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Academic year: 2022






(3) Certification of Research Acknowledgement Appreciation Abstract (English) Abstrak (Malay) Table of Content. PAGE i ii iii iv v vi. Chapter 1 1.0 Research Background 2.0 Research Question 3.0 Research Objective 4.0 Research Scope 5.0 The Importance of the Study. 1 2 2 3 4. Chapter 2 2.0 Literature Review 2.1 A Previous Studies about Mah Meri community Various Aspect 2.1.1 Mah Meri People 2.1.2 Mah Meri Tourism Industry 2.1.3 Mah Meri Practice and Belief 2.2 A Previous Studies about Mah Meri Dance Culture, "Mayin Jooh" 2.3 Theoritical and Conceptual Framework 2.3.1 Intangible Heritage 2.3.2 Concept of Animism 2.3.3 Concept of Dance Studies. 5 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 11 13. Chapter 3 3.0 Methodology 3.1 Primary Resources 3.1.1 Observation Method 3.1.2 Interview Method 3.3 Secondary Resources. 15 16 16 17 17. Chapter 4 4.0 Introduction 4.1 The Dance Elements Implemented in the Mayin Jooh Dance Performed by the Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island. 4.2 The Importance of Mayin Jooh Dance to the Society of Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island.. 18 20 33. Chapter 5 5.0 Conclusion. 35. Appendix. 37. References. 40. FYP FTKW. TABLE OF CONTENT.

(4) PAGES. Figure 1.1. Location of Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island. 3. Figure 3.1. Flowchart of the research methodology in this study. 15. Figure 4.1. (Kaki Tiga). 21. Figure 4.2. (Kaki Tiga). 21. Figure 4.3. (Ceduk). 22. Figure 4.4. (Ceduk). 22. Figure 4.5. (Lapat). 23. Figure 4.6. (Obor). 24. Figure 4.7. (Kaki Satu). 25. Figure 4.8. (Kaki Satu). 25. Figure 4.9. (Dayung). 26. Figure 4.10. (Buang). 27. Figure 4.11. (Tata). 28. Figure 4.12. A picture of the busut in the middle. 30. Figure 4.13. Mayin Jooh dance costume. 32. Figure 4.14. Mayin Jooh dance costume. 32. Figure 4.15. List of achievements by Seri Panggung.. 34. FYP FTKW. LIST OF FIGURES.

(5) I hereby certify that the work contained in this thesis is the result of original research and has never been submitted by a higher degree to any University or institution.. OPEN. I agree that the thesis is available as a hard copy or open access online (full text). CONFIDENTIAL. (Contains confidential information under the Official Secrets Act 1972)*. RESTRICTED. (Contains limited information set by the organization where the research is conducted)*. I acknowledge that Universiti Malaysia Kelantan has the following rights: 1. The thesis is the property of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan 2. Universiti Malaysia Kelantan's library has the right to make copies for study purposes only. 3. Libraries are allowed to make copies of this thesis as exchange material between educational institutions. Verified by: ____________________ (Student's signature) Date:. 24/02/2022. _______________________ (Supervisor's signature) Name: DR. KANIT SRIPAORAYA Date: 26 February 2022. Note* If this Thesis is CONFIDENTIAL or RESTRICTED, please enclose a letter from the organization stating the duration and reasons for confidentiality and restrictions.. FYP FTKW. CERTIFICATION OF RESEARCH.

(6) Alhamdulillah, I am thankful to Allah s.w.t with the blessings of time, life, energy bestowed on me, finally I can also complete this task successfully. Firstly, I would like to express my infinite gratitude to my parents who were very helpful in the process of completing this study. They gave a lot of moral support as well as helped me financially in completing this study. I would like to dedicate this assignment to both my parents, Encik Edy Bin Paressa and Puan Rasmini Binti Mahmud as a sign of my infinite appreciation to them. Secondly, appreciation to the institution of the Faculty of Creative Technology and Heritage (FTKW), Universiti Malaysia Kelantan for the opportunity given to me to conduct research studies and provide assistance in terms of knowledge on procedures to be done when conducting the study. I would like to thank my lecturer as the supervisor of this study, Dr Kanit Sripaoraya, because she helped a lot and gave guidance and guidance in completing this research. With her help, I was able to complete this assignment successfully. Apart from that, I would like to give this appreciation to Mr. Daiman Bin Peron and Ms. Rokna Anak Zaidi as the main respondents and also residents of Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island. They helped me a lot by providing information to me in the process of completing this study. Next, I would also like to thank the people who have contributed a lot of time and energy to help me complete this research. Their contribution is very much needed for me to succeed in this research. Various challenges that I have faced in order to complete this research, but with the help from lecturer and friends, I can complete perfectly and successfully finished it. Finally, I would like to thank myself for successfully completing the study. Thank you. That's all from me, Thank you. Hanisah Binti Edy C18A0073 Universiti Malaysia Kelantan. FYP FTKW. APPRECIATION.

(7) Mah Meri is an indigenous tribe located in the south of Port Klang, Selangor. According to history, the Mah Meri tribe was found in Peninsular Malaysia. The Mah Meri tribe from Kampung Sungai Judah is categorized in Senoi group. They have their own culture and practices. This study focuses on the Mayin Jooh dance a traditional dance owned by Mah Meri culture. Used for special event as Hari Moyang, welcoming guests and other social function. This research is focused on dance elements implemented in the Mayin Jooh dance performed and discovering the importance of Mayin Jooh dance to the society of Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island. By conducting the observation and interviews, the study found that this Mayin Jooh dance has elements applied in their dance which is movement, costume and music. Besides, this Mayin Jooh dance is important and should be inherited by the younger generation. Keywords: Mah Meri, Indigenous people, Hari Moyang, Mayin Jooh. FYP FTKW. ABSTRACT.

