According to Kim. (2014), the destination image was a favorable image of a destination created by a mixture of attributes of the destination (e.g., beautiful landscape, shopping opportunities, cultural exchange, infrastructure, safety, and activities).. 9.
(21) SUMMARY. FHPK. 1.8. In conclusion, tourism is a formative alternative to economic growth and national. development. There are three research objectives in this research which are to determine the type of tourist, to analyze the satisfaction and customer experience and to determine the price of rural destination with intention of rural tourism among local tourist in Malaysia. There are also some questions for this research. There are few significant studies in this research that is rural tourism is considered an important strategy to contribute to population domination, job creation, and promote the socioeconomic development of disadvantaged areas. In addition, rural tourism is able to train tourists to appreciate natural resources and preserve them for the future and can add knowledge such as various forestry and natural sciences.. 10.
(22) LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1. INTRODUCTION. FHPK. CHAPTER 2. In the interest of purposeful research, this chapter concentrated on outline literature review. To the main sections on the independent variable and on the dependent variable. Independent variables are variables that in scientific experiments are modified or regulated. Changes in independent variables can directly cause changes in dependent variables. Effects on independent variables can be measured and recorded. Dependent variables are variables which in experiments are tested and calculated, as well as 'dependent' on independent variables.. 2.2 REVISIT INTENTION. The object of the review was identified in the literature on tourism as a major research subject (Li et al., 2018). Several studies believe that returning visitors tend to stay in the destination longer, participate in shopping practices more intensively, be more comfortable and spread the word positively while requiring much lower marketing costs 11.
(23) FHPK. than first-time visitors (Lehto et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2004; 2018). According to (Ajzen, 1991), this theory is one of the most popular concepts for studying people's intentions to. perform certain behaviors. From the perspective of the process of use, 3 levels of tourism behavior such as pre-visit, during visit, and post-visit. The purpose of tourism must be. checked as a form of post-use activity (Cole & Scott, 2004) and is described as a visitor. who repeats the action or updates the purpose (Baker & Crompton,2000). This also refers to determining the comfort of travelers or preparing to return to the same destination. (Khasawneh & Alfandi, 2019; Stylos et al., 2016) or the opportunity to recommend a destination to others (Chen & Tsai, 2007; Khasawneh & Alfandi, 2019). Customer retention has been generally recognized as important for the achievement of loyalty, not only in the field of physical products, but also in the tourism industry (Som & Badarneh, 2011). The object of the analysis is regarded as an extension of satisfaction, according to Um et al. (2006). When tourists from a tourist destination get a relaxed feeling, they will certainly be satisfied with the place, which will trigger the urge to visit again. A number of studies supporting the positive impact of tourist satisfaction on return visit intentions are given in this literature (Assaker & Hallak, 2013; Chen & Chen, 2010; Khasawneh & Alfandi, 2019). In addition, Zhang, Fu, Cai, and Lu (2014) concluded that repeat visits are considered a most destination marketing companies, this is a costeffective and appealing business segment. Destination marketers should also consider antecedents from destinations that affect tourist visits to rural tourism destinations for efficient tourism growth.. 12.
(24) FHPK. 2.2.1. RURAL TOURISM. As well as involving the community in the tourism industry, rural tourism can be. considered as a product that has good potential in developing the region. The rural tourism sector in Malaysia covers all activities, including cultural characteristics, environmental aspects, traditional activities and even health tourism (Osman & Sentosa, 2013). Rural tourism is characterized as a combination of various types of tourism, such as cultural and heritage components, according to (Maksimovic, Urosevic, & Mihajlovic, 2015), and contributes to rural economic growth at the same time. Therefore, the entire local community participates in the development of this area as it is important to expand the purpose of tourism (Briedenhann and Wickens, 2004). This is because tourism planning affects the whole community. According to (Kayat, Mohdnor, & Idris, 2006), most locals know the advantages of the tourism industry which can give them the opportunity to improve their economic status and increase awareness of the importance of environmental protection. Homestay accommodation program that has been unofficially introduced since the 1970s in Malaysia, with some local community. participants offering accommodation for international visitors in their own homes at very low prices compared to hotels or resorts at competitive prices (Hamzah, 2008; Kayat , 2010; Ibrahim & Razzaq, 2010). The accommodation industry is well known for various words, such as farm accommodation, cultural homestay, heritage homestay, educational homestay, charitable homestay, private accommodation, holiday accommodation, and cottages, according to (Albaladejo-Pina & Diaz-Delfa, 2009; Barnett, 2001; Wong, 2006; Pearce, 1990).. 13.
(25) FHPK. According to the Rural Tourism Master Plan (2001) as quoted in Hamzah (2004), Tourism is an opportunity for tourists to visit rural places of interest and explore. Malaysian culture and heritage, while offering socio- economic benefits for the local community close to many of these rural areas to the hinterland and rainforest also gives. visitors the opportunity to expand their vacation and appreciate this unique natural. resource. According to its Deputy Chairman, Dr Aminuddin Yaacob, there are 5 potential. destinations to be developed in the area despite having been developed by local authorities (PBT), but improvements from certain aspects can still be considered in accordance with the concept and environment. Among the areas that are often visited by visitors with their own uniqueness such as Stong Mountain, Reng Mountain, Kolam Air Panas Batu 10 and others. According to the Director of the Office of the Ministry of Tourism and Culture Malaysia (MOTAC) Kelantan State Mohd Aidil Afizie Daud has. presented awards for rural tourism which is categorized as homestay is Homestay Kemunchup, Homestay Batu Papan, Homestay Bukit Jering, Min House Camp and others. For Malaysia, the "Malaysia Truly Asia" campaign was launched by the federal government agency (Tourism Malaysia) to promote Malaysia's image as a place of ethnic diversity. Therefore, rural tourism has become a trend for visitors to see the natural beauty and relax the mind as well as breaths fresh air in rural areas, especially local tourist. According to Greffe (1994), rural tourism can be understood in three different ways. First, rural tourism can be understood as living in the homes of local people, this term refers to the less fortunate, so often referred to as tourism of the poor, a luxury destination where large sums of money have to be spent on housing and food. Second, rural tourism refers to the participation of visitors in various activities that are very different from those done in the urban world, such as hiking, fishing, honeymoon, and others. Third, this is a newly 14.
