SATISFACTION IN HALAL TOURISM IN MALAYSIA
Academic year: 2022
(2) FHPK. DECLARATION. I hereby certify that the work embodied in this report is the result of the original research and has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution OPEN ACCESS. I agree that my report is to be made immediately available as hardcopy or on-line open access (full text). CONFIDENTIAL. (Contains information confidential under the Official Secret Act 1972)*. RESTRICTED. (Contains restricted information as specified by the organization where research was done)*. I acknowledge that Universiti Malaysia Kelantan reserves the right as follow. The report is property of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan The library of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan has the right to make copies for the research purpose only The library has the right to make copies of the report for academic exchange. Certified by. Signature of Representative. Signature of Supervisor. Name: ADRIANA MOHD RIDUAN. Name: NOR SYUHADA ZULKEFLI. Date: 20/6/2021. Date: 16/6/2021. Note: *If the report is CONFIDENTIAL OR RESTRICTED, please attach the letter from the organization stating the period and reasons for confidentiality and restriction ii.
(3) FHPK. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. First of all, we would like to thank to everyone who had showed their contribution and effort on helping us to complete this research study. Their participation had given a lot of helps. and supports to us so we can do efficiently in this research study. We would like to express our gratitude towards our supervisors, Madam Hazzyati binti Hashim as first supervisor and Dr. Nor Syuhada binti Zulkefli as second supervisor for briefing and guiding us until the end of this research. We were able to complete our study although there were many things that we needed to learn to meet the criteria in this study and with their constant supervision and guidance. We also would like to thanks to our family and to our friends for supporting us in mentally and spiritually.. Besides that, thanks and congrats to every member of our group for the cooperation attitude and dedicated efforts. Without each other’s cooperation, understanding and tolerate, this project could not be finished on time. However, we also would like to be said thank you for our respondents for giving their time and cooperation towards our survey and we also would like to thank for those who are getting involved in this research either directly or indirectly. Last but not least, we are very grateful to University of Malaysia Kelantan (UMK) for giving us this opportunity to run this research project.. iii.
(4) PAGE TITLE PAGE. i. CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION. ii. ACKNOWLDEGEMENT. iii. TABLE OF CONTENTS. iv-viii. ABSTRACT. ix-x. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction. 1. 1.2 Background of the Study. 1-4. 1.3 Problem Statement. 4-7. 1.4 Research Objectives. 7. 1.5 Research Questions. 8. 1.6 Significance of the Study. 8-9. 1.7 Definition of Terms. 9-10. 1.8 Summary. 10. CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction. 11. 2.2 Determinant Factors on Halal Tourism. 11-12. 2.2.1 Islamic Attributes. 13. 2.2.2 The Quality of Products and Services. 13-14. 2.2.3 Islamic Facilities. 14-15. 2.3 Tourist Satisfaction in Halal Tourism. 15-16. 2.4 Conceptual Framework. 16-17. 2.4.1 The relationship between the Islamic attributes with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism. iv. 17. FHPK. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
(5) 17-18. products and services with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism 2.4.3 The relationship between the Islamic. 18. facilities with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism 2.5 Summary. 19. CHAPTER 3 : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction. 20. 3.2 Research Design. 20-21. 3.3 Population. 21-22. 3.4 Sample Size. 22-23. 3.5 Sampling Method. 24. 3.6 Data Collection Procedure. 25-26. 3.7 Research Instrument. 26-30. 3.7.1 Pilot Test. 30-31. 3.8 Data Analysis. 31. 3.8.1 Descriptive Analysis. 31. 3.8.3 Reliability and Validity. 32. 3.8.4 Correlation Analysis. 33. 3.9 Summary. 34. CHAPTER 4 : RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Introduction. 35-36. 4.2 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents. 36-43. 4.3 Result of Descriptive Analysis. 43-52. 4.4 Reliability Test. 52-53. 4.5 Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient. 53-58. 4.6 Discussion. 58-61. 4.7 Summary. 61. v. FHPK. 2.4.2 The relationship between the quality of.
(6) 5.1 Introduction. 62. 5.2 Recapitulation of the Findings. 62-63. 5.3 Discussion on Research Question. 63-66. 5.4 Implications. 66-67. 5.5 Limitation. 67-68. 5.6 Recommendation. 68-69. 5.7 Summary. 69. REFERENCES. 70-75. APPENDICES. 76-85. vi. FHPK. CHAPTER 5 : CONCLUSION.
(7) Tables. Title. Page. Table 3.1. Population Size of Malaysia, 2010-2019. 22. Table 3.2. Determining the Sample Size for A Given Population. 23. Table 3.3. The Type of Questions Will be Asked to Respondents. 26-29. Table 3.4. Five-Point Likert Scale. 30. Table 3.5. Rule of Cronbach Alpha. 32. Table 3.6. Rule of Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient Value (r). 33. Table 4.1. Gender of Respondents. 36. Table 4.2. Age of Respondents. 38. Table 4.3. Religion of Respondents. 39. Table 4.4. Marital Status of Respondents. 40. Table 4.5. Occupation of Respondents. 41. Table 4.6. Experience Using Halal Tourism Services. 42. Table 4.7. Descriptive Analysis. 44. Table 4.8. Descriptive Statistic of Tourist Satisfaction (TS). 45. Table 4.9. Descriptive Statistic of Islamic Attributes (IA). 47. Table 4.10. Descriptive Statistic of Products and Services (QPS). 49. Table 4.11. Descriptive Statistic of Islamic Facilities (IF). 51. Table 4.12. Result of Reliability Coefficient Alpha for the Independent Variables and Dependent Variable. 53. Table 4.13. Coefficient Correlation and Strength of Relationship. 54. Table 4.14. Relationship Between Islamic Attributes and Tourist Satisfaction in Halal Tourism. 54. Relationship Between Quality of Products and Services With Tourist Satisfaction in Halal Tourism. 55. Relationship Between Islamic Facilities with Tourist Satisfaction in Halal Tourism. 56. Overall of the Islamic Attributes, Quality of Products and Services and Islamic Facilities on Tourist Satisfaction in Halal Tourism. 57. Table 4.15 Table 4.16 Table 4.17. vii. FHPK. LIST OF TABLES.
(8) Summary for Hypothesis Testing. 61. Table 5.1. Research Objectives 1, Questions 1 and Hypothesis 1. 63. Table 5.2. Research Objectives 2, Questions 2 and Hypothesis 2. 64. Table 5.3. Research Objectives 3, Questions 3 and Hypothesis 3. 65. LIST OF FIGURES. Figures. Title. Page. Figure 1.1. Value, Annual Percentage Change and Percentage Share of GVATI and TDGPD. 2. Figure 1.2. Outbound Expenditure Tourism. 3. Figure 2.1. Conceptual Framework. 16. Figure 4.1. Gender of Respondents. 37. Figure 4.2. Age of Respondents. 38. Figure 4.3. Religion of Respondents. 39. Figure 4.4. Marital Status of Respondents. 40. Figure 4.5. Occupation of Respondents. 41. Figure 4.6. Experience Using Halal Tourism Services. 42. LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREAVATIONS. Abbreavations. GVATI. Gross Value Added of Tourism Industry. GDP. Gross Domestic Product. TDGDP. Tourism Direct Gross Domestic Product. ICT. Information Communication Technology. SPSS. Statistical Package of Social Science. MCO. Movement Control Order viii. FHPK. Table 4.18.
