A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration

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(1)MBA THESIS Technology Innovation in Influencing the Creation of Market for Digital Batik Printing Of Pantai Cahaya Bulan. by:. Nor Hayati Binti Endut. A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration. Malaysian Graduate School of Entrepreneurship and Business UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA KELANTAN. 2017 i.

(2) I hereby certify that the work embodied in this thesis is the result of the original research and has not been submitted for higher degree to any other University or Institution. OPEN ACCESS. I agree that my thesis is to be made immediately available as hardcopy or on-line open access (full text).. EMBARGOES. I agree that my thesis is to be made available as hardcopy or on-line (full text) for a period approved by the Post Graduate Committee. Dated from ____________ until _____________. CONFIDENTIAL. (Contains confidential information under the Official Secret Act 1972)*. RESTRICTED. (Contains restricted information as specified by the organization where research was done)*. I acknowledge that Universiti Malaysia Kelantan reserves the right as follows. 1. 2. 3.. The thesis is the property of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan. The library of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan has the right to make copies for the purpose of research only. The library has the right to make copies of the thesis for academic exchange.. _____________________ SIGNATURE. ___________________________ SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISOR. 901229-10-5918 _____________________ IC/PASSPORT NO. Date:. DR ADI AIZAT BIN YAJID ___________________________ NAME OF SUPERVISOR Date:. Note: * If the thesis is CONFIDENTIAL OR RESTRICTED, please attach the letter from the organization stating the period and reasons for confidentiality and restriction. i. MBA THESIS. THESIS DECLARATION.

(3) “In the Name of Allah the Almighty, the Merciful and the Beneficent”. Alhamdullilah, Glory to ALLAH S.W.T., the most Gracious and the most Merciful is upon his messenger Holy Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. I am very grateful to Almighty Allah S.W.T for giving me strength and opportunity to complete this final project paper. Without His Grace and Mercifulness, this project paper may not be complete on time. First and foremost, I would like to thank my respected supervisor, Dr. Adi Aizat bin Yajid for his continuous guidance, advice, comments, and constant support at all stage of this research. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank my beloved family, especially my mother Mrs Che Gayah binti Omar, who have help me a lot and always support me in terms on financial and motivation. To my siblings, thank you for everything and always believe in me. To my fellow friends that always support and cheer me up. Last but not least, I would like to thank to those, who I have not mentioned, but has contributed throughout this research whether directly or indirectly. Thank you for your generous time and cooperation. Lastly my special acknowledgement goes to University Malaysia of Kelantan for granting me the opportunity to pursue my study in Master of Business Administration. I appreciate all of your help and will not forget you all. Thank you.. ii. MBA THESIS. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.

(4) PAGE. THESIS DECLARATION. i. ACKNOWLEDGMENT. ii. TABLE OF CONTENTS. iii. LIST OF TABLES. vii. LIST OF FIGURES. viii. ABSTRAK. ix. ABSTRACT. x. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Introduction. 1. 1.2. Background. 1. 1.3. Problem Statement. 4. 1.4. Research Questions. 5. 1.5. Research Objectives. 6. iii. MBA THESIS. TABLE OF CONTENTS.

(5) Scope of Study. 6. 1.7. Limitation. 7. 1.8. Significance of Study. 9. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Introduction. 9. 2.2. Batik. 10. 2.2.1. Digital Silk Batik. 11. 2.2.2. Value of Batik. 14. 2.3. Market Trend. 15. 2.4. Role of Technology in Batik. 16. 2.5. Role of Technology in Business. 19. 2.6. Batik in Pantai Cahaya Bulan. 20. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD 3.1. Introduction. 22. 3.2. Quantitative and Qualitative Research. 22. 3.3. Data Collection. 28. 3.3.1. 28. Primary Data. iv. MBA THESIS. 1.6.

(6) Secondary Data. 39. 3.3. Data Processing In Qualitative Research. 42. 3.4. Data Analysis. 44. 3.4.1 Deductive Research Approach. 45. 3.4.2 Inductive Research Approach. 47. Data Validation. 49. 3.5. CHAPTER 4 FINDING 4.1. Introduction. 57. 4.2. Batik Commercial. 57. 4.2.1. Design. 58. 4.2.2. Colour. 59. 4.2.3. Fabric. 60. Technology Influence. 61. 4.3.1. Fashion Trend. 61. 4.3.2. Marketing. 62. 4.3.3. Sales. 63. 4.3. 4.4. Batik Pride. 64. v. MBA THESIS. 3.3.2.