(26) FHPK. formed rural tourism idea, which involves staying in a farmhouse, doing agricultural. activities, observing agricultural activities or enjoying the observation of such activities "(Sharma and Kharel, 2011). They are the mainstay in promoting the interior when they. vacation with friends and family. Students and all visitors will promote the area by using mass media such as Facebook, Instagram and others. In conclusion, the rural tourism is very important in our country to promote our palace in ASEAN country.. 2.2.2. LOCAL TOURIST. According to IRTS (2008), tourist can be defined as activities of people from one destination to another destination for the reason of pleasure or business. Domestic tourism is involving tourist who is the tourist in their country and not involving tourist from other countries. This activity is not involved in crossing the international border and only involve by crossing only their resident. The history of domestic tourism had the first form of tourism that has been practiced. This activity was already implied and has been practiced in all the country. The relationship between tourists visits their friends, family member and activities of religion have been found in the country that had a long history of domestic tourism (Rogerson, 2005). Domestic tourism is the trip of traveling people from one destination to another destination with the reason only in their state. Refer to Mohammad (2018), the author stated that domestic tourists can be defined as people who are living in Malaysia for at least one year and do traveling or trip to their usual environment for the reason of business, leisure, and personal.. 15.
(27) FHPK. 2.2.3. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION. Satisfaction can be defined as the evaluation overall from customer for the service that be provide by the firm. Satisfaction is one of important factor should be taken by. customer to deciding whether to continue purchase the product or services that be offered by firm or otherwise (Skongland, 2001). According to Bitner (2003) satisfaction is the result when performance of product exceeds the requirement by customer.. In the aspect of tourism, satisfaction is one of important tourist need while they travel, buying a product and using the service that has been provide for customer use. According to Severt (2007), Tourist satisfaction can be defined as the how much fulfillment of tourist from the product and services they use. The fulfillments on this aspect are experience from tourist when there are buying the product or services that has been provide by firm and its achieved tourist expectation while they travel. Besides that, tourist satisfaction also can be defined as post travel experience and pre travel expectation. Tourist will have satisfied if experience beyond over tourist expectation. Otherwise, if the tourist feels unhappy with the product and service that has beenused, dissatisfied will be the results (Chen, 2010).. 16.
(28) FHPK. 2.2.4. PRICE. Price is a very important role in the tourism sector, especially in Kelantan.. According to (Kotler & Keller, 2012), Price may be calculated at different levels and. forms, such as fair price, reasonable price, discount price, competitive price, and price suitability. With service quality, cost impacts consumer expectations (Zeithaml et al., 2006). This is because tourists like to make savings when traveling in the hinterland.. Therefore, tourists will always compare prices, especially in rural tourism as they can save their finances and can spend in malls etc. According to (Wirtz & Lovelock, 2016) that price includes all costs to be paid by visitors to benefit from the products or services they experience in one destination. Therefore, the intention of visitors to visit depends on their experience and satisfaction (Wang, Wu, and Yuan 2010). Therefore, customers are very concerned with the prices offered and also the services provided by inland tourism in Kelantan.. 2.2.5. DESTINATION IMAGE. In the various conceptual structures that describe the decision-making process of visitors, the picture of the destination is considered an important factor. This is because tourists are more attracted to the beauty of destinations, interests and others. According to Kim, Holland and Han (2013), most studies focus on the importance of tourist. 17.
(29) FHPK. motivation based on psychological needs (push motivation) and destination attraction. (motivational attraction) in measuring decision making among tourists visiting destinations. Tourists are also very important in beautiful pictures, good reviews and. others. This research argues that the definition of purpose images focuses on the overall. understanding of the position of an individual (Chiu et al., 2016). In addition, researchers also agree that objective images determine a variety of ways in which construction is more sophisticated (Akgün et al., 2019). The picture of purpose attribute, however, is. considered to consist of three elements: cognitive, affective and conative (Sharma & Nayak, 2018; Stylos et al., 2017, 2016). A destination's cognitive evaluation includes related beliefs and knowledge that reflect the tourist's evaluation of the destination's perceived attributes (Sharma & Nayak, 2018; Stylos et al., 2017, 2016). The conative image component describes the active consideration of tourists as a potential tourist destination towards a location, outlining the desired future conditions that tourists want to experience (Sharma & Nayak, 2018). Therefore, in order to attract rural tourism, in particular in Kelantan, the image of a destination has external and internal factors. According to the author Lodarnova (2016), in the various of conceptual framework shows that destination image is a very important reason that to affect tourist decision making process, this is because it believed tourist make their buying decision based on the mental image of destination. Destination image become a very important and in tourism research, the most common problem has been identified in a variety of different ways (Chaulagain et al, 2019). According to Chen & Tsai (2007), the image of the tourist destination is also known as individual general feelings and the whole impression of a place; as the mind of an individual representative of experience, feelings and the whole perception of a specific destination (Chi & Qu, 2008); as a general. 18.