(8) Mah Meri merupakan suku kaum asli yang terletak di selatan Pelabuhan Klang, Selangor. Mengikut sejarah, suku Mah Meri ditemui di Semenanjung Malaysia. Suku Mah Meri dari Kampung Sungai Judah dikategorikan dalam kumpulan Senoi. Mereka mempunyai budaya dan amalan mereka sendiri. Kajian ini memfokuskan kepada tarian Mayin Jooh iaitu tarian tradisional yang dimiliki oleh budaya Mah Meri. Digunakan untuk acara istimewa seperti Hari Moyang, menyambut tetamu dan majlis sosial yang lain. Penyelidikan ini tertumpu kepada elemen tarian yang dilaksanakan dalam tarian Mayin Jooh yang dipersembahkan dan mengetahui kepentingan tarian Mayin Jooh kepada masyarakat Kampung Sungai Judah, Pulau Carey. Dengan melakukan pemerhatian dan temu bual, kajian mendapati tarian Mayin Jooh ini mempunyai elemen yang diterapkan dalam tarian mereka iaitu pergerakan, pakaian dan muzik. Selain itu, tarian Mayin Jooh ini penting dan harus diwarisi oleh generasi muda. Kata kunci: Mah Meri, Orang Asli, Hari Moyang, Mayin Jooh. FYP FTKW. ABSTRAK.

(9) 1.0 Research Background Carey Island is and island located in the south of Port Klang, Selangor. On that island, there is an indigenous tribe named Mah Meri and the sub-group is called as Orang Asli Senoi. Mah Meri people, known as Orang Hutan in terms of terminology, are native people there. In addition, they are said to been migrated from the island in the south to the coast of Selangor to escape from the enemy attacks. The historical evidence of Mah Meri origins is difficult to find because there are no accurate resources. The characteristic that can be seen on a Mah Meri. hair is darker than their skin tone. Other than that, they also have wide forehead. More than that, they have their own traditions and customs that were practiced from their forefathers until the present day. One. nowledge in weaving handicraft such. as tikar menkuang and anyaman bunga moyang. Besides that, this ethnic has their own unique performance called Mayin Jooh that were performed during special ceremonies and also for welcoming tourists or guests that visits their villages. In present day, this Mayin Jooh dance has been threatened by distractions. The Mayin Jooh dance is one example for lack of exposure among society, especially among the young generations. Although this dance was listed as one of the intangible heritages, it is not as famous as other dances such as Zapin, Joget, Inang, and others. Besides that, there are no initiatives from the government to encourage the promotion towards the society, especially among the younger generation to acknowledge Mayin Jooh dance. Other than that, lack of stage performances, cultural events and fewer visits from outsiders to their place due to the pandemic Covid-19 that occurred during 2020-2021 results in this dying exposure of the. 1. FYP FTKW. CHAPTER 1.

(10) its uniqueness and heritage value. There are 5 major settlement villages of the Mah Meri people, which consist of Kampung Orang Asli Sungai Kurau, Kampung Orang Asli Sungai Judah, Kampung Orang Asli Sungai Bumbun and Kampung Orang Asli Sungai Jugra at Carey Island while another village which is Kampung Orang Asli Bukit Bangkong is located at Tanjung Sepet. The researcher chose Kampung Sungai Judah as her study place due to the dance group from this village are still actively practicing the dance till this day.. 1.1 Research Question 1.2.1 What are the dance elements implemented in the Mayin Jooh dance performed by the Kampung Sungai Judah group? 1.2.2 Why does the Mayin Jooh dance is important to the society of Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island? 1.2 Research Objective 1.3.1 To identify the dance elements implemented in the Mayin Jooh dance performed by the Kampung Sg Judah group. 1.3.2 To discover the importance of Mayin Jooh dance to the society of Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island.. 2. FYP FTKW. dance. This dance should be preserved and dignified as a cultural symbol of Mah Meri due to.

(11) FYP FTKW. 1.3 Research Scope. Figure 3: Location of Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island Source: Map from Google This study focuses on the community in the area around Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island district, Selangor. The researcher choose this community as the scope of study because these communities are still practicing and performing the Mayin Jooh dance in a variety version with the diverse of "bunga tarian" or hand movements. To conduct this study, the researcher focused on a group of dancers named Seri Panggung led by the Tok Batin of the village named Mr. Daiman bin Peron and Ms. Rokna Anak Zaidi as a scope of this study because this is the only dance group that is still active in Kampung Sungai Judah.. 3.

(12) The study aims on exploring new knowledge in dance performance especially in the Mah Meri community. Researcher not only observed the Mayin Jooh dances, but also gain new knowledges of this performance with appreciation towards the culture of others ethnicity. For the society, this study can be an eye-opener and bring some attention to the existence of this Mah Meri dance because this dance is one of the intangible cultural heritages that is needed to be preserved. The community can also help in promoting or dignifying this heritage by giving exposure to this Mayin Jooh dance. By organizing activities, such as cultural events, it can attract the involvement of any relevant parties. The community can also appreciate and preserve the Mayin Jooh dance culture well when knowing it is important to our country's heritage, especially among the youngsters. At university level, this study can be used as a reference source for students and other instructors to deepen their knowledge of Mayin Jooh dance. This reference to some extent can help other students in their study because of the information and data retrieved regarding Mayin Jooh in Kampung Sungai Judah is still lacking on website and books. Therefore, it can enhance other researchers on Mayin Jooh dance knowledge. Last but not least, to the country, this heritage has a high heritage value as it has been listed in the intangible heritage of Malaysia. Therefore, this dance is very valuable and needed to be preserved by both government and private organizations. All parties need to play a role in upholding this heritage so that it could be preserved and promoted by giving priority like other dances in Malaysia. With this study, the community will recognize this Mayin Jooh dance better and realized it is one of the intangible cultural heritages that exist in Malaysia.. 4. FYP FTKW. 1.4 The Importance of The Study.