(9) FHPK. ABSTRACT. Halal tourism may be a sort of tourism that’s so well-known particularly to the Muslim and Halal tourism moreover known as specialty advertise which it appropriate and satisfy the necessities of the Muslim tourists. This study is focused on the relationship between determinant factors on tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism in Malaysia. Be that as it may, past study has appeared that Malaysia does not satisfy the prerequisite of Muslim tourists require and need indeed in spite of the fact that Malaysia is an Islamic nation. Consequently, this study is pointed the determinant factors which are Islamic attributes, quality products and services and Islamic facilities that locked in with the tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism in Malaysia. Therefore, this research has utilized the quatitative method in arrange to achieve research objectives. The researchers have utilized the google form to survey the questionnaires that comprises of 26 questions to the 318 respondents. Moreover, the ultimate result has appeared on this study is all the variables have been upheld where all the variables have noteworthy relationship with Halal tourism. Ideally, all data that give in this study will offer assistance the related parties to create income and benefit and at the same time can be a boost for Malaysia’s economy particularly in Halal tourism. In conclusion, all the data in this study can be utilized as a reference in arrange for the related parties to improve or plan superior for their management in Halal tourism industry. Keywords: Halal tourism, Islamic attributes, quality products and services, Islamic facilities, tourist satisfaction. ix.
(10) FHPK. ABSTRAK. Pelancongan Halal mungkin merupakan jenis pelancongan yang sangat terkenal terutamanya pelancongan Muslim dan Halal yang lebih dikenali sebagai iklan khas yang sesuai dan memenuhi keperluan pelancong Muslim. Kajian ini difokuskan pada hubungan antara faktor penentu kepuasan pelancong dalam pelancongan Halal di Malaysia. Bagaimanapun, kajian lepas menunjukkan bahawa Malaysia tidak memenuhi prasyarat pelancong Muslim yang memerlukan walaupun Malaysia adalah sebuah negara Islam. Oleh itu, kajian ini menunjukkan faktor-faktor penentu sifat-sifat Islam, produk dan perkhidmatan berkualiti dan kemudahan Islam yang berkaitan dengan kepuasan pelancong dalam pelancongan Halal di Malaysia. Oleh itu, penyelidikan ini telah menggunakan kaedah kuantitatif untuk dicapai. Penyelidik telah menggunakan “google form” untuk meneliti soal selidik yang terdiri daripada 26 soalan kepada 318 responden. Tambahan lagi, hasil akhir yang muncul dalam kajian ini adalah semua pemboleh ubah telah ditegakkan di mana semua pemboleh ubah mempunyai hubungan penting dengan pelancongan Halal. Semua data yang diberikan dalam kajian ini akan memberikan bantuan kepada pihak-pihak yang berkaitan untuk menjana pendapatan dan keuntungan dan pada masa yang sama dapat menjadi pendorong bagi ekonomi Malaysia khususnya dalam pelancongan Halal. Kesimpulannya, semua data dalam kajian ini dapat digunakan sebagai rujukan untuk mengatur agar pihak-pihak terkait dapat meningkatkan atau merancang yang lebih baik untuk pengurusan mereka dalam industri pelancongan Halal.. Kata kunci: Pelancongan Halal, sifat Islam, kualiti produk dan servis, kemudahan Islam, kepuasan pelancong. x.
(11) INTRODUCTION. 1.1 INTRODUCTION. FHPK. CHAPTER 1. In this chapter, it discusses the questions and explanations on the research topic we are discussing. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence Halal tourism among tourists. Chapter one also describes the implications of this study and covers the main areas introducing the research background, research objectives and also the research questions. The objective of the study is to explain and briefly explain the methodology used. Items that need to be included in this topic involve the background of the study, the problem statement, the research questions, the objectives of the study, the scope of the study, the significance of the study and the definition of terms.. 1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. Tourism industry is widely acknowledge as one of the major sources of economic growth and Islamic tourism has become a new appearnce in tourism business (Suid, Nor and Omar, 2017). This is because of the majority of Muslim market is fast growing in tourism industry. According to Department of Statistics Malaysia (2020), tourism industry continues to maintain in a good shape where the Gross Value Added of Tourism Industry (GVATI) makes contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) with recording of 15.9 per cent in 2019. 1.
(12) FHPK. as compared in 2018 to 15.2 per cent. The figure 1 shows the value, annual percentage change and percentage share of GVATI and Tourism Direct Gross Domestic Product (TDGDP).. Figure 1.1 Value, Annual Percentage Change and Percentage Share of GVATI and TDGDP (Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia). Halal tourism has various definitions and this definition can be formed in accordance with the things to be discussed. This is because there are some academics who are still disputing the meaning of Halal tourism was formed (Bottour & Ismail, 2016). Basically, Halal tourism is defined as Muslim tourists travelling outside of their own country for a year and participating in activities that promote Islam. Broadly speaking, Halal tourism must be fulfilled the terms of conditions for Muslim tourists, either from domestic and foreign tourists. Halal tourism is a new and niche market especially for Muslim tourists (Chandra, 2014). According to Hamzah & Wahid (2018), Halal tourism is also gaining a place in the tourist industry where it can influence Muslim tourists to travel to non-Muslim countries and Asian countries such as Malaysia. The emergence of Halal tourism in the hospitality and tourism industry not only attracts Muslim tourists themselves but also attracts non-Muslim tourists. According to Chandra (2014), the products or services produced have a place among 2.
(13) FHPK. non-Muslim tourists due to Halal products or services (Islamic attributes) that are known for cleanliness and high quality in line with Islamic law.. However, there are still a handful of tourists who can’t accept the products or services. offered in Halal tourism in terms of the perspective of non-Muslim tourists in particular (Rahman, Moghavvemi, Thirumoorthi & Rahman, 2020). The perception of non-Muslim tourists will change if industry players, such as tour operators, travel agencies and. accommodation owners (hospitality industry) do not provide needs adequate and appropriate to non-Muslim tourists (Battour, Hakimian, Ismail & Bogan, 2018). In the previous studies by Battour et al. (2018), the research found that some of the tourists hardly to identify whether the food is genuinely Halal or not because of the food packaging there is no “Halal” logo and basically the labels always in their language rather than English. This will make the tourists, especially Muslim tourists doubtful on their food preparation because of language barrier (Fauzihana & Ayob, 2020). According to Hamzah and Awhid (2018), one of the most important facilities for tourists when traveling is accommodation or better known as the hospitalities. Figure 2 shows the outbound expenditure in Malaysia, where the accommodation is one of the highest components in tourism expenditure.. Figure 1.2 Outbound Expenditure Tourism (Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia) Muslim countries becoming popular destinations as a new and safer destinations for Muslim tourists, since they faced some restrictions to travel in the USA and European 3.
(14) FHPK. countries (Suid et al., 2017). Thus, Islamic tourism has been introduced as a solution for Muslim tourists to travel. The availability of Islamic and Halal attributed in each destination. will lead to tourist satisfaction as well as inspire multiple return visits (Jafari and Scott, 2014). Tourists’ satisfaction is important for tourism industry because it is the measurement to see,. whether the products and services provided fulfil their needs and wants (Jafari and Scott, 2014). According to research conducted by Rahmatya (2010), satisfaction define as “the level of where the wishes, expectations and satisfaction needs are met or at least equal or exceeds the customer's expectation after comparing performance with expectations” (Kotler, 2009). In terms of Halal tourism context, satisfaction of tourists can be influenced by several factors. These factors in Halal tourism, included Halal, Islamic culture, the absence of alcohol consumption and gambling practices (Battour, 2018). Halal tourism suppliers can be more alert to the products and services that provided in order to increase tourist satisfaction. Halal tourism marketers can determine strategy to fulfil the needs and wants referring to the satisfaction of tourists on halal tourism and this can lead to the increase in number of Muslim travellers to the country.. 1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT. Halal tourism is a type of tourism that is so well known especially to the Muslim. This is because Muslim has a lot of regulations and religious belief they have to follow and it is a must for them to follow their religious. They have rules like prohibited the use of pig substance in a food and beverages, cannot touch a different gender who is not related by blood and must follow their prayer times. Timothy & Olsen (2006) explain that the increasing number of tourists with religious motivation has also attracted the attention of academics, 4.