(30) impression, visitor beliefs or ima (Chaulagain et al, 2019).. 2.3. HYPOTHESES. FHPK. impression of the tourist based on the image and feelings of the destination, knowledge,. The hypothesis is a suggested interpretation of a phenomenon. The scientific method demands that one be able to test it in order for a theory to be a scientific hypothesis. Scientific hypotheses are usually based on past findings on the basis of scientists and can’t be satisfactorily clarified by the available scientific theories. The research of hypothesis is a general, clear and testable statement on the possible result in research study based on the research questions which is the intention of rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan. Also, hypotheses are two specific variable or relationships between independent and dependent variable variables. The hypotheses contain two types that are null and alternate hypotheses.. H0: There is no relationship between customer satisfaction with revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan. H1: There is relationship between customer satisfaction with revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan. H0: There is no relationship between the price and revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan.. 19.
(31) FHPK. H1: There is relationship between the price and revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan.. H0: There is no relationship between destination image with revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan.. H1: There is relationship between destination image with revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan.. 2.4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK. The analysis will be used by the American Customer Satisfaction Index for the hypothesis, which is (ACSI). This principle is taken from the Ross School of Business of the University of Michigan. The only national cross-industry indicator of consumer 20.
(32) FHPK. satisfaction in the United States is the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The theory is based on a cause-and-effect model with indexes of satisfaction drivers on the left side, which are focused on consumer preferences, perceived quality, and perceived value, satisfaction (ACSI), and satisfaction results on the right side, consisting of customer complaints and customer loyalty, including customer retention and price tolerance.. i). Customer Expectations Consumer expectations are a measure of the customer's forecast of the quality of the goods or services of a business. Other than that, standards reflect both past knowledge of consumption, which includes certain non-experiential data such as ads and word-of-mouth, and a prediction of the capacity of the business to offer quality in the future.. ii）. Perceived Quality Perceived quality refers to the customer's recognition of quality through the look, touch, and feel of the product or destination. Besides, because quality is the most important factor we know, if any customers feel that the product or service is worth it or even the price is a bit higher than expected, the customers will still want to come back.. iii). Perceived Value Perceived value is the assessment of the merits or reviews of a product or service by consumers, and their ability to satisfy their needs and expectations, especially in comparison with their peers.. iv). Customer Complaints 21.
(33) FHPK. Customer complaints are assessed within a given time period as a percentage of respondents who show that they have personally complained to an organization. about a product or service. Satisfaction has a negative association with complaints from consumers, since the happier customers are, the less likely they are to complain. v). Customer Loyalty. Customer loyalty is an indicator of the likeliness of a customer or the rate of positive impression to do business with the company again. If customer satisfaction is a successful outcome, positive customer reviews and the overall value of the products or services a customer receives from a company are advantageous.. 2.5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE. DEPENDENT VARIABLE. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION. THE REVISIT INTENTION OF RURAL TOURISM IN KELANTAN. DESTNATION IMAGE PRICE. Figure 2.2 shows the Conceptual Framework of the study Source of conceptual framework the results of Chi & Qu (2008), Zhang et al. (2014);. 22.
(34) FHPK. Service levels have a beneficial effect on satisfaction of visitors and possible. behavioural intentions (2013 Canny). According to Kozak and Rimmington (2000). suggested that the happiness of tourists was perceived to be very significant, as it was very significant in the selection of destinations, the purchasing of products and services. and the decision of tourists to redesign. Besides, Gour and Theingi (2009) found that in describing behavioural intentions, passenger satisfaction with service-quality dimensions was very high. On the other hand, customer satisfaction was characterized as the extent of the level of pleasure or happiness felt by travelers as a result of the experience of using a service (Severt, 2007). For effective destination marketing, visitor satisfaction is important because it influences the choice of destination, the purchase of goods and services and the decision to return (Yoon & Uysal, 2005). Furthermore, the findings of Yoon and Uysal (2005), Le et al. (2016), Dmitrovic et al. (2016), Bang and Hai (2019) indicate that tourists' satisfaction has a positive effect on tourist destination loyalty. Next, price was a measurable thing that came in several degrees and ways, such as low cost, fair price, reduced price, reasonable price, and price suitability (Kotler & Keller, 2012). The price included all the costs that travelers had to pay to benefit from the goods or services they enjoyed in a single destination (Wirtz & Lovelock, 2016). Cost influenced consumer perceptions at the level of service (Zeithaml et al., 2006).. The picture of the destination has long received wider attention in the field of tourism, particularly in the literature on community-based tourism to anticipate its effects,. 23.
(35) FHPK. formation, and contet (Tapachai & Waryszak, 2000). In choosing a tourist destination over another, the reputation of the destination is an important consideration for visitors and it plays a key role in winning various roles compared to rivals (Pike, 2017).. 2.6. SUMMARY. In conclusion, the explanation of this chapter is more to clear about the dependent variables and also does not depend on the study. The independent variables are the type of tourist, customer satisfaction and experience as well as the different prices between rural and urban tourism. The dependent variable is the intention of rural tourism in Kelantan. This chapter will also cover the research framework. The methodology used is discussed in the next chapter.. 24.