(13) 2.0 Literature Review In this chapter, the past studies that researcher investigated and obtained are presented. To some extent it can help the researcher in reviewing this study more thoroughly. This chapter includes the reviewing of articles, books and even journals related to the research's title. In this regard, the researcher focused on the heritage associated with the Mayin Jooh dance of the Mah Meri community in Malaysia. 2.1 A Previous Research Studies about Mah Meri Community in Various Aspect In this research, the researcher has reviewed few articles, thesis and journals that are related to the Mah Meri community in various aspect such as Mah Meri people, their way of life, their practices, beliefs and cultural activities. This may help the researcher to gain some information about history of Mayin Jooh dance. 2.1.1 Mah Meri People Muhammad Afiq Azizan, (2016) in the research titled "Asal Usul Mah Meri" stated the Mah Meri tribe is a sub-group of the Senoi Orang Asli, the majority of which can be found on the coast of Selangor such as on Carey Island. The origins of the Mah Meri tribe are difficult to find as there is no accurate historical evidence of their origins but the name Mah Meri means Orang Hutan while in terms of terminology it is bersisik. A study by Shaiful Bahri (2003) in research titled "Pengaruh Melayu Dalam Pantun Mah Meri", stated that based on the 1993 population census, the number of Mah Meri tribe is around 2,185 people only, representing about 2.4 percent of the total 92,529 Orang Asli in Malaysia. Colin Nicholas (2000) in the book titled "The Orang Asli and the Contest for Resources: Indegenous Politics, Development and Identity in Peninsular Malaysia" explained that the total number of Orang Asli is now only 98,176 people or about five percent of the 20 million Malaysians. Of that 5. FYP FTKW. CHAPTER 2.

(14) minority group in Malaysia. In website data.gov.my (2020) titled "Bilangan Penduduk Orang Asli Mengikut Etnik" stated the latest population Mah Meri tribe sub-group of the Senoi Orang Asli in Selangor is 3,762. From this view, there has been an increase in population in the Carey Island area inhabited by the Mah Meri tribe. "Budaya dan struktur sosial mereka adalah lebih berbentuk kepada corak MelayuProto. Walaupun dikaitkan dengan rumpun Senoi, mereka lebih mengamalkan gaya hidup masyarakat Melayu. Hal ini hanya dapat dilihat dalam masyarakat Mah Meri yang merupakan masyarakat majoriti di Kuala Langat, Selangor. Secara umum, terdapat 12 penempatan utama masyarakat ini menghuni, namun hanya lima penempatan yang terdapat di Pulau Carey (Kampung Sungai Bumbun, Kampung Sungai Judah, Kampung Sungai Rambai, Kampung Kepau Laut, dan Kampung Sungai Kurau)." (Arif Anwar, et.al., 2017, p. 2) According to the above statement, it explains that the Mah Meri community prefers the Malay lifestyle even though it is often associated with the Senoi sub-group. This is because the Mah Meri community is located in Selangor and there are 5 villages in different locations. Supported by a study by Rohayu Roddin, et. al, (2017) in research titled "Mah Meri Community Transformation Values in Indigenous Tourism" mentions that the Orang Asli community is a group of people living in a unique social group. Malaysians can witness the diversity of Orang Asli culture and arts according to their respective tribes. This statement can illustrate that the life of the Orang Asli Mah Meri is taken into consideration by researchers. Through this research, the information that gained can be linked from one thesis to another to help the researcher to obtain additional information in addition to the research findings that will be implemented by the researcher.. 6. FYP FTKW. number, less than 89 percent live in rural areas. Such a small number makes the Orang Asli a.

(15) The definition of tourism is one of the social, cultural and economic phenomena that involves the movement of people to a country or place outside their normal environment for personal or business/professional purposes. These people are referred to as visitors or tourists (United Nations World Tourism Organization, 2008). Mohamed Anwar Bin Omar, (2008) in research titled "Pelancongan-budaya: Konsep dan Profil di Malaysia" stated that historical tourism, cultural tourism, ethnic tourism, recreational tourism, and environmental tourism is under five categories of tourism that have been divided. It is a major attraction to tourists. Kampung Sungai Judah contained all the five categories that can attract the tourist to visit their villages. Rohayu Roddin, et.al, (2017) in research titled "Mah Meri Community Transformation Values in Orang Asli Tourism" explained that this community is also famous among tourists with a traditional dance known as Mayin Jooh dance. They often perform in Kampung Budaya and also outside their settlements. The construction of Kampung Budaya has opened up space for these communities to expand their tourism activities or programs. "Their handmade costumes and masks, traditional food, and communal life are considered utopian. Aware of this, the Mah Meri reproduce this image by performing the tourist gaze. Increased interest in these niches provides a space for the Mah Meri to assert. construct a unique representation of their identity adjusting to the changing desires of larger power structures." (Clare Suet Ching Chan, 2010, p. 280-218). 7. FYP FTKW. 2.1.2 Mah Meri Tourism Industry.