(15) FHPK. government and tourism agencies to develop tourism. Hence, if the Halal tourism need to polished and need to be more commercial, customer or tourist has to be served nicely and the. quality of Halal product and services must to be at top condition (Irama & Abror, 2019). Their satisfaction must be fulfilled until its fullest. The survey needs to be done in order to find. about the level of the tourist satisfaction about the Halal tourism, this including the lifestyles, product and services.. Halal tourism is a niche market and is a tourism product for Muslim tourists in particular (Chandra, 2014). According to Hamzah and Wahid (2018), as Halal tourism is gaining ground in the tourism market. Most of Muslim tourists are seeking a destination that could provide Islamic services, such as availability of Halal food, Islamic entertainment and Islamic dress code to ensure they are safe and comfartable in each destination they go (Battour, Ismail & Battor, 2011). In addition, the study by Isa, Chin & Mohammad (2018) found that Muslim tourists also find the concept of Halal where they will use products or services that comply with Halal conditions and rules set by Islamic shariah. Besides that, Muslim tourists emphasize the need and requirement of products or services based on the concept of Halal and this shows that Halal certificates are very important in influencing the intention of Muslim tourists to plan travel, purchase and use the goods (Rahman, 2014; Yusof and Jusoh, 2014). Therefore, it is important to address the needs of Muslim tourists by providing more Islamic products and services. Furthermore, according to Hassani and Moghaavveni (2019), a deeper emphasis from industry players on Islamic characteristics for products and services can have a positive impact on the level of tourist satisfaction, especially Muslim tourists and also on the destination of choice (destination loyalty). This causes an increase in the level of tourist satisfaction if the industry players can provide products and services that exceed the reach of the tourists themselves (Isa, Chin & Mohammad, 2018).. 5.
(16) FHPK. Based on previous studies, such as from Chin and Qu (2008), quality products and services according to the tourist experience can make a place a preferred tourist destination. and can achieve repeated visits (Rahman, 2014). For example, Farahdel (2011) found that many Muslim tourists travel to Iran because Iran is one of the Islamic countries that have strict. Islamic attributes and meet the Islamic rules applied in the tourism industry (Rahman, 2014). However, Malaysia is still not a destination of choice for Muslim tourists from other Islamic countries even though Malaysia is an Islamic country. This may be due to Malaysia's lack of emphasis on Islamic attributes (as done by Iran), quality of products and services and also on Islamic facilities in increasing the level of satisfaction of Muslim tourists (Rahman, 2014). Islamic tourists place great emphasis on the value of Islam when traveling, especially in terms of gender segregation in the provision of facilities and services often (Battour et al., 2018). In previous studies, although the understanding of Halal accommodation is accepted. by tourists, but there are still tourists (both Muslim and non-Muslim tourists), who face difficulties in adapting to halal product and services set by the government (Razak, 2018). Since Muslim tourists were facing some restrictions to travel in certain countries, likes USA and European countries, Muslim countries increasingly becoming popular destinations among tourists (Stephenson, 2014; Suid et a., 2017), especially Muslim travers, where search for new and safer destinations. Thus, it is important to study the attributes factors in Halal and Islamic tourism in Malaysia, especially. Undoubtedly, satisfaction is a crucial key in marketing research. The issue of satisfaction on halal tourism is tourism marketers lack of traditional and Islamic values. The measurement to tourist satisfaction is important to market destinations become successful. There are several variables can be measured for tourist satisfaction, which are destination choice, products or services consumption, and repeat visits (Devesa et al., 2010; Yoon & Uysal, 2005; Zabkar et al., 2010). Cultural which consist of culture, subculture, and social. 6.
(17) FHPK. class can affect the satisfaction on halal tourism because tourists might want to travel to a place which has similar characteristics with their own country (Devesa et al., 2010). For instance, Malaysia’s Muslims travel to Indonesia simply because of the similarity in culture and this include the halal food. Countries like South Korea and Japan might difficult to fulfil the satisfaction on halal tourism due to the difference of the culture and lack of Islamic values. in their society (Arif, 2015). Thus, this study will explore determinant factors that effect on the Islamic tourist’s satisfaction.. 1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES. The study aims to understand the relationship between determining factors that influence Islamic tourists’ satisfaction in Halal tourism Malaysia. In order to achieve the aims of the study, the following supporting objective are established:. 1) To identify the relationship between the Islamic attributes with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism. 2) To determine the relationship between the quality of products and services with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism. 3) To investigate the relationship between the Islamic facilities with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism.. 7.
(18) Based on these objectives, the research questions are developed as follows:. FHPK. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS. 1) What is the relationship between the Islamic attributes with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism?. 2) What is the relationship between the quality of products and services with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism?. 3) What is the relationship between the Islamic facilities with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism?. 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY. In this era of industrialization, Islamic tourism demand is increasing gradually. Although the Muslim market is already being catered effectively in Malaysia, but research can be done towards future studies on the image of Halal tourism in Malaysia. There is some research done previously by other researchers, but research specifically on the effect of determinant factors on tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism in Malaysia is not yet to be found. This research can be the first step towards future studies on the Halal tourism in Malaysia. Due to the increasing in the number of Islamic tourism demand, many countries start to put in effort in marketing their Islamic tourism to attract Muslim travellers as well as to fulfil the demand. Therefore, it is important to do this study to improve the level of satisfaction on Halal tourism among the travellers and also the awareness of tour operator in offering Halal products and services. This is the main thing that Halal tourism in Malaysia tries to improve and other countries try to seek for.. 8.
(19) FHPK. This study is also significant to know what travellers expect Halal tourism to become. in the future by investigating their perceptions on this topic. It is important to understand Muslims’ tourist needs and behaviour in order to create a suitable product for Halal tourism. market (Shafaei and Mohamed, 2015). Although Malaysia is leading on the edge of Halal hub. of the world, this can still be done to improve the tourist’s satisfaction on Halal tourism in Malaysia. In addition, this research can also help tourism suppliers in other countries to make Muslim friendly environment for Muslim travellers from all over the countries.. 1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS. 1.7.1 Halal tourism Basically, Halal tourism is a tourism activity performed by Muslims outside of their original residence within a year by doing activities that lead to Islam (Crescent Rating, n.d).. 1.7.2 Islamic tourist / Muslim tourist Islamic tourist is a Muslim tourist doing tourism activities based on the demands of Islam and also to fulfil the call of religion when traveling (Usman, Sobari & Sari Lia, 2019).. 1.7.3 Islamic attributes According to Rahman (2014), Islamic attributes are features that must be applied in Halal Tourism to meet the needs and wants of Muslim tourists while they do travel activities such as Halal products and services, Halal food and drink, facilities for worship and more.. 9.
(20) FHPK. 1.7.4 The quality of products and services. Quality has various meanings based on the purpose to be conveyed. The quality of products and services is one of the important elements that must be present in a business to make a business successful and different from other businesses. It is to show the extent of effectiveness of such products and services to consumers (Indeed, 2020).. 1.7.5 Islamic facilities Islamic facilities mean facilities arranged based on Shariah that are suitable for use by Muslims according to the guidelines that have been set in the Quran and Sunnah (Law Insider, n.d).. 1.7.5 Tourist satisfaction Tourist satisfaction is a measure to find out the level of satisfaction that tourists face physically and emotionally towards the products or services offered in the tourism industry (Pavlic, Perucic & Portolan, 2011). Tourist satisfaction can help the industry to further improve the products or services carried out so that it can meet the needs and wants of tourists (Jafari & Scott, 2014).. 1.8 SUMMARY In this chapter, the researcher gives an overview of the study on the factors that influence halal tourism among Islamic tourists. Meanwhile, the researcher also explains the topics that are the background of the study, problem statement, research questions, and research objectives. Ultimately the scope of the study also covers the importance of the study, and the definition of the term also includes.. 10.