(36) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. 3.1. INTRODUCTION. FHPK. CHAPTER 3. This chapter will clarify the process of inquiry. To be described in this chapter, the method of research through data collection for this report. The goal of this study is to revisit the role of rural tourism in local tourism in Malaysia. The research is uses in Quantitative methodology. The quantitative research used objective measures and numerical analysisof numerical data to understand and describe items or phenomena that can be used as a guide to practice and policies.. 3.2. RESEARCH DESIGN. The design of the study is basically a study plan that sets out the procedures that researchers must follow in order to achieve their research objectives or test the hypotheses formed for their research (McDaniel and Gates, 1999). Its role is to ensure that the data generated evidence can respond confidently and convincingly to research. 25.
(37) FHPK. questions (de Vaus, 2001). In conducting this study, our research design is quantitative research.. The study of systematic phenomena to gather measurable data and to conduct. statistical, mathematical or computational techniques is quantitative analysis.. Quantitative analysis also uses sampling techniques to obtain information from prospective students and submits online surveys, online surveys, questionnaires and. others. As a result, it can be explained in numerical form. So, in this study we use a questionnaire for local tourists in Kelantan. This research examines the relationship between customer satisfaction, price, destinations image as independent variables and intention of rural tourism as dependent variables.. 3.3. POPULATION. Population refers to the whole community of individuals that a researcher needs to study, incidents or interesting things. Each population member is known as an element. A population measurement is defined as the number of elements in a population and is denoted by 'N'. This research examines local tourist who coming revisit intention to rural tourism in Kelantan. According to The Straits Times, January and October 2019 are the local tourist come to Kelantan with 3.14 million so Kelantan expects 5.5 million tourists in 2021.. 26.
(38) FHPK. 3.4. SAMPLE SIZE. In market research, a term used to measure the number of subjects included in a. sample size is sample size. The investigator understood a group of participants chosen. from the general population by sample size and viewed them as members of the study's actual population. In statistics, the sample size is indicated by the variable "n". (Jon Zamboni, 2018). However, the population of more than 1,000,000 in need of a sample is 384. (Krejcie and Morgan, 1970). The sample size of this research is local tourist are coming revisit intention to rural tourism in Kelantan. A total of 384 local tourists of male and female will participate in this research as respondents.. 3.5. SAMPLING METHOD. Sampling is a method for choosing a sample community from the population sampled (Saul McLeod, 2019). They're called the residents. Population density is the average number of residents in a single area. For this study, the overall tourist population in Kelantan is used to measure the number of local visitors visiting to Kelantan to visit rural tourism.. 27.
(39) FHPK. The sample is part of a large assemblage. A sample is taken to learn about the whole form (the "population") that is being drawn. A stratified, basic random sampling. method (SRS) was used for the selection of participants in this study. Non-probability sampling is a sampling approach in which not everyone in the population has an equal chance of participating in the research. Each person has a certain chance of being. selected. The criteria for selecting the respondents in this study are either local visitor to revisits rural tourism in Kelantan. The respondent is also around 20 years old and older.. With a simple random sample, each visitor is often likely to be selected from the population being studied. This technique ensures a completely balanced representation of the element of analysis. The survey is 384 random local tourists from the N population, the number of local visitors who visited Kelantan. Both visitors to the survey would have the same probability that each sample of size n is chosen, with 384 visitors from the population having the same chance of being selected.. 3.6. DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE. Data collection refers to the method for study data collection, calculation and analysis using standard validated techniques consisting of primary data and secondary data. The primary data is data obtained by researchers through interviews or surveys. It also comes from the source from which the data originally came. Quantitative data collection techniques include questionnaires with closed-ended questions, correlation and regression methods, and other methods (Dudovskiy, 2018). The questionnaire was 28.
(40) FHPK. distributed to the respondents who consider as the local tourist in Malaysia by using Google Forms to ensure that the respondent can easier to answer the questionnaire. Therefore, researchers took around two weeks to collect the data from the respondents.. Although secondary information is a type of data published in books, magazines, newspapers, web portals and newspapers (Dudovskiy, 2018). The data and information are collected from online sources such as Medical News Today, National Geographic, Travel Health Journal, and so on.. 3.6.1. PRIMARY DATA. Primary data refers to data which has been directly observed or collected through first-hand experience. Primary data has been gathered in order to study the revisit intention of rural tourism involvement among local tourist in Malaysia by using the questionnaire survey to collect data from respondents. It will distribute the questionnaire to the target respondents, which are the local tourist in Kelantan. All 30 questions in the questionnaires must be answered by the respondents.. 3.6.2. QUANTITATIVE METHOD. This study is a quantitative study. Quantitative research is a research strategy focusing on the quantifying of data collection and analysis. Quantitative methods for data 29.
(41) FHPK. collection include different types of surveys – online survey, paper survey, interview, telephone interview, longitudinal survey, online poll, systematic observation and more.. According to Rosina (2013) and Gay, LR & Airasian, P (2000), with objective measurements and numerical analysis of numerical data, quantitative research is carried. out to explain and identify items or phenomena that can be used as a guide to practices and policies.. 3.7. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT. Research instruments are common terms used by researchers to measure tools such as surveys, tests, questionnaires, and more. It aims to differentiate between instrumentation and instrumentation, as well as the assumption that an instrument is a device and instrumentation is an action that is a process of developing, testing, and using the device. The research instrument of this study is a questionnaire. In literature, a questionnaire is a collection of questions or objects. This is a specially developed method for the gathering of knowledge for study purposes that can address research questions. Questionnaires are one type of instrument equipped with a subject. There are five sections in this questionnaire, namely sections A, B, C, D and E. First, part A is the demographic background. Demographic information is a characteristic of respondent's backgrounds that includes age, race, ethnicity, income, employment situation, and marital status. Respondents have to tick any section related to them. Next, part B is about revisit intention to rural tourism. The question is whether 30.