(16) Onstage: Negotiating National Policies, Tourism, and Modernization in Kampung Sungai Bumbun, Carey Island, Malaysia". In her research, she stated that Mah Meri handicraft culture has become one of attraction to tourists who visit the Selangor area. Puvaneswaran Kunasekaran et.al, (2013) in research titled "Culture as and Indigenous Tourism Product of Mah Meri community in Malaysia" said that in general, villagers are consistently involved in cultural activities even without tourism in the past. The advent of tourism in their village in the late 70s has made them pack their unique cultural products. According to Tok Batin of the village, the three main tourism products are very close to Mah Meri culture, namely Mayin Jooh dance, wood carving, weaving. It can be seen that not only focusing on the art of dance performance even with the production of products has also attracted tourists to visit their villages. 2.1.3 Mah Meri Practice and Belief Hafiz Ithnin (2018) in article titled "Uniknya suku Mah Meri" said that the Mah Meri tribe also has social activities such as the outside community. In the Mah Meri community, there is a ceremony that is often held in February called Hari Moyang. It is a ritual to get blessings from their ancestors. In getting the catch at sea, worship ceremonies on the coast are held to seek blessings said by Arif Anwar.et.al, (2017) in research titled "Kajian Kes Hubungan Etnik dan Kebudayaan Masyarakat Mah Meri Kampung Sungai Bumbun, Pulau Carey, Selangor". This is because Hari Moyang Puja Pantai is a traditional ritual in paying homage to the spirit of the deceased. The spirits of the sea are called upon to guard and are explained for guarding the harmony of the villagers. Therefore, this ceremony should be maintained as it is their ancient sailing heritage that has been practiced for generations in article written by Elena Koshy, (2019) titled "The Mystical Dance of the Ancient".. 8. FYP FTKW. In addition, based on the above Clare Suet Ching Chan (2010) studied on "Mah Meri.

(17) Judah pula akan memperuntukkan sehari dalam setahun bagi mengadakan pemujaan khas untuk 'moyang laut' atau dipanggil 'puja pantai'. Upacara ini dibuat secara besar-besaran oleh penduduk kampung terbabit diketuai bomoh dan mereka akan berarak dari kampung hingga ke tepi laut dengan iringan paluan muzik tradisional. "Ketika upacara itu, persembahan makanan kepada moyang akan dibuat sambil memohon restu moyang supaya mereka mendapat hasil tangkapan laut yang banyak dan keselamatan mereka tidak diancam," katanya." (Norashikin Leman, 2016, BH Online) About this point, Norashikin Leman article (2016) written an article about Sambutan Hari Moyang Mah Meri penuh Mistik" that the performance was held once a year and it was called as "puja laut" because they were asking blessings from the ancestor for their safety and also to catch a lot of fish since it is their food sources. These articles are related to another research in first paragraph about why the ritual being held in beach coast near to their villages. 2.2 Studies about Mah Meri Dance Culture, "Mayin Jooh" Dance can be defined as the movement of the body in a rhythmic way, usually to music and within a given space, for the purpose of expressing an idea or emotion, releasing energy, or simply taking delight in the movement itself written by Judith R. Mackrell (2020), titled "Dance, Performing Arts". Based on study that was conducted by MNI Djamaan (2003) on research titled Tari Melayu Di Malaysia, Masyarakat dan Perkembangan said the general form of the dance began and is known, especially emphasizing aspects of ancestral worship, expression of religious spirit, application to the spiritual or the interpretation of artifacts as a depiction of the illusion of animal incarnations believed by a certain group of people. In another form it is a customary social activity to make a performance that has a specific meaning and 9. FYP FTKW. "Samri berkata, selain Kampung Sungai Bumbun, masyarakat Mah Meri di Kampung.

(18) it mentioned about spiritual and ritual. Mayin Jooh dance also have function for ritual for earned the blessing from their ancestors. Mayin Jooh needs to be performed every year in February after celebrating New Year . "Mah Meri antara suku yang agak popular dalam kalangan pelancong kerana kehalusan seni budayanya. Sebaik saja tiba di perkampungan itu, tarian selamat datang tanda mengalu-. Mengikut. kepercayaan mereka, tarian itu bertujuan menjemput roh nenek moyang untuk datang menyertai keraian diadakan. (Hafiz Ithnin, 2018, MyMetro) Based on the newspaper New Straits Time titled about "Uniknya suku Mah Meri" by Hafiz Ithnin (2018) explained that Mah Meri dance culture which is Mayin Jooh is famous especially among tourist. It explains how unique this Mayin Jooh dance is because in this dance has the subtlety of its cultural art as discussed in this article, it explains the purpose, the journey of the dance performed and also the dress worn by the dancer while performing the performance. Based on research thesis by Clare Chan Suet Ching (2018) titled "Mah Meri Onstage: Negotiating National Policies, Tourism and Modernization in Kampung Bumbun, Carey Island, Malaysia" written to describes the way Mayin Jooh dance is performed by the Mah Meri tribe. Each participant who participates in the performance will form a movement that were representing symbolic of sacred mountain. As we know that every dance has their own meaning and ways to express it, same goes to this Mayin Jooh dance.. 10. FYP FTKW. purpose. This can be related on article that was written below about their dance culture because.

(19) In this theoretical and conceptual framework, researcher have referred a book that related to the research topic study which is intangible heritage, Animism, and dance studies. This reference help researcher to collect information that help extend the idea of the study. 2.3.1 Intangible Heritage Cultural heritage in Malaysia consists of various forms, philosophies, and cultural symbols. This creates the uniqueness of Malaysia in general. This uniqueness must be preserved and taken care of by every race or ethnicity that inhabits the land of Malaysia. This requires their respective roles and responsibilities in caring for and preserving their culture. This is because each culture symbolizes the identity of a particular race and ethnicity. Intangible cultural heritage can be explained as aspects of language and idiom such as proverbs, gurindam, seloka, singing, dance, music, musical composition, song lyrics, traditional expressions and folk tales (UNESCO, 1972) as a Cultural heritage in Malaysia consists of various forms, philosophies, cultural symbols. (UNESCO,2003) This creates the uniqueness of Malaysia in general. This uniqueness must be preserved and cared for by every race or ethnicity that inhabits the land of Malaysia. This requires their respective roles and responsibilities in caring for and preserving their culture. This is because each culture symbolizes the identity of a race and ethnicity. Besides, the Mayin Jooh dance of the Mah Meri tribe is one of the dances under the type of intangible cultural heritage stated in the Official Portal of the National Heritage Department in the Category of Intangible Heritage Objects National Heritage (2012).. 11. FYP FTKW. 2.3 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework.