(21) LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1 INTRODUCTION. FHPK. CHAPTER 2. A literature review is a comprehensive study and interpretation of on the study based on previous literature dicussed by researchers that addresses a specific topic (Rhoades, 2011). This research is discuss about the relationship between dependent variable and independent variable which also the cause-and-effect relationship. Dependent variable is a variable that depend on another variable which usually the independent variable. An independent variable is a variable whose variations do not depend on another variable. In this research, researchers are experimenting the tourists’ satisfaction on Halal tourism and tourists perception towards Halal products and services in tourism. Which tourists’ satisfaction on Halal tourism as the dependent variable while tourists perception towards Halal products and services in tourism as the independent variable.. 2.2 DETERMINANT FACTORS ON HALAL TOURISM. Factors are so important to a certain thing to extent because of the factors, a certain thing exist in this world. Factors itself is the reason something will become larger or smaller or increase and decrease. Same it goes for the Halal tourism that has its own factors driving to become more influential among the citizen of the world. Halal term are very common for the Muslims regarding the ages, gender or races. This concept has been implemented in them. 11.
(22) FHPK. from the start they hold the title of Muslims until their last breath. Religiosity is refers “to one's belief in God and commitment to act in accordance with the rules set forth by God” (Rahman, 2014). Religiosity is also proven to have significant influence on Muslim consumer decision making with regard to the consumption of Halal tourism (Eid & El-Gohary, 2015).. At the moment, the most commonly used terms are ‘Halal tourism’ and ‘Islamic. tourism’. At the moment, due to the multidisciplinary scope of the subject matter, there exist confusions regarding the two terms. As a result, the terms are often used interchangeably by. researchers in both conceptual and empirical papers as if the two concepts are similar (Battour, 2018). However, since the Quran does differentiate between the terms ‘Mu’minoon’ (‘Islamic person’) and Muslim (persons who profess to be Muslims), it is necessary to clarify the difference between the terms ‘Islamic’, ‘Halal’ and ‘Islam related’. Term Halal is defined as "that which is authorised, with respect to which no restriction exists, and the doing of which the law-Giver, Allah, is permitted," according to Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, a globally famous Islamic scholar and chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars. Halal tourism often termed as Islamic tourism or Muslim friendly tourism, is a new concept in the tourism industry that opens up new and exciting opportunities for enhancing economic growth (Battour & Ismail, 2015). This has been stated when the conference of Halal tourism being held at the Turkey in 2016 that was being held at the Konya Turkey. Since the arising of the sector in Halal tourism in each country, each government are looking at the new kind of tourism that specialized in the Halal lifestyle. According to previous studies, there are four factors that determine a decent tourist area to be Muslim destination, which are Islamic facilities, Halal, Islamic culture, the absence of alcohol and gambling (Battour & Ismail, 2014; Rahman, 2014; Kotler, 2009).. 12.
(23) FHPK. 2.2.1 Islamic Attributes. According to Rahman (2014), Islamic attributes are features that must be applied in. Halal Tourism to meet the needs and wants of Muslim tourists when they do travel activities, such as Halal products and services, Halal food and drink, facilities for worship and more.. Muslim tourists may take into account the availability of facilities marketed to fulfil their. religious and personal needs and they will feel most satisfied when performance exceeds necessities (Battour et al., 2011). For instance, Muslims seek for Halal products and services in their travel because they have to follow the rules of syariah, which is only take in clean foods and services. Islamic attributes can affect the tourist number and tourists’ experience. from a destination (Farahdel, 2011; Zamani-Farahani & Henderson, 2010). If a country has been managed well with Islamic attributes, it can give positive impact to tourists. As Muslims population had increasing day-to-day, tourism destinations should targeted Muslims visitors should take Islamic attributes into account. Tourist’s destination may attributes positively influence tourist satisfaction and revisit intention (Khan et al., 2013). Instead of maintaining the attributes that have now, these tourism destinations can start develop and explore more about Islamic attributes to attract the targeted customers. Regarding to the push and pull motivation, destinations that have halal food, Islamic entertainment, Islamic dress code and Islamic call to prayer can help to improve the satisfaction level of tourists (Mohamad, Ali & Ghani, 2011). Meng et al. (2008) said that the importance of attributes, performance and motivation are a function of measuring tourists’ satisfaction.. 2.2.2 The Quality of Products and Services The quality of services such as accommodation services, spa services, theme park services, and Halal food services affect the Islamic tourist’s satisfaction. Service quality is a complex phenomenon, when compared to the quality of physical products (Zabkar, Brencic. 13.
(24) FHPK. & Dmitrovic, 2010). According to Marzuki, Hall and Ballantine (2012), the provision of Halal. food is an extremely significant issue to cater the market of Muslim tourists not only in the Malaysian context, but also on an international scale (Marzuki et al., 2012). The thing to consider in measuring the quality of service is the nature of a service itself. Quality service is the customer’s judgment and it is the key tool of business industry. Every tourism industry. should concern to improve quality service (Rahman, 2014). .For example, services in Halal tourism include hotels that are clean from food or beverages containing alcohol, or that have separate swimming pools and public facilities for men and women (Marzuki et al., 2012; Shakona et al., 2015). Not only hotels, transportation service providers are also required to use the Islamic concept. They were asked to make it easier for Muslim tourists to pray during the journey. This facility can be used to provide a place of prayer in the vehicle, whether bus, train, or plane.. 2.2.3 Islamic Facilities According to Stephenson, Russell & Edgar (2010), Muslim countries, such as the United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Turkey, and Morocco enjoy many international tourists due to the rapid development of its infrastructure. This however does not happen in other Islamic countries, such as Libya, Sudan, and Nigeria (Hashim, Murphy & Muhammad, 2007). While tourism seems to be relevant to the development of these countries, the sector is disrupted by poor infrastructure such as roads, electricity, water supply, housing, and telecommunications (Gauci, Gerosa & Mwalwanda, 2002). Next, according to Buhalis & Law (2008), the integration between technology and the tourism industry allows industry players to combine skills and resources, creating synergies through efficient communication and information sharing. The development of search engines, support and network speed has increased the global use of ICT technology for planning and experienced tourist travel. Tourism websites. 14.
(25) FHPK. can also be created as an approach to promote religious tourism (Buhalis & Law, 2008). The promotion of Islamic principles by tourism operator websites can make it easier for tourists to understand appropriate and ethical behaviour in Muslim countries, especially for nonMuslims (Buhalis & Law, 2008). Although it is hoped that Muslim countries incorporate and project the image of Islam in promotional efforts, there is little evidence of such an attempt.. 2.3 TOURIST SATISFACTION IN HALAL TOURISM. Tourism requires unforgettable sales experience of products and services that must meet the needs of tourists. The success of its delivery therefore is in many ways, subjective; depending on how tourists perceive them. Tourist satisfaction is an integral component in ensuring its success, especially in generating a sustainable offering with the potential for growth. According to Yen-Lun Su (2004), as a subjective assessment, customer satisfaction poses a great challenge to understand, achieve, and maintain their satisfaction by company or businesses. Especially because it involves the emotional state of the customer which is more difficult to handle. In the tourism context, tourist satisfaction refers to the pleasure of tourists after visiting a certain destination. Several researchers have been highlighted several variables to measure tourist satisfaction, such as customer intentions, loyalty, and behaviour (Kozak and Rimmington, 2000 and Chi and Qu, 2008) quality, environment, price, and personal differences (Bitner, 1990; Bolton and Drew, 1991). Zeithaml and Bitner (2003) also believe that customer satisfaction is a post-purchase experience, which means that the evaluation after customer purchase or used the service provided compared to their expectations. Therefore, the tourists' evaluation of products and services must be exceeding their expectations to increase their satisfaction during their holiday to revisit or get loyalty and will recommend for. 15.
(26) FHPK. other tourists (Zeithaml and Bitner, 2003). Moreover, according to Isa and Ramli (2014), the. result found that world of the mouth is an important factor to influence satisfaction tourists to repeat their vacation in each destination. Other studied also emphasizing different standards of comparison, feedback from initial service performance, and the emotional nature of satisfaction captured by determining of consumer satisfaction (Eid & El-Gohary, 2015; Rahman, 2014).. 2.4 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK. Based on the past literature review, the researchers have proposed a framework that adopted from Rahman (2014), to study the effect of Islamic attributes and the quality of products and services on tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism. Therefore, the framework as shown in figure below.. Independent Variables. Dependent Variable. Islamic Attributes. Quality of Products and Services. H2. Tourist Satisfaction in Halal Tourism. Islamic Facilities (Source: Rahman, 2014) Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework. 16.