(7) Identity. 64. 4.4.2. Value. 65. CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 5.1. Introduction. 66. 5.2. The Importance of Technology to the Batik Value. 66. 5.2.1. Business Technology. 67. 5.2.2. Communication Technology. 69. 5.3. Influence Technology into Batik Market. 70. 5.4. Jobs Opportunity and Help the Local Economy. 71. 5.5. Helps Tourism Industry. 71. 5.6. Conclusion. 73. REFERENCES. 75. vi. MBA THESIS. 4.4.1.

(8) Table 3.2. Types of Non-Probability Samplings and Their Applicability. vii. 24. MBA THESIS. LIST OF TABLE.

(9) Figure 3.2. Description of Quantitative Method. 23. Figure 3.5. Types of Research. 45. Figure 3.5.1. Deductive Research Approach. 46. Figure 3.5.2. Inductive Research Approach. 48. viii. MBA THESIS. LIST OF FIGURES.

(10) Batik Digital Di Pantai Cahaya Bulan. ABSTRAK Kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji inovasi dalam teknologi percetakan batik. Industri batik pada masa ini telah menggantikan kaedah pencelupan dan tekap lilin yang telah menjadikan kaedah percetakan yang lebih mudah dan membantu pencanting batik. Hal ini telah memberi impak yang besar kepada permintaan dan penawaran dalam pasaran batik. Suntikan teknologi dan inovasi kepada industri batik memberi peluang kepada penghasilan batik untuk kekal selama-lamanya pada masa hadapan. Teknologi percetakan inkjet memainkan peranan yang besar dan memberi perubahan evolusi dalam industri batik di Malaysia terutamanya di Kelantan. Kajian ini memberi tumpuan kepada industri batik perlu menekankan penggunaan perisian, komputer dan mesin percetakan batik berskala besar sementara tidak melupakan ciri-ciri tradisional yang wujud dalam industri batik. Ini adalah untuk membantu mereka untuk mengekalkan industri batik agar tidak luput ditelan masa.. ix. MBA THESIS. Inovasi Teknologi Dalam Mempengaruhi Pembentukan Pasaran Untuk Percetakan.

(11) Printing Of Pantai Cahaya Bulan. ABSTRACT This study is to examine the innovation in batik printing technology. Today batik industry has been replacing the dyeing method and wax stamp developed printing method that is more convenient and helps batik craftsman. This has a major impact on the demand and supply in the batik market. Injection of technology and innovation towards batik industry provide potential to manufacturing batik to remain everlasting in the future. Inkjet printing technology plays a big role and gave an evolutionary change in the batik industry in Malaysia especially in Kelantan. This study focuses on batik industry should emphasize the use of software, computer and mass printing batik while not forgetting the traditional characteristics that exist in the batik industry. This is to help them to maintain the batik industry in order not expire in time.. x. MBA THESIS. Technology Innovation in Influencing the Creation of Market for Digital Batik.

(12) INTRODUCTION. 1.1. Introduction. This chapter expresses the whole chapter one of the complete description of project paper made by researcher. This chapter comprises five main sections that introducing background, problem statement, research questions, research objective, scope of study which is the perimeter of this study, limitation and significance of study which is our contribution to others.. 1.2. Background. Batik is one of the creative industries in Malaysia. Based on Ministry of Information Communication and Culture Creative portal creative industries are industries that involve individual creativity, skill and talent with the potential to generate wealth and job creation through the promotion and exploitation of intellectual property. Batik can be regarded as a creative entrepreneur for. 1. MBA THESIS. CHAPTER 1.