(42) FHPK. their revisit intention to rural areas is to see the changes in an area, satisfying nostalgia,. the area feels like home, explore new places and they know how to get around. The. inquiries are ‘yes or no’ and the question is a different decision. Respondents should mark the most reasonable answer for each question. Next, part C is customer satisfaction.The. question is whether the choice of destinations, the consumption of goods and servicesand the tourist decision to return would satisfy them. The question uses the Likert Scale. method. Respondents marked on the scale according to their opinion regarding customer satisfaction. Part D is about price. Respondents were able to indicate reasonable answers to questions regarding affordable price, discounted price, competitor price, and price suitability. Lastly, Part E is about destination image. Respondents should identify the. appropriate response based on beautiful landscapes, shopping opportunities, cultural exchange, facilities, protection and activities. The Likert scale is used to complete the research. There is closed research. Closed queries can also provide ordinal information (which can be recorded). This often includes the use of continuous evaluation scales to measure the quality of a frame of mind or feeling. For example, strongly disagree / disagree / neutral / agree / strongly agree. Number. Characteristic. 1. Strongly disagree. 2. Disagree. 3. Neutral. 4. Agree. 5. Strongly agree. Scale of level disagreement and agreement 31.
(43) FHPK. 3.8. DATA ANALYSIS. Data analysis is a means of arranging, defining, representing, analyzing, and interpreting data using mathematical practice. Firstly, when performing the study, it is. necessary to clearly understand the purpose of this research. The most frequent approach used in a quantitative method is descriptive analysis.. 3.8.1. RELIABILITIY ANALYSIS. Analysis of reliability is a means of estimating the consistency of the calculation technique used in a study or thesis to gather data. The outcome typically produced by reliability is a reliable result of equal meaning (Blumberg et al., 2015). The calculation method must first be accurate in order for the conclusions from an analysis to be considered valid. Reliability is concerned with accuracy or how far the questions used in sample, each time asked by the respondent, are the same sort of results. This is critical when it comes to tracking and matching the findings from external sources with previous internal surveys and metrics. Cronbach’s Alpha is used in testing the consistency of internal and measuring the scale on reliability in this research. According to Nunally and Bernstain (1994), the acceptance ranges for alpha value estimates from between 0.7 to 0.8. Table 3.8 below is the rule of thumb of Cronbach’s Alpha on testing reliability. 32.
(44) FHPK Table 3.1 below is the rule of thumb of Cronbach’s Alpha on testing reliability. 3.8.2. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS. Descriptive analysis based on Statistical Package of the Social Science (SPSS) should has analysis the statistic or data before start calculating. It will help to calculate large groups of number statistic and sum up the data with different features. It also makes it easily to do proposal in many ways if using Statistical Package of the Social Science. The purpose is to report the situation of the statistical that had collected. It is a procedure in statistical analysis which more using in administration, demonstration and category. Through it, the data that had accumulated can make the reader easier and understanding. Generally, the data that has gain will let reader understand from the statistic and get information through it. If use graph or table to classify the data, it will let reader more enjoyable to read the content. The element of the data will influence the whole data analysis in the proposal. Researcher use the Statistical Package of the Social Science (SPSS) has few reason, which are easy to access, has all numerical statistic that need and. 33.
(45) analysisand measure central tendency which are mean, median and modus.. 3.8.3. PEARSON CORRELATION. FHPK. completed the design. Statistical Package of the Social Science is using to mandatory. If the researcher has two quantitative variables and want to see if there is a linear relationship between those variables, Pearson Correlation analysis is used. The analysis theory would suggest that one score impacts the other in the right direction by saying that. For example, whether the quality of tourism services increases tourist satisfaction, Pearson Correlation is used where it is assumed that there is a linear association in data. In this study, Pearson Correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the element of customer satisfaction, price and destination image can attribute towards the revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist in Kelantan. The figure between -1 to 1 will be shown as the result of the correlation coefficient, where -1 means the two variables have a perfectly negative correlation and 1 means the two variables have a perfectly positive correlation. The result would be 0.0 if there is no linear relationship between the two variables.. 34.
(46) FHPK. 3.9. SUMMARY. This chapter has discussed research design that being used to carry out this study, target population, sample size, sampling procedure, instrument, data collection and data. analysis. This chapter has also discussed on results and findings draws from the analysis. which conducted on the data collected from the questionnaires which are reliability test, descriptive analysis and Pearson Correlation.. 35.
(47) DATA ANALYSIS. 4.1. INTRODUCTION. FHPK. CHAPTER 4. This chapter presents the reliability analysis, frequency analysis, descriptive analysis, Pearson Correlation Coefficient analysis and framework analysis. The results of the research data were obtained from 387 respondents. In this study, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24 was used to analyze the data after data collection.. 4.2. RESULT OF DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS. Descriptive analysis was conducted based on the data collected from the 387 respondents on section A for background information summaries in respondents’ demographic profile.. 36.
(48) Age. FHPK. 4.2.1. The table 4.2 presents the age distribution of a total of 387 respondents collected from the data collection. Table 4.2: The Age of Respondents Age. Frequency (n). Percent (%). 18-25 years old. 338. 87.3. 26-35 years old. 26. 6.7. 36-45 years old. 11. 2.8. 46-55 years old. 9. 2.3. 56 and above years old. 3. 0.8. Total. 387. 100. The table 4.2 shows that among these age groups, the highest of the number of respondents were from the age of 18 to 25 years old with 87.3 percent and 338 respondents. The second highest number of respondent age was from 26 to 35 years old with 6.7 percent and 26 respondents. Following with the 2.8 percent and 11 respondents from the age group 36 to 45 years old. The second lowest number of respondent age was from 46 to 55 years old with 2.3 percent and 9 of respondent. While the lowest number of respondents from the age of 56 years old and above with 0.8 percent and 3 respondents. 37.