(20) According to Graham Harvey (2005), book titled "Respecting the Living World" it simplifies Taylor's perspective about the theory of animism which is Spiritual. Researcher believe that animism is related to spirit and soul. This theory is closed to the research because the Mayin Jooh dance has the element of spirituality "Upacara spiritual dimulakan sebelah pagi di rumah moyang yang disebut Pangga dalam bahasa Bersisi iaitu bahasa ibunda Orang Asli Mah Meri, menandakan bermulanya Hari Moyang." (Norashikin Leman (2016), BHOnline) The statement above related with the concept of the animism. It is because the This is because this Mayin Jooh performance is held on Ancestor's Day. Hari Moyang is a custom of the Mah Meri tribe in performing rituals on the coast to honor their ancestors and guardian spirits with a transcendent ceremony. Through article by Elena Koshy (2019) titled "The Mystical Dance of the Ancient Spirit) said Hari Moyang Puja Pantai remains one of the last few remaining traditional rituals that pay homage to the dead while celebrating the birth of the new year. Commemorated at sea, the ritual is veritably linked to their ancient seafaring heritage, where the spirits of the seas are invoked for guidance, appeased and thanked for providing safety, provision and good fortune to the community. "Kepercayaan animisme seterusnya melahirkan kepercayaan dinamisme hasil tindak balas masyarakat Melayu ke atas kepercayaan terhadap kekuasaan alam sekitar dan makhluk ghaib. Kepercayaan dinamisme melahirkan magis iaitu penguasaan terhadap tenaga ghaib melalui upacara ritual yang dilaksanakan oleh pawang, bomoh atau ahli nujum." (Syaimak Ismail and Muhammad Saiful Islam Ismail, 2020). 12. FYP FTKW. 2.3.2 Concept of Animism.

(21) environment and invisible supernatural beings. It has been stated by Elena Koshy (2019) that the Mayin Jooh dance is linked to the ancestor which is the spirit of the sea. This can be attributed through custom. Roslina Abu Bakar (2014) said the combination of animism or spiritual theory as well as human relationships with the supernatural of before, during, and after the presentation yields the uniqueness that should be shown through this study. A paragraph tooked in a journal written by Zamzuri based on a study entitled "The Function of Religion ss A Law System, Moral and Ideology for the Mah Meri" have explained Animism in Mah Meri tribe. Based from this journal, the researcher found that Animism is one of the Mah Meri's beliefs. It stated that if these spirits feel restless or angry, these spirits can invite calamity and cause misfortune to them. Due to this belief, Mah Meri performs this Mayin Jooh dance to prevent any catastrophe from occurring their village. 2.3.3 Concept of Dance Studies The study that conducted by Gay Morris (2012) in the research titled "Dance Research Journal". His research showed dance and cultural studies developed along different paths; consequently, interdisciplinarity within dance studies is not always conceptualized in the way it is in cultural studies. Cultural studies was initially meant as a political and social intervention that purposefully avoided creating theories of its own, while dance research, long tied to the disciplines of history and anthropology, not only adopted many of the theories and methods of these fields but also developed theories and methods of its own as an aid in analyzing the human body in motion. "Malaysian traditional performances are traditionally staged but not scripted. Within their milieu the forms are part and parcel of a rich oral tradition. It is also through study and research that their dramatic text and context have been documented to contribute to literary 13. FYP FTKW. As for the statement, it shows that this animism tends to place a belief in the.

(22) the various ethnic groups within Malaysia." (Rahmah Haji Bujang, 2005, p. 221). above said that dance is an oral tradition. In this journal it is also explained that a performance is presented in a place that symbolizes their identity. Like the Mayin Jooh dance, it is performed on the beach coast on Hari Moyang with the aim of asking for the blessings of the ancestors so that they get a lot of sea catch and their safety is not threatened. Based on all the previous studies that have been read and referenced by the researcher in chapter 2, the researcher has gained a lot of information about the history related to Mah Meri, concept of intangible cultural heritage, and dance studies. This information will be used to analysis the data in findings to conducting this study.. 14. FYP FTKW. heritage. Traditional performances are localized to pockets of indigenous groups that make up.

(23) 3.0. METHODOLOGY In this chapter, the researcher will discuss the methods that will be used to conduct the. research. Without a clear research methodology, the data obtained can be incorrect or dubious. Thus, the results of the study obtained are highly dependent on the methodology adopted in the study. Research methodology is a technique and method in collecting, analyzing, and designing to obtain strong research results to support a study to produce quality research. In other words, the methodology chapter should justify the design choices, by showing that the chosen methods and techniques are the best fit for the research aims and objectives, and will provide valid and reliable results. RESEARCH BACKGROUND. CREATE OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH. LITERATURE. FIELDWORKS ONLINE. REVIEW. PRIMARY RESOURCES. SECONDARY RESOURCES. -OBSERVATION. -BOOKS. -INTERVIEW. -JOURNAL -THESIS -ARTICLE. Figure 4: Flowchart of the research methodology in this study 15. FYP FTKW. CHAPTER 3.