(27) FHPK. The literature review revealed that the independent variables (IV) like Islamic. attributes, quality of products and services and Islamic facilities are determinant factors on. tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism in Malaysia. Based on the study, the hypotheses had been created and to be summarized as followed:. 2.4.1 The relationship between the Islamic attributes with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism Islamic attributes are an important thing that needs to be emphasized in the Halal tourism market because it is to measure the level of satisfaction of tourists who use Halal tourism services, especially Muslim tourists. Islamic attributes need to be taken into account. in maintaining the Halal tourism market because Muslim tourists need to take into account such things so that their travel is in line with the guidelines that have been set in Islam (Rahman, 2014). There are a few studies of Islamic attribute’s in tourism industry, such as in Sharia-compliant hotels and their commercial interest (Suid, Nor & Omar, 2017), Halal food (Marzuki et al., 2012), in destination (Battour et al., 2011) and others.. H1- There is the significant relationship between the Islamic attributes with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism.. 2.4.2 The relationship between the quality of products and services with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism In previous studies it has been shown that the quality of products and services have a huge impact on tourist satisfaction (Zeithaml and Bitner, 2003). But not only that, the quality of other sources also contributes to the level of tourist satisfaction, where it can be a benchmark for tourists to come and travel to the same destination (Rahman, 2014).. 17.
(28) between product quality and service with tourist satisfaction is closely related, as done by Hau and Omar (2014), which found the relationship between these two variables, where are maintaining and improving the quality of products and services can have a positive effect on tourist satisfaction.. H2- There is the significant relationship between the quality of products and services with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism.. 2.4.3 The relationship between the Islamic facilities with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism Convenience means anything that can provide pleasure and make it easier for tourists to get something without having to bother. Similarly, Islamic facilities carry the meaning of facilities arranged based on Shariah that are suitable for use by Muslims according to the guidelines that have been set in the Quran and Sunnah (Law Insider, n.d). The relationship between Islamic facilities and tourist satisfaction is closely related and significant because the tourism industry, especially Halal tourism needs to produce facilities that meet Halal requirements and comply with Shariah regulations in order to have a positive impact on tourist satisfaction, especially Muslim tourists because of one particular interest of area for Muslim tourists is concept of Halal (Isa, Chin & Mohammad, 2018).. H3- There is the significant relationship between the Islamic facilities with tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism.. 18. FHPK. According to Sureshchandar, Rajendran and Anantharaman (2002), the relationship.
(29) FHPK. 2.5 SUMMARY. This study has found that behaviour of the Muslim and Non- Muslims towards the Halal tourism is very perceivable because when we talk about the Halal tourism, its related to. the Islamic teaching and lifestyle. The study led to a theoretical proposition that Islamic beliefs. and behavioural practices influence Muslims leisure and travel behaviour in the Malaysia. There are three factors will be measured on tourist satisfaction towards Halal Tourism Malaysia, which are 1) Islamic attributes; 2) The quality of product and services; and 3) Islamic facilities. The next chapter will discussed on data analysis process will be used for this study to anwser the research questions.. 19.
(30) METHODOLOGY. 3.1 INTRODUCTION. FHPK. CHAPTER 3. This chapter will be revealed about the research design of this study, population, sample size, sampling method, data collection procedure, research instrument, data analysis and summary as the closing on this chapter.. 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN. Research design is the framework of research methods or refers to the overall techniques chosen by researchers to be used in their study to meet the objectives of their study (Kumar, Abdul Talib & Ramayah, 2013). This research design plays an important role in the study because it helps the study to produce results that are in line with the current circulation as well as decisions that are not in favor of any party. In addition, it can also help researchers in terms of time savings, help researchers to conduct research properly and systematically and help improve efficiency and reliability and most importantly is able to lead the study in the right direction (Relivingmbadays, 2013). Research design can be broadly categorized through two forms namely qualitative research design and quantitative research design. According to Kumar et al., (2013), qualitative research is exploring a person's temperament, nature, and experience through various methods, for example interviewing. Literally, this qualitative research is a tool used. 20.
(31) FHPK. non-numerically in the study and it can change from irregular techniques to semi-structural techniques (Farnsworth, 2019). Meanwhile, quantitative research is measurement through the collection of data in numbers, statistics, mathematics to analyze the variables used such as. questionnaires and structured interviews (Jensen, 2012). Quantitative research is to show how variables can be measured through coding observations for example and data collection through quantitative is structured and easy to understand than qualitative research (Farnsworth, 2019). Thus, for the purpose of this study, quantitative methods are selected to determine either the determinant factors focusing on Islamic attributes, the quality of products and services and Islamic facilities will give effect to the tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism.. 3.3 POPULATION. Population carries the meaning of the group such as people, things, events where it attracts researchers to study the group or better known as items of interest. The population of this research are local tourists (Muslim and non-Muslim) in Malaysia. Researchers choose Malaysia because there is gap research on Malaysia as a tourist destination of choice for Halal tourism (Rahman, 2014). Furthermore, there is limited studies on determinant factors on tourist satisfaction in previous studies in Malaysia. Based on the Department of Statistics Malaysia (2019), Malaysia's population is projected at 32.6 million in 2019, with 29.4 million (90.2 %) residents and 3.2 million (9.8%) non-citizens. The following table (table 3.1) is the population size of Malaysia from 2010 to 2019. (See table 3.1). 21.
(32) FHPK. Table 3.1: Population Size of Malaysia, 2010-2019. Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia. Therefore, the population of this study is the number of local tourists in Malaysia. The target population is domestic tourists in Malaysia which is 29.4 million citizens.. 3.4 SAMPLE SIZE. A sample is a selection of respondents chosen in such a way that they represent the total population as good as possible. Sample size is necessaries needed in a research paper to get an accurate picture or increase the confidence level. The sample size helps to understand a set of subjects selected from the general population and it is considered to represent the actual population for that particular study. Based on the sampling method, the sample size is 384 based on 29.4 million citizens. The 29.4 million citizens are our target population from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (2019). (See table 3.2). 22.
(33) FHPK. For this research, the samples were obtained from the population consists of the following group of respondents or participants:. a) Natural group of individuals who has point of view towards Islamic attributes, Islamic facilities, and tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism. b) People who have perceptions toward Halal tourism.. c) People who travelled to halal tourism country and their satisfaction on Halal tourism.. Table 3.2: Determining the Sample Size for A Given Population. 23.
(34) FHPK. 3.5 SAMPLING METHOD. According to Alvi (2016), sampling refers to the process of sampling from the. population. In a study, researchers need to be clear about which is the best sampling method for the research. There are two types of sampling that can be used in a research which is. probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Researchers choose to use nonprobability sampling in this study because it is based on convenience or other criteria, it. includes non-random sorting, allowing researchers to collect initial data quickly this include individuals are selected based on non-random criteria, and not every individual has a chance of being included plus this sampling is easier and accessible for researchers. In nonprobability sampling, there are 4 types of sampling which is convenience sampling, quota sampling, snowball sampling and purposive or judgemental sampling. The convenience sampling will be used in this study to select the size sample.. 3.5.1 Convenience Sampling According Etikan, Musa and Alkassim (2016), convenience sampling also known as Haphazard Sampling or accidental sampling is a type of non-probability or non-random sampling where members of the target population that meet certain practical criteria, such as easy accessibility, geographical proximity, availability at a given time, or the willingness to participate are included for the purpose of the study. The sample was chosen because it can be accessed by the researcher which means it involves the collection of available sets of respondents that are easy for researchers to use.. 24.