(49) FHPK. 4.2.2. Gender. The table 4.3 presents the gender distribution of a total of 387 respondents collected from the data collection.. Table 4.3: The Gender of Respondents Gender. Frequency (n). Percent (%). Male. 82. 21.2. Female. 305. 78.8. Total. 387. 100. The table 4.3 show that the gender distribution of a total of 387 respondents. The pie chart above clearly shows that female respondents were 78.8 percent (n=305) more than male respondents 21.2 percent (n=82).. 4.2.3. Status. The table 4.4 presents the status distribution of a total 387 of respondents collected from the data collection. 38.
(50) Marital. Frequency. status. (n). Percent (%). Single. 328. 84.8. Married. 59. 15.2. Divorced. 0. 0. Total. 387. 100. FHPK. Table 4.4: The Status of Respondents. The table 4.4 above shows the percentage of marital status among the respondents. There was a significant difference between the highest and lowest marital status groups where single respondents were 84.8 percent and 328 respondents and married respondents were 15.2 percent are 59 respondents.. 4.2.4. Ethnicity. The table 4.5 presents the ethnicity distribution of a total of 387 respondents collected from the data collection.. Table 4.5: The Ethnicity of Respondents Ethnicity. Frequency (n). 39. Percent (%).
(51) 314. 81.1. Indian. 42. 10.9. Chinese. 31. 8.0. Total. 387. 100. FHPK. Malay. The table 4.5 shows the ethnicity of 387 respondents. The highest number of ethnic groups who were involved in this study is Malay with 81.1% and 314 on respondent, followed by Indian with 10.9% (n=42) respondents while the lowest was Chinese with 8.0% and 31 respondents.. 4.2.5. Education. The table 4.6 presents the education distribution of a total 387 of respondents collected from the data collection.. Table 4.6: The Education of Respondents. Frequency (n). Percent (%). SPM. 153. 39.5. Diploma. 71. 18.3. Type of education. 40.
(52) 158. 40.8. Master Degree. 5. 1.3. Total. 387. 100. FHPK. Bachelor Degree. The table 4.6 represents the education distributions among the respondents. The highest education among the respondents was bachelor degree with 40.8% and 158. respondents. The second highest was SPM where the percentage of respondents was 39.5% and 153 respondents. The following with Diploma are 18.3 percent and 71 respondents. Lastly, Master Degree represented 1.3 percent and 5 respondents.. 4.2.6. Employer status. The table 4.7 presents the employer status distribution of a total 387 of respondents collected from the data collection. Table 4.7: The Employer Status of Respondents Employment status. Frequency (n). Percent (%). Employment on wages. 174. 45. Self-employed. 21. 5.4. 187. 48.3. Students. 41.
(53) 1.3. Total. 387. 100. FHPK. 5. Retire. The table 4.7 shows the employment status of 387 respondents. The highest. percentage of employment status is student 48.3 percent and 187 percentages. The second highest employer status group was employment on wages with 45.0 percent and 174. respondents. Following with self-employed 5.4 percent and 21 respondents and retire respondents 1.3 percent and 5 respondents.. 4.2.7. How many times that you visited rural tourism in Kelantan. The table 4.8 presents that how many times that respondents visited rural tourism in Kelantan of a total 387 of respondents collected from the data collection. Table 4.8: How Many Times that respondents visited in Kelantan Times. Frequency (n). Percent (%). 1 to 3 times. 233. 60.2. 4 to 5 times. 113. 29.2. No of above. 38. 9.8. 3. 0.8. 387. 100. Other. Total. 42.
(54) FHPK. The table 4.8 shows that how many times that respondent visited rural tourism in. Kelantan of 387 respondents. The highest percentage that respondent visited rural tourism in Kelantan 1 to 3 times are 60.2 percent and 233 respondents. The second highest. percentage that respondent visited rural tourism in Kelantan for 4 to 5 with 29.2 percent and 113 respondents. Following with no of above 9.8 percent and 38 respondents and other is 8 percent only the 3 respondents.. 4.2.8. What is respondents visit purpose to Kelantan. The table 4.9 presents that the respondents visit purpose to Kelantan of a total 387 of respondents collected from the data collection.. Table 4.9: The Respondents Visit Purpose to Kelantan Visit Purpose Holidays and business. Frequency (n). Percent (%). 265. 68.5. 100. 25.8. 22. 5.7. trip Visit family and relatives other. Total. 387. 100. The table 4.9 shows that what is purpose to visit in Kelantan of 387 respondents. The highest percentage that respondent visit in Kelantan about holidays and business trip 43.
(55) FHPK. is 68.5 percent and 265 respondents. The second highest percentage that respondent visit. in Kelantan are visit family and relative with 25.8 percent and 100 respondents. Following with other is 5.7 percent and 22 respondents.. 4.2.9. With who that respondents revisit intention in Kelantan. The table 4.10 presents that with who that respondent revisit intention in Kelantan of a total 387 of respondents collected from the data collection. Table 4.10: With who that respondents revisit intention in Kelantan Respondents. Frequency (n). Percent (%). Friend. 175. 45.2. Siblings. 58. 15.0. Family. 150. 38.8. Other. 4. 1.0. Total. 387. 100. The table 4.10 shows that the respondents with who are visited intention in Kelantan of 387 respondents. The highest percentage that respondent are visited intention rural tourism in Kelantan is friend 45.2 percent of 175 respondents. The second highest percentage that respondent visited intention with who in Kelantan for family with 38.8 percent of 150 respondents. Following with siblings 15 percent and 58 respondents and other is 1 percent of 34 respondents. 44.