(24) Primary Resources From the flowchart above shown method that have been used by the researcher is. primary resources which is observation and interview. Primary resources are used by gaining the information directly from the main resource. The main methodological was in the interview survey. Furthermore, responded characteristics and questions can influence responses. To ensure valid answers, interview questions must be carefully planned, evaluated, and tested. The person that researcher will interview is Encik Daiman Bin Peron which is Tok Batin in Kampung Sungai Judah. He is a key informant for this research because he is the one that conduct the dance in Kampung Sungai Judah called Seri Panggung. Besides that, researcher also will interview one of the dancers to gain information about the Mayin Jooh dance named Ms. Rokna Anak Zaidi. 3.1.1 Observation Method The observation method is one method to collect data. The type of observation used was non -participatory observation because the researcher did not go down to the field of study to observe directly. Researchers observed using material sources available on media platforms such as Youtube. The method of collecting observational data is categorized as participatory study because the researcher will deepen and study in videos that have been upload in Youtube or other application that have related to Mah Meri tribe or Mayin Jooh dance. One of the example videos that been watch by the researcher is in Youtube titled Orang Asli: Tarian Jo'oh MahMeri accessed via https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j6ThZbynoqk [29 July 2017]. Not only focused in this video but researcher also make a list to watch the performance that have been posted by other party for the observation such as https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8OSVZK5u6k, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3vFgN-k597o, 16. FYP FTKW. 3.1.

(25) and. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FR6BmEGTUFk . 3.1.2 Interview Method Interviews are defined as qualitative research techniques that involve intensive interviews of individuals with a small number of individuals to explore their perspectives on a particular idea or situation. The advantages of interviews include the possibility of gathering detailed information on the research questions. The type of interview that the researcher uses is a structured interview. The researcher will construct the questions based on the objectives of the study. This is to answer all the questions that are in the researcher's study. The researcher conducted an interviewed with Encik Daiman Bin Peron who is a Tok Batin in Kampung Sungai Judah and also the guardian of the Mayin Jooh dance group named Seri Panggung. Besides Tok Batin, researcher will interview on of the dancer to gain more information which is Ms. Rokna Anak Zaidi. Researcher have interviewed and posed several questions according to the objectives of the study. From the interview, the researcher emphasizes the importance of Mayin Jooh dance in Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island. Besides that, the researcher also understands the elements applied in dance performance. 3.2 Secondary Resources Secondary sources describe, summarize, discuss information or provide details that initially lay in other sources. Meaning the researcher did not participate in the study. This type of source is written for a broad imagination and will include definitions of historical terms related to important theories and principles. Use secondary sources to get an overview of the topic or identify primary sources. Examples of secondary sources are publications such as books, journals, magazine articles, newspaper articles, reviews, and others 17. FYP FTKW. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wlmv1L5cXgc,.

(26) 4.0. INTRODUCTION. This chapter will focus on collecting data analysis. Data analysis is the process of collecting, modeling, and analyzing data to support decision making. There are several methods and techniques for performing the analysis depending on the study and the purpose of the analysis. All information will be collected and analyzed to elaborate the meaning of the search related to the objectives of the study. In this chapter, the discussion gained by the interviews by Encik Daiman Bin Peron known as Tok Batin and Ms. Rokna Anak Zaidi known as Ms. Rokna which is dancers of Mayin Jooh dance were elaborated. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization has introduced the Convention to protect cultural heritage because of the importance of this conservation of intangible heritage. This is viewed as a series by the relevant parties. During the closing meeting of the UNESCO General Conference held in 2003 has provided protection of intangible heritage found around the world to raise awareness among the public about the preservation of intangible cultural heritage. "Vocal and instrumental music, dance and theatre performance are range from elements performing arts. The culture shown through the performing art is reflect from human creativity." (Convention United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2003) Mayin Jooh dance is a dance tradition that is hereditary from the generations of their ancestors. the unique things about this Mayin Jooh dance are originally form by their ancestor and they still practice the dance in any occasion in their villages especially Hari Moyang. Mr. Daiman said that Mayin Jooh's dance was performed by several dancers and involved musicians and also a poet. The poet role is to dance along with the dancer while singing 18. FYP FTKW. CHAPTER 4.

(27) shared by Tok Batin is relate to the literature review that I have been reviewed which is Mah Meri Onstage: Negotiating National Policies, Tourism, and Modernization in Kampung Sungai Bumbun, Carey Island, Malaysia. even it is not the same village but they still using the same element and concept because they are part of the Mah Meri tribe. The difference is that they are in different villages (interviewed, 24th January 2022). The researcher chose a dance group named Seri Panggung located in Kampung Sungai Judah because the researcher focused on the study in that village. This Seri Panggung group is taken care by the Tok Batin Kampung Sungai Judah. The researcher interviewed Tok Batin through Whatsapp's application because there are a few problems that happened during the research was conducted. One of them is the pandemic Covid-19 case that hit one world has limited the movement.. 19. FYP FTKW. accordingly to the music that have been played by the musician. The information that has been.

(28) PERFORMED BY THE KAMPUNG SUNGAI JUDAH, CAREY ISLAND. "Every dance has elements that involve the movement of the members of the feet, hands and also the body as well as the Mayin Jooh dance." (Interviewed Ms. Rokna, 09th December 2021) Based on an interviewed through Google Meet with Ms. Rokna, Mayin Jooh's dance was a dance accompanied by rentak tambo (musical instrument). The elements applied in this dance are in terms of hands, body, and legs movements. Each of the movements in Mayin Jooh's dance has its own meaning. Ms. Rokna said, the movements in this dance symbolize nature. For example, the bunga tari hands movements, the palm and fingers were shaped to imitates jellyfish to symbolize elements of the sea. There is also a dance movement that imitates boat paddling that symbolize fisherman at the sea. This dance was performed, especially during Hari Moyang, to seek for blessings for their welfare and sustenance in terms of their main source of livelihood. Ms. Rokna also shared some pictures that showed the movements in this Mayin Jooh dance. She also explained on how each movement and step in the Mayin Jooh dance. Ms. Rokna also said that she learned Mayin Jooh dance from her seniors. Due to this reason, she only knew certain movements and its meanings.. 20. FYP FTKW. 4.1 THE DANCE ELEMENTS IMPLEMENTED IN THE MAYIN JOOH DANCE.