(13) fabric and producing batik. Wan Hashim (1996) stated:. ―The industry of batik in Malaysia has been existed around the year of 1921. Throughout the years of its existence, the industry contributes to the Malaysian economic well-being by first, creating jobs and business opportunities in rural areas.‖. Batik industry is a creative industry that is very well-known in Kelantan and Terengganu. The existence of batik helps many people in Kelantan and Terengganu get a job as craftsman and make that state popular and as a pioneer of batik in Malaysia. Nowadays, the market is more focused on batik designs that have more modern touch such as abstract pattern, floral and geometric. Batik has been given a twist and new injections due to the demand of customers who wants a modern twist that is fresh and follow the passage of time. Colour on the batik fabrics are also getting modernized as colour layers many time and the choice of soft colour options will make buyer who worn it looks more courageous. Exclusive batik patterns are not only got demand from local buyers but also from abroad. Batik fabrics are not specific only to the clothes but also can be used as a bag and paintings for home decoration.. 2. MBA THESIS. courageous to show their idea of the interesting and unique pattern on the white.

(14) penetrated space limit that was once considered relative. Rather got over, digital printing can print a motif on canvas, silk textile or natural fibres. Batik digital is a batik art combined with modern technology known as Digital Batik in 2005 that were previously monopolized by businessmen from Italy and Japan. Batik digital is using high-tech machines sources from overseas and with this machine, batik craftsman can produced batik comparable to the quality of international brands. It also makes the process of making batik is easier and can save time in processing batik but at the same time still maintaining the uniqueness of the batik itself. Batik digital has received tremendous response from batik enthusiasts. It is because of the pattern is commercial and other than the usual batik. Digital batik pattern is more to abstract and floral pattern. Even the colours used are not easily diminishing even washed many times. The advantages of this digital batik enhance more fans in digital batik from over the world. Technology and innovation in the batik industry not only focused on the equipment but innovation also occurs on pattern and design of batik itself. If in earlier times the pattern applied is motivated from flora and fauna but today more motivated from geometric, abstract and stripes. Even the uses of batik are also the occurrence of innovation as before batik cloth and are made only in dress or „baju kurung‟. Now there is also a hat and tie from batik. Innovation in terms of equipment is conversion from hand-drawn and applied to the block, next to a sketch using the computer and uses a large-capacity printing machine.. 3. MBA THESIS. Progress and development of digital printing technology on batik has.

(15) Pantai Cahaya Bulan, Kelantan, Malaysia.. 1.3. Problem Statement. Batik industry is a creative industry that is very well-known in Kelantan and Terengganu. Batik is a traditional textile art making on fabric with flowers, dots, abstract and animal motifs. It also involves creative ideas, making methods, diversity of imagination and valuation from a batik craftsman itself. Pattern on batik painting are also changing over time. There are various types of batik like tie-dye batik, stamp / die batik, hand drawn batik, screen batik and digital batik. In this modern era, batik industry has been further enhanced with the use of technology in the making of batik called digital batik. The issues raised by the researcher are batik makers around Pantai Cahaya Bulan unwilling to turn to the use of new technology in the manufacture of batik. They are more comfortable with the traditional way of making batik that has been used since the early arrival of batik in Malaysia. Next, the batik market around Pantai Cahaya Bulan is very small. Design that used by most batik makers are typical design same as the other batik designs. No reform is carried out and their design is more to local motif such flora and fauna such as bamboo, leaves, birds and butterflies. Lastly, creative art not centre at locality only, batik makers can do more to be universal. The use of technology can make changes in batik market. 4. MBA THESIS. This study will explore more the technology arises on batik digital along.

(16) implemented on 2009. Most digital batik creation is using computer technology with only one click and printed using the gigantic printer. Design drawn in the computer will be the same as on the fabric. By using digital printing, batik craftsman can change their design easily without having trouble. This study is to determine the effect of technology towards batik drawing nowadays. Innovation in this industry gives a very enormous impact on the sales of batik and batik industry itself.. 1.4. Research Questions. A qualitative approach will be using in this study. The research questions stated as below: 1.. What are the practices of batik creation?. 2.. What are the technology contributions towards the creation of business?. 3. How can technology affect the marketability of batik?. 5. MBA THESIS. The use of technology in digital batik printing is a modern batik that.

(17) Research Objective. There are three research objectives that will be highlighted in this study. These objectives stated as below: 1.. To determine the practices of batik creation.. 2.. To look into the technology contributions towards the creation of business.. 3.. 1.6. To determine the technology affect the marketability of batik.. Scope of Study. Scope of study is a perimeter for this research so everyone reading this research will understand more about this research. In this research, researcher focus on technology arises in digital batik lately. Digital batik is created using computer technology and batik craftsman will print it on batik fabric such as silk, crepe, jacquard, cotton, and fuji (mix with polyester). Using this technology also give an impact on the sale of batik. Respondents involved are batik craftsman along Pantai Cahaya Bulan.. 6. MBA THESIS. 1.5.