(56) FHPK. 4.2.10 The ranking of attraction in Kelantan that respondents visited. The table 4.11 presents which attraction in Kelantan that respondents visited of a total of 387 respondents collected from the data collection.. Table 4.11: The ranking of attraction places in Kelantan The ranking of Attraction. Frequency(n). Percent (%). Jeram Mengaji. 185. 26.4. Istana Sangkut. 123. 17.6. Gunung Stong. 205. 29.2. Lata Beringin. 109. 15.5. Lata Rek. 42. 6. Other. 37. 5.3. places. Total. 100. 45.
(57) FHPK. The table 4.11 shows that the ranking of attraction that the respondents visited intention in Kelantan of 387 respondents. The highest percentage of the ranking in. attractions place is Gunung Stong with 29.2 percent and 205 respondents. The second of. highest percentage of the ranking in attraction place is Jeram Mengaji with 26.4 percent and 185 respondents. The third of highest percentage of the ranking in attraction place is Istana Sangkut with 17.6 percent and 123 respondents and the Lata Beringin with 15.5 percent. and 109 respondents. The lower percentage of the ranking in attraction place is Lata Rek with 6 percent and 42 respondents and other places is 5.3 percent and 37 respondents.. 4.3. RELIABILITY TEST. The questionnaires' reliability was assessed using reliability analysis. Cronbach's Alpha review was used to ensure that the information was reliable on the outside and inside. The table below shows the Rule of Thumb of Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient size according to Hair et al (2007).. The table above shows the illustration the overall consistency (pilot test) for the dependent and independent variables. The pilot test has been done to 30 respondents 46.
(58) Table 4.1: Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. VARIABLE. NUMBER OF ITEM. CRONBACH’S. STRENGTH OF. ALPHA. ASSOCIATION. COEFFICIENT. Revisit Intention. 5. 0.793. Very Good. Customer Satisfaction. 5. 0.873. Very Good. Price. 3. 0.765. Very Good. Destination Image. 5. 0.840. Very Good. FHPK. before it was distributed to 387 respondents through online survey method.. The reason why revisit intention is at moderate level is because there a few participants which is 6.5% that choose naturally if good quality of infrastructure can increase their revisit intention to rural tourism. Besides, it has been effects from people that come to the rural area not because of the variety of shopping opportunities. The good destination image also one of the factors in increasing their revisit intention toward rural tourism. For customer satisfaction, the total of participants that enjoyed revisit Kelantan for rural tourism is at 74.4%. Meanwhile, there have some of them that gained a lot of knowledge and experience about rural tourism in Kelantan and it is about 47.8%. Furthermore, 70.5% have response that revisit Kelantan has been very meaningful to them and 57.9% satisfied with the product and services provide at the rural area especially in 47.
(59) FHPK. Kelantan.. In addition, the strength of association to price has noted as good because 80.6%. tourist has choose reasonable prices in attracting them to revisit rural tourism in Kelantan.. Besides, 51.2% choose that the rural tourism has offer attractive prices for them to return in future. The low transportation cost also attracted them to revisit in Kelantan.. Next, 81.4% tourist has agreed that destination image create revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist in Malaysia. Then, there is 57.4% tourist has to choose that destination image make them feel interesting toward revisit intention in Kelantan.. There 72.6% tourist will revisit the places again in future and 63.6% tourist has to choose that low risk of rural tourism increases their revisit intention in Kelantan. There 71.1% tourist agreed that destination image will affect their revisit intention when participate in rural tourism.. 4.4. RESULT OF INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS. 4.4.1 Revisit Intention. The table 4.12 presents the descriptive statistics for the revisit intention collected from 384 respondents.. 48.
(60) N. Minimum. Maximum. Mean. 1. Good quality of infrastructure increases my revisit intention to rural. 387. 1. 5. 4.66. .669. 387. 1. 5. 4.46. .607. 387. 1. 5. 4.59. .712. 387. 1. 5. 4.56. .685. 387. 1. 5. 4.58. .745. tourism. 2. Cheap expenses of rural tourism raised my revisit. Std. Deviation. FHPK. Table 4.12: Descriptive Statistics for Revisit Intention. intention. 3. My revisit intention to rural tourism because of variety of shopping opportunities. 4. Good destination image of rural tourism increased my revisit intention. 5. My satisfaction with rural tourism made me want to revisit. Valid N (listwise). 387. The table of 4.12 shows the total mean and standard deviation for dependent variable which is revisit intention. There are total questions for revisit intention. For the ‘Good quality of infrastructure increases my revisit intention to rural tourism’ the mean score 4.66 and the standard deviation is 0.67. The mean is 4.46 and the standard deviation is for ‘Cheap expenses of rural tourism raised my revisit intention’ while ‘My revisit intention to rural tourism because of variety of shopping opportunities’ the mean score is 4.59 and the standard deviation is 0.71. ‘Good destination image of rural tourism increased my revisit intention’ the mean is 4.56 and the standard deviation is 0.69. The last factor is ‘My satisfaction with rural tourism made me want to revisit’ where the mean score is and the standard deviation is 0.74. 49.