(35) FHPK. 3.6 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE. The collection of data plays an important role in statistical analysis. The researcher will apply two methods of data collection procedure. The aim is to collect appropriate and. relevant data to address the research objectives of this study. However, the researchers used a method of quantitative research.. 3.6.1 Primary Data Primary data is the data collected for the first time and with the aim of finding a solution to the problem. Primary data sources include surveys, observations, experiments, questionnaires, focus groups and interviews. In this study, questionnaires are distributed to respondents as a primary data collection tool. According to Ajayi (2017), questionnaire is the primary data source that has a series of questions for respondents by ticking the one they consider appropriate a cover letter will be attached to each set of questionnaires. The cover letter will contain the content of the research purpose for the respondents. Therefore, respondents will know the study’s motive and purpose. There have three parts of the section that respondents need to tick for their answer and the answer is the data that we collect for the research. The questionnaire is delivering to the local tourist in Malaysia through social media.. 3.6.2 Secondary Data Secondary data research involves any information from published sources which has been specifically collected for the current research problem. secondary data sources include; books, journals, articles, web pages, and blogs. The aim for secondary data used to collect information regarding description in order to explain decision making. Furthermore, this. 25.
(36) FHPK. study also apply within online sources, such as Newspaper online and Emerald in information library management for relevant sources.. 3.7 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT. Research instrument is a tool that researchers used to collect and analyse data and responds from respondents. It is important as it can be used to provide a valid and reliable research. Research instrument can be in many forms like surveys, tests, questionnaires and interviews. There are few variables that manipulate the data. For example, demographic profile of respondents, tourists’ perception towards halal tourism and satisfaction of tourists towards the halal tourism products and services. In this research paper, researchers used questionnaire as a research instrument to collect respondents’ data. Questionnaires are distributed to the local tourist in Malaysia. In addition, questionnaires conducted in an online form to ease researchers’ works and it consumes lower costs. There are 3 sections in the prepared questionnaire which respondents need to answer. The answer of respondents is the data that researchers collect for this research.. Table 3.3: The Type of Questions Will be Asked to Respondents Section. Factors. Content. Questions. Gender Demographic Section A. Male. •. Female. •. profile of respondents. •. Age. 26. 18 – 22 years old. •. 23 – 27 years old. •. 28 – 32 years old. •. 33 – 37 years old.
(37) 38 – 42 years old. •. 43 years old and above. •. Muslim. •. Buddhist. •. Hindu. •. Others. •. Married. •. Single. •. Others. •. Government sector. •. Private sector. •. Self-employed. •. Student. Experience using. •. Yes. Halal tourism. •. No. Religion. Status. Occupation. FHPK. •. services (the last 12 months 1. Product provided is suitable for Muslim tourist to buy. 2. The quality of the products and services is reasonable according to the price and will be purchased by Muslim tourists. (i) The quality of. 3. The quality of halal products and. halal products and. services offered in accordance. services. with Islamic law 4. The quality of products and services Malaysia can be the best halal hub among all countries. 5. Quality product and services halal tourism in Malaysia can be. 27.
(38) tourists.. FHPK. a major attraction for Muslim. 6. Quality of product provided take good care of cleanliness and from halal sources. 1. I have enough knowledge about. the principles and characteristics of Islamic attributes. 2. I obey Islamic attributes in my daily life.. 3. Halal logo is the first thing I will look at whenever I choose to purchase a product or service. 4. Employee’s dress and. (ii) Islamic. employee’s behaviour in line. attributes. with Islamic sharia 5. Do you feel undoubted if you Section B. Independent. know that the products and. variables. services have Halal logo? 6. Can you follow the lifestyle of a Muslim in term of cleanliness, food consumption and regulations? 1. Islamic facilities provided followed the Halal’s standard (Islamic sharia) 2. Islamic facilities play an (iii) Islamic. important role in Halal tourism.. facilities. 3. Facilities provided is suitable for Muslim perform their prayer. 4. Islamic facilities in the halal tourism market fulfil the demand of halal tourism. 28.
(39) for both gander and cover Muslim aura. 6. Islamic facilities offered in accordance with Islamic law 7. Facilities provided is take good care of the cleanliness. 1. Halal products and services. FHPK. 5. Facilities provided is separated. marketed in Halal Tourism sector influenced my satisfaction. 2. I am good with the existence of non-Halal products and services as long as Halal products and services in the market fulfil my need and wants. 3. I will choose to travel to Halal-. Section C. friendly countries instead of. Dependent. Tourists’. variable. satisfaction on Halal Tourism. other countries. 4. There are still many insufficient in Halal tourism. 5. Halal tourism in Malaysia can fulfil Muslims and nonMuslims’ needs and wants. 6. I will share my experience of halal tourism to my family and friends. 7. I will recommend my family and friends to visit Halal tourism countries such as in Malaysia.. 29.
(40) FHPK. In this study, the questionnaire will be given using the format of the Likert scale. Likert scale is a widely used scale that is very important for the respondent to choose whether to. agree or disagree with the sequence of statements of each series. It consists of Five-Point Likert scales to be used for each part of the questionnaires. Measurement on the 5-Likert Scale are 1-Strongly Disagree, 2-Disagree, 3-Neutral, 4-Agree, 5-Strongly Agree as shown in table below.. Table 3.4: Five-Point Likert Scale Point of Scale. Level. 1. Strongly Disagree. 2. Disagree. 3. Neutral. 4. Agree. 5. Strongly Agree. 3.7.1 Pilot Test Pilot testing is a rehearsal of the research study, allowing to test the research approach with a small number of test participants before conducting the main study. Although this is an additional step, it may be the time best spent on any research project. Before distributing the questionnaire, the researcher will do the pilot test first. Pilot Test is to evaluate the feasibility, time, cost, risk and performance of a research project. Pilot testing is designed to test the quality of the data that will get from the questions, as well as to test the viability of the survey as a whole, and the coordination of the team’s procedures and systems (Krause, 2018). To conduct a pilot test, it’s best to use actual field enumeration team and a sample from. 30.
(41) FHPK. the research population (Krause, 2018). Which they use to introduce themselves to the. respondent, explain what the survey is for, and ask for consent. The surveyors also need to be trained in how to behave in safe and neutral ways in order not to influence the answers and to. encourage most participants to complete the entire survey (Krause, 2018). It is not essential, but is recommended, that choose these pilot test respondents using the sample selection methodology, since it is a good time to test our the sampling methods (Krause, 2018).. 3.8 DATA ANALYSIS. Data Analysis is the process of systematically applying statistical and/or logical techniques to describe and illustrate, condense and recap, and evaluate data. According to Copper, Schindler, and Sun (2006), defined data analysis as the process of editing and minimizing data which is important to interpret the result to answer the research question. In this study, Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) software used to analyse the data collected from questionnaires that were distributed to respondents, followed by Reliability and Validity Analysis, Descriptive Analysis, and Correlation Analysis.. 3.8.1 Descriptive Analysis The transformation of raw data into a form that will make them easy to understand and interpret; rearranging, ordering, and manipulating data to generate descriptive information (Zikmund, 2003). For the descriptive analysis, researchers are going to use four types of measurement which are nominal, interval, ordinal and ratio. Researchers are going to use these four types of measurement to determine demographic profile of respondent.. 31.
(42) FHPK. 3.8.2 Realibility and Validity. Reliability and validity are ideas used to assess the nature of exploration. They show. how well a strategy, procedure or test estimate something. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the precision of a measure. Reliability can tell the research paper can be repeated under the same condition, meanwhile validity can decide the true results. that has been tested (Middleton, 2020). Reliability can be assessed by checking the. consistency of results across time, across different observers, and across parts of the test itself. Validity can be assessed when checking how well the results correspond to established theories and other measures of the same concept. The results might be reproducible, but they’re not necessarily correct. The results of reliable measurement are not completely correct but it can be reproducible meanwhile the results for valid measurement are valid because the test make an accurate result, so it is reproducible. In this study, the Thumb Cronbach Alpha is being used to measure and to test the reliability. The rule Thumb Cronbach Alpha is testing to see in case multiple-question Likert Scale overviews are solid. These questions degree idle variables which are hidden or imperceptible factors like a person’s scruples, mental issues or openness. These are exceptionally troublesome to degree in genuine life. Cronbach’s alpha will assist researchers in case the test got outlined is precisely measuring the variable of intrigued (Habidin, Zubir, Fuzi & M.N.A, 2015). The table below shows the rule of Cronbach Alpha.. Table 3.5: Rule of Cronbach Alpha. 32.