(18) Limitation. Limitation is an obstacle in this study. Limitation to this study consists of two obstacles which are time and respondents. Time provided by the university is only three months until June 2017. This led to researcher has limited time to produce the best research. Lastly, limited number of respondent because of their availability to contribute in this research, their participation and commitment to give any information regarding the technology on batik digital.. 1.8. Significance of Study. This research also will give beneficial to batik industry itself. Batik shop owner also batik craftsman will improve their services to fulfil customer or tourist satisfaction on their batik design. Customer and tourist also will be more satisfied with batik shop owner services and they will get the best experienced on their vacation in Pantai Cahaya Bulan, Kelantan. This will contributing positively to the batik industry along Pantai Cahaya Bulan in particularly and encourages more visitors to come Kelantan and at the same time will help the local people to generate their income.. 7. MBA THESIS. 1.7.

(19) proposal start from the beginning until the end of the study. Besides that, this study helps to improve the researcher communication skills in dealing with people by attracting or influencing them to answer the questionnaire.. This research will help the future researcher as a revision for further studying in the topics related with the technology arises in batik industry, which can act as a guideline and reference to get the information in future.. 8. MBA THESIS. The researcher can gains knowledge and helping the researcher in prepared.

(20) LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1. Introduction. This chapter is about literature that is relevant related to the research topic. According to Machi (2009) literature review is:. ―…a written document that presents a logically argued case founded on a comprehensive understanding of the current state of knowledge about a topic of study. This case establishes a convincing thesis to answer the study‘s question.‖. Literature review is a written document or information related to a field studied by researchers. Literature review available from previous surveys conducted by other researchers. Researcher can use literature review to strengthen and support the research they are doing nowadays.. 9. MBA THESIS. CHAPTER 2.

(21) Batik. Batik is one of the unique cultural symbols of the Malay community in Malaysia. Batik creations are well known in the state of Terengganu and Kelantan, which has made that state as a major batik production especially in Malaysia. According to Wan Hahim (1996):. ―The industry of batik in Malaysia has been existed around the year of 1921.‖. The arrival of batik industry had existed since 1921 in Malaysia. Batik industry in Malaysia has long existed and has brought a huge change in helping the local economy. Arny (1987) stated:. ―The term is of Javanese origin from the word ‗ambatik‘, meaning a cloth having dots or dotted cloth. ‗Tik‘ may have come from the word ‗titik‘ meaning ‗dots‘ while the word ‗ba‘ means ‗doing work actively.‖. Batik resulting from the combination of dots thus constituting a pattern into plants or flowers. Batik is also made through the process of using wax that will be 10. MBA THESIS. 2.2.

(22) shaping. Batik is a traditional original cloth wore by Malays. Its flexibility and makes it seem polite often worn by the Malay community in formal occasions or for casual use. To make batik, selected areas of the cloth are blocked out by brushing or drawing hot wax over them, and the cloth is then dyed. The parts covered in wax resist the dye and remain the original colour. This process of waxing and dyeing can be repeated to create more elaborate and colourful designs. After the final dyeing the wax is removed and the cloth is ready for wearing or showing. Contemporary batik, while owing much to the past, is markedly different from the more traditional and formal styles. For example, the artist may use etching, discharge dyeing, stencils, different tools for waxing and dyeing, wax recipes with different resist values and work with silk, cotton, wool, leather, paper or even wood and ceramics. The development of batik has increased over time due to the value of batik is very high. Many batik entrepreneurs have existed to further enhance the commercial value of batik making and batik as the Malaysian culture which needs to be preserved. Furthermore, the assistance of the government to elevate batik industry has played an important role and intelligent. Lately, the batik industry well received because of its uniqueness and innovation that has been done by the entrepreneur either their design and batik patterns. Instructions issued to civil servants to wear batik on Thursday every week (Surat Pekeliling Perkhidmatan Bil. 1 tahun 2008) has made batik increasingly in demand and hunted after by everyone.. 11. MBA THESIS. dot on a white cloth through the process of laying or stamping, drawing and.