(61) FHPK. 4.4.2 Customer satisfaction. The Table 4.13 presents the descriptive statistics for the customer satisfaction collected 384 respondents.. Table 4.13: Descriptive Statistics for Customer Satisfaction N 1. I really enjoyed revisit Kelantan for rural tourism. Minimum. Maximum. Mean. Std. Deviation. 387. 1. 5. 4.61. .786. 387. 1. 5. 4.33. .761. 387. 2. 5. 4.59. .708. 387. 2. 5. 4.45. .758. 387. 1. 5. 4.55. .701. 2. I have gained a lot of new knowledge and experience about rural tourism in Kelantan. 3. Overall, revisit Kelantan has been very meaningful to me. 4. Overall, I am satisfied with their product and services provide at rural tourism especially in Kelantan. 5. I am satisfied with my decision to revisit Kelantan toward rural tourism. Valid N (listwise). 387. The table of 4.13 shows the total mean and standard deviation for independent variable which is customer satisfaction. There are total questions for customer satisfaction. For the ‘I really enjoyed revisit Kelantan for rural tourism’ the mean score 4.61 and the 50.
(62) FHPK. standard deviation is 0.79. The mean is 4.33 and the standard deviation is 0.76 for ‘I have gained a lot of new knowledge and experience about rural tourism in Kelantan’ while ‘Overall, revisit Kelantan has been very meaningful to me.’ the mean score is 4.59 and. the standard deviation is 0.70. ‘Overall, I am satisfied with their product and services. provide at rural tourism especially in Kelantan’ the mean is 4.45 and the standard deviation is 0.76. The last factor is ‘I am satisfied with my decision to revisit Kelantan toward rural tourism’ where the mean score is 4.55 and the standard deviation is 0.70.. 4.4.3 Price. Table 4.14 present the descriptive statistics for the price.. Table 4.14; Descriptive Statistics for Price N. Minimum. Maximum. Mean. Std. Deviation. 1. Reasonable prices was attract me to revisit rural. 387. 1. 5. 4.72. .648. 387. 1. 5. 4.42. .699. 387. 1. 5. 4.59. .708. tourism in Kelantan. 2. The rural tourism has offer attractive prices for me to return in the future especially in Kelantan 3. The low transportation cost attracted me to revisit in Kelantan. Valid N (listwise). 387. The table of 4.14 shows the total mean and standard deviation for independent 51.
(63) FHPK. variable which is price. There are total questions for price. For the ‘Reasonable prices was attract me to revisit rural tourism in Kelantan’ the mean score 4.72 and the standard. deviation is 0.65. The mean is 4.42 and the standard deviation is 0.70 for ‘. The rural. tourism has offer attractive prices for me to return in the future especially in Kelantan’ while ‘The low transportation cost attracted me to revisit in Kelantan’ the mean score is 4.58 and the standard deviation is 0.71.. 4.4.4 Destination image. The table 4.15 presents the descriptive statistics for destination image.. Table 4.15: Descriptive Statistics for Destination Image N. Minimum. Maximum. Mean. Std. Deviation. 1. Destination image create revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist in. 387. 2. 5. 4.75. .566. 387. 1. 5. 4.50. .680. 387. 1. 5. 4.63. .687. 387. 1. 5. 4.52. .749. Malaysia. 2. Destination image make me interesting toward revisit in Kelantan. 3. I will revisit the places again in future based on destination image in Kelantan 4. Low risk of rural tourism increases my revisit intention in Kelantan.. 52.
(64) affect our revisit intention when participate in rural. 387. 1. tourism Valid N (listwise). 387. 5. 4.61. FHPK. 5. The destination image will. .728. The table of 4.15 shows the total mean and standard deviation for independent. variable which is destination image. There are total questions for destination image. For the ‘Destination image create revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourist in. Malaysia.’ the mean score 4.75 and the standard deviation is 0.57. The mean is 4.50 and the standard deviation is 0.68 for ‘Destination image make me interesting toward revisit in Kelantan’ while ‘I will revisit the places again in future based on destination image in Kelantan.’ the mean score is 4.63 and the standard deviation is 0.69. ‘. Low risk of rural tourism increases my revisit intention in Kelantan’ the mean is 4.45 and the standard deviation is 0.76. The last factor is ‘The destination image will affect our revisit intention when participate in rural tourism where the mean score is 4.61 and the standard deviation is 0.73.. 4.5. PEARSON’S CORRELATION COEFFICIENT. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient analysis is one of the important analyses which measure the strength of linear relationship between the independent variables (IV) and dependent variables (DV). This analysis is to identify whether the correlation exist between the independent variables (customer satisfaction, price and destination image) and dependent variable (revisit intention). If the correlation existed, the researchers have to decide the strength and direction of association between the variables. 53.
(65) FHPK. Table 4.16 Rules of Thumbs on the Strength of Correlation Coefficient. Hypothesis 1: Customer Satisfaction H0: There is no relationship between customer satisfaction and revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourists in Kelantan. H1: There is a relationship between customer satisfaction and revisit intention of rural tourism among local tourists in Kelantan.. Correlations RI Revisit Intention. Pearson Correlation. CS 1. Sig. (2-tailed). .000. N. Customer. Pearson Correlation. Satisfaction. Sig, (2-tailed). .703**. 387. 387. .703**. 1. .000. N. 387. 387. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).. Table 4.17: Pearson Correlation of customer satisfaction with revisit intention to rural tourism among local tourists in Kelantan. 54.
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