(29) FYP FTKW Figure 1: (Kaki Tiga) Source: Shared by Ms. Rokna. Figure 2: (Kaki Tiga) Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wlmv1L5cXgc (Youtube) The figure of kaki tiga shows the footwork that the feet move accordingly to the rhythm of the tambo accompanied by the hand movement. This is the first movement in Mayin Jooh dance, they dancing in a line before making a circle dancing around the mound.. 21.

(30) FYP FTKW Figure 3: (Ceduk) Source: Shared by Ms. Rokna. Figure 4: (Ceduk) Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wlmv1L5cXgc (Youtube) The figure of bunga tari called ceduk. It is because the movement uses the hands that are moved upwards then placed to the waist then swung downwards as if scooping up water. This movement is danced by the dancer by circling the mound. 22.

(31) FYP FTKW Figure 5: (Lapat) Source: Shared by Ms. Rokna The figure of tari bunga called lapat. The hand was moving upward and downward to form the number 8 and the movement also followed the beat of tambo. This movement is danced by the dancer by circling the mound same like bunga tari ceduk.. 23.

(32) FYP FTKW Figure 6: (Obor) Source: Shared by Ms. Rokna The figure of bunga tari is called obor because the movement of its hands describes the movement of the jellyfish. This obor depicts the element of the sea in line with the source of income of the residents of Kampung Sungai Judah who depend on marine resources. The dance is moved by hand movements that form jellyfish along with foot movements. This movement is danced by the dancer by circling the mound same like bunga tari ceduk.. 24.

(33) FYP FTKW Figure 7: (Kaki Satu) Sourse: Shared by Ms. Rokna. Figure 8:(Kaki Satu) Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wlmv1L5cXgc (Youtube) The figure of bunga tari for this kaki satu step is a one -legged movement and each dancer dances it in a circle around the busut. This movement is danced by the dancer by circling the mound same like bunga tari ceduk.. 25.

(34) FYP FTKW Figure 9: (Dayung) Source: Shared by Ms. Rokna This figure shows bunga tari of dayung, this movement are moved using the hands such as rowing a sampan with foot movements according to the rhythm of the tambo. This movement is danced by the dancer by circling the mound same like bunga tari ceduk.. 26.

(35) FYP FTKW Figure 10: (Buang) Source: Shared by Ms. Rokna This figure shows bunga tari for buang is a connection to the movement of bunga tari buang. Both hands are moved upwards past to the waist forming like carrying water to be throw. This movement is danced by the dancer by circling the mound same like bunga tari ceduk.. 27.

(36) FYP FTKW Figure 11: (Tata) Source: Shared by Ms. Rokna This figure shows the end of the dance. As the end of Mayin Jooh's dance performance, the waving hands and feet move according to the tambo rhythm. 28.

(37) Meri tribe. This Mah Meri tribe has several villages and each of these villages has a difference in bunga tari that symbolize the signification of dance in every village of the Mah Meri tribe. Aside from Ms. Rokna, the researcher also met the village of Judah named Mr. Daiman. He is 61 years old and is an original resident of the Kampung Sungai Judah. Before he was appointed as a Tok Batin he worked as a laborer and after a few years, he worked as a fisherman. Mr. Daiman has been appointed to be Tok Batin in 2010 until now. The researcher interviewed Tok Batin through the Whatsapp application because it was unable to conduct field studies due to the Covid-19 pandemic that restricted movement in and out of the village. This aboriginal village is guarded by the Department of Orang Asli Development. "Mayin Jooh dance is presented by dancers circling round and there is a busut in the middle." (Interviewed Tok Batin, date of interview 2022) Tok Batin said that the origin of this dance was created to celebrate the fruit season, especially the durian season. When the hamlet of fruits has been cooked and rationed, this durian fruit will fall from the tree. Mayin Jooh dance will be danced under the durian tree for 3 nights. In addition, this Mayin Jooh dance is also used to welcome guests who visit their village, during the wedding and also for worship when welcoming sea ancestry day. In this part of the history of the Mayin Jooh dance have many perspectived and view. Ms. Rokna said this dance existed because there is a princess who wants a mate. The king told the princess to go around the mound until the princess met a mate. The validity of this history is still cannot identify because there are various views from Tok Batin and Ms. Rokna.. 29. FYP FTKW. Ms. Rokna also said that the Mayin Jooh dance is a traditional dance owned by the Mah.

(38) FYP FTKW Figure 12: A picture of the busut in the middle. Source: Shared by Tok Batin in Whatsapp applivation. Furthermore, Mr. Daiman also explained that Mayin Jooh's dance was presented with dancers around the busut placed in the middle. Musical instruments used during performances are gongs, violins, drums, and reed tuntung. In this Mayin Jooh dance performance, there are several songs used, namely moyang gabus, gandin and also cekak musang. Among the songs that are often used in carrying out Mayin Jooh dance performances is a cekak musang. His view says that this Mayin Jooh dance is naturally unique in that it is a dance inherited from the days of their ancestors and in terms of movement also not much has been changed. Each of the movements that are drawn has its meaning. For example, the movement of hand waves and foot rents carry they thanks to guests. The researcher also asked about the changes made in the choreography of this dance and Tok Batin said some were changed but only in hand movements. At the same time, Tok Batin also explained to the researcher that this dance not only concentrated on the crowd and welcomed guests but was also presented everywhere if their group dance was invited to make a performance. This dance is also accompanied by 5 music. 30.