(23) Digital Silk Batik. Techniques of making batik in traditional ways should be given some injection technology innovation to attract people and get raises the prestige of Malaysian batik to the world. But in the days following the passage of the technology, traditional values and batik quality is maintained so that the culture is existing for future reference. Furthermore it can increase production and manufacture to be more competitive. Digital batik is a combination from batik contemporary that has been innovates in terms of the use of batik, pattern or design as well as a way of making the batik itself. This is because of the way of thinking in the creative and critical thinking has been applied in batik industry to give new breath so the use of batik is not only focused on royalty, dignitaries and for formal occasions but can be worn for any event whatsoever.. ―Yayasan Budi Penyayang Malaysia (Penyayang) chairman Nori Tun Abdullah said at one time, the batik industry was ―almost forgotten‖, but now batik was not only available in fabric form but also as bags, shoes, gift wrappers, decorative items and fashion accessories.‖ (Star, 2014). 12. MBA THESIS. 2.2.1.

(24) baju kurung or baju kebaya. According to Star (2014) at the present time batik can be made as a dress, palazzo, kaftans, pareo use as a casual fabric, even as home decoration, bags and scarves. Fabric used also innovates to linen, denim, cotton and silks. The changes of trends also changed the userfriendliness of batik with more contemporary ways. The existence of digital batik also shows that Malaysia can compete with batik producing countries such as China and Indonesia. Batik industry growth has surged batik attire of traditional clothing worn for a specific event but has gone to the international level.. ―Desa Murni Batik Sdn. Bhd. (DMBSB), a Bumiputera company which manufactures and distributes digital silk batik sales target of RM15 million before the end of this year, an increase of RM2 million from RM13 million recorded last year.‖ (Utusan, 2013).. This shows the digital silk batik has captured the hearts of consumers, especially female fans who want variety in their wearing apparel and dare to try something new. Most of the patterns on the digital silk batik are pattern or design that is unique as an abstract, geometric, stripes and the colour also not as bright as before, more to soft colour. As stated from Utusan (2013) digital silk batik has also been collecting own fans mostly 13. MBA THESIS. Previously, batik only practice as a part of batik sarong paired with a.

(25) targeted increase for RM2 million for 2013 than last year. This is because young people like something unique and different so they can look elegant and contemporary in line with times even in traditional dress.. 2.2.2. Value of Batik. The value of batik is exclusive in terms of processing the batik itself. It is because batik craftsman needs to deploy their idea in sketching the pattern on their minds. The high value of batik has raised the dignity of a piece of cloth into a premier heritage craft not only in ancient times but still known at the present time. Subtlety and artistic beauty found in batik will interest anyone who first looked at it. According to Arney (1987):. ―Batik has been recognized as a national dress, worn by all ethnic groups and is no longer associated with the Malays‖. Arney said that batik has been recognized as the national dresses for Malaysian worn by all ethnic groups but now are not only confined to the Malays only. Batik also got the attention of enthusiast from abroad. Cooperation from government agencies such as the Malaysian Handicraft 14. MBA THESIS. among younger buyers. A Bumiputera company that selling digital silk batik.

(26) and the use of batik. Diversity highlighted will be provide new ideas and keep the heritage that was left for the future. Persistence and perseverance of entrepreneurs can provide positive development and a good result in the batik industry.. 2.3. Market Trend. Batik market trend is growing due to get attraction of external demand and also in the country. Buyers from Malaysia have been able to identify the advantages of modern batik like digital silk batik that has pattern more elegant and sophisticated to the user. This leads to increasing consumer demand for batik as the industry has identified their strength and always know the needs and wants of consumers. Abdul Kareem (2007) stated that batik industry need to produce products according to current market wants.. ―Recognizing the demand for Kelantan batik growing and potentially to overseas markets, Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) allocation of RM200 million to the industry players in the country.‖ (Zaidi, 2016). 15. MBA THESIS. can increase the value of batik in through trends design such as the creation.