(43) FHPK. 3.8.3 Correlation Analysis. Correlation analysis is a statistical method used to evaluate the strength of relationship between two quantitative variables. A high correlation means that two or more variables have a strong relationship with each other, while a weak correlation means that the variables are. hardly related (Franzese, & Luliano, 2018). This particular type of analysis is useful when a researcher wants to establish if there are possible connections between variables.. The types of correlation analysis that will be used in this research is Pearson correlation coefficient. The first step in studying the relationship between two continuous variables is to draw a scatter plot of the variables to check for linearity. The correlation coefficient should not be calculated if the relationship is not linear. For correlation only purposes, it does not really matter on which axis the variables are plotted. However, the independent (or explanatory) variable is plotted on the x-axis (horizontally) and the dependent (or response) variable is plotted on the y-axis (vertically). The nearer the scatter of points is to a straight line, the higher the strength of association between the variables. Also, it does not matter what measurement units are used (Bristol, 2021). The table below shows the explanation of Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient Value, r (Ratnasari, Nazir, Toresano & Pawiro, 2016). Table 3.6: Rule of Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient Value (r). 33.
(44) FHPK. 3.9 SUMMARY. For this chapter, researcher discussed about the component of the research. methodology in order to obtain the hypothesis and results that has been discussed before. The process was to plan research design, execute the research, answering the research question and examine the result of the test validity.. This study was performed to find out the determinant factors on tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism in Malaysia. In this study, there is also included the correlation and descriptive analysis to further improvement. Respondents that will involve in the study are the Muslims and non- Muslims tourist from Malaysia and respectively will be given the questionnaire. The questionnaire that provided based on the research objectives. Respondents are being selected form the population using random cluster sampling. There are also instrument for data analysis (Reliability & validity, pilot test, descriptive analysis, and correlation analysis).. For the next chapter, the study will go further and will be discussing about the results of. determinant factors on tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism in Malaysia. It will further discuss in the upcoming study.. 34.
(45) RESULT AND DISCUSSION. 4.1 INTRODUCTION. FHPK. CHAPTER 4. This chapter describes the result and findings of data which was conducted on the data. collected from the survey to the 318 respondents on this study. Data were analysed to examine and identify the relationship of determinant factors with the tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism in Malaysia. Thus, the researchers were able to test the hypothesis and answer the research objective of this study. The data are analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 25. The consequence of the SPSS examination is clarified in this part by utilizing the sorts of investigation in this chapter by using the types of analysis below:. a) Descriptive Analysis •. Descriptive analysis is the transformation of raw data into a form that will make them easy to understand and interpret; rearranging, ordering, and manipulating data to generate descriptive information (Lawless & Heymann, 2010).. b) Reliability Test •. Reliability refers to how consistently a method measuring something. If the same result can be consistently achieved by using the same methods under the same circumstances, the measurement is considered reliable (Middleton, 2020).. 35.
(46) FHPK. c) Pearson Correlation Analysis •. The Pearson correlation coefficient is a measure to determine the relationship between two quantitative variables and the degree to which. the two variables coincide with one another that is, the extent to which two variables are linearly related changes in one variable correspond to changes in another variable (Schober, Boer & Schwarte, 2018).. 4.2 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS. Frequency analysis was used in the basic observation of the researchers. The data from Section A of the questionnaire included questions from different demographic variables of respondents such as gender, age, religion, marital status, and occupation. The demographic profiles of the respondents were presented in a table and pie chart structure.. 4.2.1 Gender of respondents Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1 shows the demographics based on the gender of the respondents.. Table 4.1: Gender of Respondents Gender. Frequency (person). Percentage (%). Female. 191. 60.1. Male. 127. 39.9 Source: SPSS. 36.
(47) FHPK. Gender of Respondents. 39.90%. Female 60.10%. Male. Figure 4.1 Gender of Respondents. Based on Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1, the respondents’ demographics of the respondents based on gender. The information refers to the group of respondents who are female is 191 persons (60.1%). Meanwhile, the group of respondents who are male is 127 persons (39.9%).. 4.2.2 Age of respondents Table 4.2 and Figure 4.2 shows the demographics based on the age of respondents. Table 4.2: Age of Respondents Age. Frequency (person). Percentage (%). 18 – 22 years old. 104. 32.7. 23 – 27 years old. 103. 32.4. 28 – 32 years old. 26. 8.2. 33 – 37 years old. 18. 5.7. 38 – 42 years old. 19. 6.0. 43 years old and above. 48. 15.1 Source: SPSS. 37.
(48) 18 - 22 years old. 15.10% 6%. 32.70%. 23 - 27 years old 28 - 32 years old. 5.70%. 33 - 37 years old. 8.20%. 38 - 42 years old 43 years old and above. 32.40%. FHPK. Age of Respondents. Figure 4.2: Age of Respondents. Table 4.2 and Figure 4.2 showed the total respondents by age. There were 318 respondents, who consist of age from 18 to 22 years old are 104 respondents. The respondents aged 23 to 27 years old contributed 103 respondents, while respondents who are 43 years old and above has 48 persons, and 26 respondents are in the group aged 28 to 32 years old. In addition, respondents who aged 38 to 42 years old is 19 persons. The last group of the respondents, who are aged 33 to 37 years old has 18 persons. Figure 4.2 showed the highest percentage of respondents was respondents who have range of age from 18-22 (32.7%) and followed by 23-27 which was 32.4%, 43 and above (15.1%), 28-32 (8.2%), 38-42 (6%), and the lowest percentage respondents was 33-37 (5.7%).. 38.
(49) Table 4.3 and Figure 4.3 shows the demographics based on the religion of respondents.. Table 4.3: Religion of Respondents Religion. Frequency (person). Percentage (%). Muslim. 271. 85.2. Buddhist. 25. 7.9. Hindu. 15. 4.7. Others. 7. 2.2. FHPK. 4.2.3 Religion of respondents. Source: SPSS. Religion of Respondents 4.70% 2.20% 7.90% Muslim Buddhist Hindu 85.20%. Others. Figure 4.3: Religion of Respondents. Based on Table 4.3 and Figure 4.3, Muslims’ respondents had the highest frequency with 271 persons (85.2%). The second highest frequency religion group is Buddhist, with 25 persons (7.9%). The Hindu respondents contributed 15 persons (4.7%) and others religion group contributed 7 persons (2.2%). 39.
(50) Table 4.4 and Figure 4.4 shows the demographics based on the marital status of respondents.. Table 4.4: Marital Status of Respondents Marital status. Frequency (person). Percentage (%). Married. 103. 32.4. Single. 200. 62.9. Others. 15. 4.7. FHPK. 4.2.4 Marital status of respondents. Source: SPSS. Marital Status 4.70%. 32.40%. Married Single Other. 62.90%. Figure 4.4: Marital Status of Respondents. Table 4 and Figure 4 show the demographics of the respondents based on marital status. The total number of respondents for single was 200 respondents while the number of married was 103 respondents. The total number of respondents for others was only 15 respondents. Out of 318 respondents, 62.9% of total respondents were single, 32.4% were married and the remaining of 4.7% were other respondents who involved in this study. 40.
(51) Table 4.5 and Figure 4.5 shows the demographics based on the occupation of respondents.. Table 4.5: Occupation of Respondents Occupation. Frequency (person). Percentage (%). Government sector. 66. 20.8. Private sector. 39. 12.3. Self-employed. 47. 14.8. Student. 150. 47.2. Retire. 16. 5. FHPK. 4.2.5 Occupation of respondents. Source: SPSS. Occupation of Respondents 5% Government sector. 20.80%. Private sector 47.20%. 12.30%. Self-employed Student. 14.90%. Retire. Figure 4.5: Occupation of Respondents. Based on the table and figure above, showing analyst data based on respondents’ occupations. Respondents who are student has the highest data which is 150 persons (47.2%). Respondents who work in government sector has 66 persons (20.8%) while 47 respondents. 41.