(39) dancing according to the music played. In this interview session, Tok Batin told the dance group has a name that is Seri Panggung which referred to shine the stage. His role in this dance group was to introduce this dance to the community and also preserve this intangible heritage so that it could be passed down to the younger generation. "Everyone who engages in this Mayin Jooh dance performance has its role." (Interviewed Ms. Rokna, date of interview 2022) Ms. Rokna said that those who involved themselves in this Mayin Jooh dance performance had their role. Tok Batin plays a role in making sure everyone is ready for the show. In addition, a representative of the dancer will signal to other dancers for a bunga tari exchange during the performance. Ms. Rokna also said that the role of Tok Batin in this dance group is as a manager and he plays the role of a musical instrument player. He plays the tambo. This tambo is a kind of drum music tool. It is played by hitting it using wooden drums. Furthermore, during an interview, Ms. Rokna told that each performance had its accessories as well as dancer Mayin Jooh. They use accessories such as kain dendan, selempang, sanggul, ankle bracelets, and hands made of Nipah. There are also other accessories such as earrings made from woven leaves snaking while the costumes are worn a baju kulit terap made by kulit kayu terap. Ms. Rokna shared a picture of their dance costumes as they joined Spiritual Music Night 2018 on March 10, 2018, at the Civic Center, Putrajaya.. 31. FYP FTKW. players, 6 or more dancers, and also a performer. The role of this chanter is to sing while.

(40) FYP FTKW Figure 13: Mayin Jooh dance costume Source: Shared by Ms. Rokna. Ms. Rokna is on the left side of the front row.. Figure 14: Mayin Jooh dance costume Source: https://www.astroawani.com/foto-malaysia/ritual-puja-pantai-suku-mah-meri-dipulau-carey-4234/petunjuk-untuk-mereka-memulakan-pekerjaan-atau-perjalanan-42807 (website Astro Awani). 32.

(41) KAMPUNG SUNGAI JUDAH, CAREY ISLAND. "This Mayin Jooh dance is very important to be presented during Hari Moyang." (Interviewed Ms. Rokna, 25th January 2022) During the interview session, the researcher asked questions about the situation if this dance was not performed at any event that took place in the village especially during the Hari Moyang will happen something bad or not and the answer that was given by Tok Batin and also Ms. Rokna are same that it does not happen anything if not performed in any occasion or ceremony in that village except for Hari Moyang. In addition, this dance also serves to symbolize the identity of their society. Tok Batin also said that there will be a replacement in maintaining and dignified this dance. A new generation of dancers is in the circle are among the otai and also school children. They do the planning in maintaining the cultural heritage they have so that it is not forgotten and appreciated by the younger generations. The effort and initiative taken by Tok Batin are to encourage the younger generation in Kampung Sungai Judah to join the Seri Panggung group. Training will also be held according to time. There were many achievements received by the Seri Panggung group throughout performing the Mayin Jooh dance performance. Tok Batin has shared a picture of the list of achievements to the researcher through the Whatsapp application.. 33. FYP FTKW. 4.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF MAYIN JOOH DANCE TO THE SOCIETY OF.

(42) FYP FTKW Figure 15: List of achievements by Seri Panggung. Source: Shared by Tok Batin in Whatsapp application Interview ends with a thank you for being interviewed by the reviewer and helping to get authentic information for the study conducted.. 34.

(43) 5.0. CONCLUSION This chapter will formulate the results obtained from the study. This research was. conducted to identify the dance movements implemented in the Mayin Jooh performed by the Kampung Sungai Judah's villagers in, Carey Island and to discover the importance of Mayin Jooh dance to the society of Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island. The researcher felt unsatisfied due to the restriction preventing the researcher to conduct field work and experience directly the Mayin Jooh dance at the stated location. The researcher strongly believed analyzing or studying the information about the dance should be done physically rather than virtually. The researcher hopes that this study can help other researchers to deepen the understanding of Mayin Jooh dance. In addition, the researcher also hopes that this study could raise awareness regarding the importance of Mayin Jooh dance Kampung Sungai Judah, Carey Island. There are many restraints in carrying out this study but the study strives in obtaining information from valid sources. During the Covid-19 pandemic period, researchers only conducted this study through virtual using the Google Meet app and Whatsapp to facilitate communication from the source. Mayin Jooh is a dance performed by the indigenous people from the Mah Meri tribe. This dance has been recognized by UNESCO as an intangible heritage of Malaysian. However, as a result of being under-dedicated and lack of promotion, it was less well known especially throughout the young generation. Moreover, the presence of Covid-19 pandemic limits all art performances and social gathering. Therefore, this research was conducted to raise awareness among the society regarding this Mayin Jooh dance especially towards the younger generation.. 35. FYP FTKW. CHAPTER 5.

(44) recognized same level as Inang, Joget, Zapin and other traditional dances exist in Malaysia. This Mayin Jooh dance can also be taught and practiced in schools to help promoting it towards the younger generation. Although this dance is the identity of Mah Meri's tribe the local people should also be allowed to learn it. a dance of the identity of the Mah Meri tribe, it is not wrong if the local people also want to learn this dance. Government agencies, private sectors, and NGO's need to take action on promoting this dance locally and internationally to appreciate the Mayin Jooh dance as an intangible heritage exists in Malaysia.. 36. FYP FTKW. This Mayin Jooh dance needs to be promoted and commercialized so that it can be.

(45) FYP FTKW. APPENDIX. Interviewed session with Ms. Rokna. This interviewed held in Google Meet on 9 December 2021. This is our first meet for interview session to gain information about Mayin Jooh dance.. 37.

(46) FYP FTKW Interviewed session with Ms. Rokna. Another interviewed session with Ms. Rokna throught Whatsapp application for futher discussion about costume Mayin Jooh dance performance.. 38.

(47) FYP FTKW Interviewed session with Tok Batin. This interviewed was held in Whatsapp application on 24 January 2022. Actually, it was so hard to directly contact with Tok Batin because of that researcher have to contact his wife. This conversation is a prove that researcher doing the interviewed.. 39.

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