(27) high demand for batik industry has caused financial institutions to inject capital to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) involved in the production of batik. Batik industry has a good chance to expand globally. Zaidi (2016) said that because of batik have a huge potential to market their product for globalization, Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) give RM200 million financial injection for batik entrepreneurs to do more and to arise batik dignity. Batik entrepreneurs increased by 9.4 per cent in 2016 to a total of 327 persons of entrepreneurs compared to 2014.. 2.4. Role of Technology in Batik. In this era of globalization, this makes the technology as an important part of life and makes the technology at your fingertips. According to Ramey (2013) technology is:. ―The term ‗Technology‖ is wide and everyone has their own way of understanding the meaning of technology‖.. The fashion industry is not immune from being influenced by technology that nowadays growing rapidly. The fashion industry is influenced by technology with the use of machines that can print high quality material and mass capacity 16. MBA THESIS. The allocation of funding is channelled from the 1990s to the present. The.

(28) the technique of tie and dye batik to produce “rainbow” batik.. ―This technique is heavily influenced by products from India, Japan and China‖ (Azmi et.al, 2009). Wax technique not yet pioneered at that time by any batik owner. In Malaysia many instruments that are used to produce pattern on batik like the use of potatoes whereby the potatoes will be sculptured as flora then will be colouring to make a stamp onto white fabric. Then batik production technique that is very popular is block batik, hand drawn batik and screen batik. Despite their different techniques but the process undertaken to produce a piece of batik is the same as drawing, colouring, drying and final set-up process. But now all that technique is rarely used because it is a high demand for digital silk batik. Digital silk batik is batik that has innovates with the latest technology more user-friendly. The technology is adapted from a paper printer is a high capacity fabrics printer and textiles and capable of producing more than manpower. Therefore, Batik has entered a new phase in their production making. Today, there is computer software that can produce a motif on the computer. By using this innovation from computer software, and the ability of designers, batik patterns translated to be modified with the help of technologies it can be positive due to make batik to be diverse in motives. According to Le (1997) inkjet printing: 17. MBA THESIS. production to replace human labour. Before this batik creation starts by adopting.

(29) from a small aperture directly to a specified position on a media to create an image". With the help of this software, the making of batik design, a batik pattern will be translated to 3D in the computer, and then the pattern will spread into thousands of other motives and digital printing will doing their work faster. Processes to make a digital batik silk are designing process, printing process, steamer process, washer process and thumbler process. All the process involve high capacity machine. When making batik through a computer coupled with the batik in the traditional way, then the result will be the one of a very unique batik, varied too contemporary. No more 'canting' in batik were used, it is only an idea from craftsman and computer generated work to help craftsman. The traditional way is not possible to meet the demand of the growing market. Hence, textile and craft industry should take an approach to the use of new printing techniques that can yield returns faster and better. It is also can facilitate the whole management.. ―With the use of new technology machinery from Italy, it can able to double the production of batik to 2000 pieces per month." (Utusan, 2013). 18. MBA THESIS. ―is a non-impact, dot-matrix printing technology in which droplets of ink are jetted.

(30) the production of batik and can meet the demand of customers.. 2.5. Role of Technology in Business. The uses of technology to marketing batik really affect their sales. This has created awareness for batik entrepreneurs that using technology gives impact on the sales of batik, and a good income. Batik entrepreneurs can use the mass media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, blogs and twitter to marketing their products. It can also introduce their products not only focused on customers in the country but also abroad.. ―All of our customers who advertise on Facebook are now advertising on Instagram with better results.‖ (Montenegro, 2016). The technology that arriving at our fingertips nowadays can help batik entrepreneurs to advertise their batik quickly, easily and does not require high cost but requires the use of internet or data to linking batik entrepreneurs and customers 24 hours a day regardless of when and where they are be in this world. The use of hash tags can help customers to find batik that suit their tastes. It is easy for customers to buy without having to go to batik outlet and can surf the Internet while 19. MBA THESIS. Thus, the use of fabric high quality printing machine which can maximize.

(31) relationship between batik entrepreneurs and customers. However, good communication skills are needed so that customers can be treated with good results and feel excited to deal with batik entrepreneurs.. 2.6. Batik in Pantai Cahaya Bulan. Kelantan is a one state in Malaysia that have many tourist attractions to come and having wonderful vacation. Kelantan is the north eastern most state in the Peninsular Malaysia. The state is bounded on the north by Thailand, on the east by Terengganu, on the west by Perak and on the south by Pahang. People in Kelantan also known as a talented fisherman. This is because of the Kelantan geographical near the sea and the cleverness of their people to find earning to make a source of income.. ―The early development of batik in Malaysia believed to have started in Kelantan and Terengganu (Azmi et.al, 2009).. Kelantan and Terengganu is believed to be one of the states where the batik industry based in Malaysia. Kelantan also famous with their unique culture such as their cultural foods, kite and batik making, spinning tops and the friendly attitude of 20. MBA THESIS. shopping only from home or anywhere else where they wants. It can strengthen the.