(52) FHPK. (14.8%) are self-employed. Next, there are 39 persons (12.3%) work in private sector. Table. and figure above also analyze that respondents who are retire has the lowest data which is 16 persons (5%) in 318 respondents.. 4.2.6 Experience using Halal tourism services (the last 12 months) Table 4.6 and Figure 4.6 shows the demographics based on the experience using Halal tourism services (the last 12 months) of respondents.. Table 4.6: Experience Using Halal Tourism Services (the Last 12 Months). Experience using Halal tourism. Frequency (person). Percentage (%). Yes. 154. 48.4. No. 164. 51.6. services. Source: SPSS. Experience using Halal tourism services (the last 12 months). 48.40%. Yes. No. 51.60%. Figure 4.6: Experience Using Halal Tourism Services (the Last 12 Months). 42.
(53) FHPK. Referring to Table 4.6 and Figure 4.6, the group of respondents who experienced using. Halal tourism services is 154 persons (48.4%). There were 164 persons (51.6%) respondents who did not experienced using Halal tourism services in the last 12 months.. 4.3 RESULT OF DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS. An approximation of the ‘middle’ of a distribution of values is the central tendency of a distribution. We used mean and standard deviation for independent and dependent variables’ central tendency. Mean is where all the value is added up and then divided by the number of values. Standard deviation indicates the relation between the set of values and the sample average (Trochim, 2020). This research has analysed the mean and standard deviation for section B and C of the questionnaires to find out Islamic attributes, quality of Halal products and services, Islamic facilities (Independent variables) and tourist satisfaction on Halal tourism (dependent variable). Based on the analysis result, the researchers compared the mean between independent variables and dependent variable for every item in questionnaires. The responses by respondents are scaled by using the 5-Likert Scale which is 1 represent to “Strongly Disagree “, 2 as ‘’Disagree”, 3 as “Neutral “, 4 as “Agree” and 5 as “Strongly Agree”. The results of the analysis are shown in following table.. 43.
(54) Table 4.7: Descriptive Analysis Standard. Variables. N. Mean. Islamic attributes. 318. 4.3197. .80394. 318. 4.5702. .55676. 317. 4.5827. .55683. 318. 4.3302. .67705. Quality products and services Islamic facilities Tourist Satisfaction in Halal Tourism. Deviation. FHPK. 4.3.1 Independent variables and Dependent variables. Source: SPSS. The Table 4.7 showed the value of the respondents, mean and the standard deviation of independent variables and dependent variables. The highest mean for the variables is Islamic facilities that is 4.58. The second highest mean followed by the quality products and services stated the mean for 4.57 and the third ranking goes to the Islamic attributes for the mean valued 4.32. The mean for the dependent variable which is Tourist Satisfaction in Halal tourism was 4.33.. 44.
(55) FHPK. 4.3.2 Tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism (DV). In terms of tourist satisfaction in Halal tourism, there are seven items had measured using the Likert-Scale.. Table 4.8: Descriptive Statistic of Tourist Satisfaction (TS) Mean. Std. Deviation. Ranks. TS1. Halal products and services marketed in Halal Tourism sector influenced my satisfaction.. 4.41. .882. 4. TS2. I am good with the existence of non-halal products and services as long as halal products and services in the market fulfil my needs and want.. 3.88. 1.231. 7. 4.30. .989. 5. 4.18. .969. 6. 4.48. .801. 2. 4.47. .805. 3. 4.59. .738. 1. Variables. TS3. TS4. TS5. TS6. TS7. Item Description. I will choose to travel to halalfriendly countries instead of other countries. There are still many insufficient in Halal Tourism. Halal Tourism in Malaysia can fulfil Muslims and non-Muslim needs and want. I will share my experience of Halal Tourism with my family and my friends. I will recommend my family and friends to visit halal tourism countries such as Malaysia.. Source: SPSS. 45.
(56) FHPK. Table 4.8 shows the mean, standard deviation, and level of Tourist Satisfaction in Halal Tourism, which is the dependent variable (DV) in this research paper. Respondents strongly agreed that they would recommend their family and friends to visit a halal tourism. country like Malaysia, this is because it has the highest value of 4.59. Furthermore, the. respondents also agreed with the statement "Halal Tourism in Malaysia can meet the needs. and wants of Muslims and non -Muslims" because it has the second-highest value of 4.48. The third highest mean score statement was “I will share my experience in Halal Tourism with my family and friends” listened to a mean score of 4.47. Next, followed by a score of 4.41 is “Halal products and services marketed in the Halal Tourism sector affect my. satisfaction”. then “I would choose to travel to a halal-friendly country compared to other countries” with a score of 4.30. Next, “there is still a lot of insufficient in Halal Tourism” got the second-lowest score with a value of 4.18. Finally, the lowest mean score is 3.88 which is "I am good with non -halal products and services as long as halal products and services in the market meet my needs and desires". In conclusion, the average mean of Tourist Satisfaction in Halal Tourism is important for Halal tourism because the average mean is 4.33, which indicates that respondents strongly agree with this.. 46.
(57) FHPK. 4.3.3 Islamic attributes (IV). There are six items that had measured under the Islamic attributes factor by using Likert-Scale.. Table 4.9: Descriptive Statistic of Islamic Attributes (IA). Variables. Items. Mean. Std. Deviation. Ranks. I have enough knowledge about the IA1. principles and characteristics of. 4.15. .998. 4. 4.30. 1.057. 2. 4.39. 1.095. 1. 4.34. .869. 6. 4.21. 1.019. 3. 4.53. .904. 5. Islamic attributes.. IA2. I obey Islamic attributes in my daily life. Halal logo is the first thing I will. IA3. look at whenever I choose to purchase a product or service. Employee’s dress and employee’s. IA4. behaviour in line with Islamic sharia. Do you feel undoubted if you know. IA5. that the products and services have Halal logo? 6. Can you follow the lifestyle of a. IA6. Muslim in term of cleanliness, food consumption and regulations?. Source: SPSS. 47.
(58) FHPK. Table 4.9 showed the mean, standard deviation and rank of Islamic attributes, which is the first independent variable (IV) in this research paper. Respondents strongly agreed that. they “can follow the lifestyle of a Muslim in term of cleanliness, food consumption and regulations” as it has the highest mean which is 4.53. The second highest mean is “halal logo is the first thing I will look at whenever I choose to purchase a product or services” which is. 4.39. The third highest mean score’s statement “Employee’s dress and employee’s behaviour in line with Islamic sharia” has the mean of 4.34 which is in the strongly agree level, followed by 4.30 is “I obey Islamic attributes in my daily life”, then “feel undoubted if you know that the products and services have Halal logo” has the mean of 4.21. Lastly, the lowest mean score is 4.15 which is “I have enough knowledge about the principles and characteristics of Islamic attributes”. In conclusion, the average mean for the knowledge of Islamic attributes is important for Halal tourism as the average mean in Islamic attributes is 4.32, which shows respondents are strongly agree with this.. 48.
(59) FHPK. 4.3.4 Quality of products and services (IV). In quality of Halal products and services has six items that had measured by using Likert-Scale.. Table 4.10: Descriptive Statistic of Quality of Products and Services (QPS). Variables. QPS1. Items. Mean. Product provided is suitable for Muslim tourist to buy.. Std. Deviation. Ranks. 4.62. .603. 1. 4.45. .764. 5. 4.56. .689. 4. 4.57. .706. 3. 4.62. .642. 1. 4.61. .630. 2. The quality of the Halal products QPS2. and services is reasonable according to the price and will be purchased by tourists. The quality of Halal products and. QPS3. services offered in accordance with Islamic law. The quality of products and services. QPS4. Malaysia can be the best halal hub among all countries. Quality product and services Halal. QPS5. tourism in Malaysia can be a major attraction for Muslim tourists. Quality of product provided take. QPS6. good care of cleanliness and from halal sources.. Source: SPSS. 49.
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