(32) Bulan beach is one of the interesting attractions for tourists who travel to the Kelantan. The beach was formerly known as Pantai Cinta Berahi (Beach of Passionate Love) but changed its name to Pantai Cahaya Bulan (Moonlight Beach). The main attractions here are a beautiful long and wide sandy beach. There are also many eateries that serve Kelantan foods along the coastline. There are a variety of hotels and resorts around the coast that provide convenience accommodation to tourists to stay there. The trip to this beach from Kota Bharu will take visitors through a traditional Malay town. This is an important area of handicrafts for batik printing, songket weaving, and making kites and brass. Villagers also do some activity-based sales of traditional handicrafts and culture such as batik, fish crackers and other handicrafts. It is a source of income for the villagers nearby to make a living. Most tourists come to Pantai Cahaya Bulan because they wants to see the beach beauty, the uniqueness of the local culture as well the process of batik making in a traditional or modern ways. The coastal area and large have made this beach as one of the famous batik making. Due to its strategic position on the coast, batik drying process can be easily made depending on weather.. 21. MBA THESIS. its natives and their way of life that still retains the ancient culture. Pantai Cahaya.

(33) RESEARCH METHOD. 3.1. Introduction. In this chapter state the whole method that will be used by researchers to conduct a study conducted on batik industry. A suitable research methodology has taken to ensure that the accurate data collection techniques used was able to gather the information needed. This chapter covers the approach taken by the researcher whether qualitative or quantitative, data analysis, sampling procedure, research instrument, and data validation.. 3.2. Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Quantitative research is a research that based on conventional ways which produces numerical statistics and usually tries to find to form causal relationship (or association) between two or more variables, using statically technique to test the strength and significance of the relationships. According (Leedy 1993). 22. MBA THESIS. CHAPTER 3.

(34) and anything that is measurable in a systematic way of investigation of phenomena and their relationships. It is used to answer questions on relationships within measurable variables with an intention to explain, predict and control phenomena.‖. Quantatitative reseach method. Dealing with numbers Measureable. Figure 3.2: Description of Quantitative Method. In an easy ways, quantitative research is a research that depends on mostly on the collection of quantitative data while for qualitative research is a research that depends on the collection of qualitative data. Below is a few differences point between these two types of research:. 23. MBA THESIS. ―Quantitative research methods are research methods dealing with numbers.

(35) Types of Quantitative research. Qualitative research. . . differences Deductive or top-down research . Inductive or bottom-up research. The researcher tests. . The researcher generate. Scientific hypotheses and theory with. new hypotheses and. data. grounded theory from. method. data collected during fieldwork  View of human. Behavior is regular &. . predictable. Behavior is fluid, dynamic, situational,. behavior. social, contextual, and personal. Most common. . research. Description, explanation, and. . prediction. Description, exploration, and discovery. objectives . Narrow-angle lens, testing specific hypotheses. Focus. . Wide-angle and „deepangle‟ lens, examining the breadth and depth of phenomena to learn and more about them. 24. MBA THESIS. Table 3.2: Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Research.

(36) Nature of. Attempt to study behavior. . under controlled conditions. environments . observation. Study behavior in natural. Study the context in which behavior occurs. . Objective (different observes. . Subjective, personal, and. Nature of reality agree on what is observed). socially constructed. Collect quantitative data based . Collect qualitative data. on precise measurement using. (e.g: in-depth interview,. structured and validated data. participant observation,. Form of data. collection instruments (e.g:. field notes and open-. collected. closed-ended items, rating. ended questions). . scales, behavioral responses).. . The researcher is the primary data collection instrument. Nature of data. . Variables. . Words, image, categories. . Identify statistical relationship. . Search for patterns,. Data analysis. themes, and holistic features. Table 3.2 is about the differences between quantitative and qualitative research in term of scientific method from professionals, view of human behavior, nature of observation, nature of reality. A description of the quantitative and qualitative analysis, a comparison is made so that researchers and future researchers 25. MBA THESIS. .

(37) completing their studies. Such comparisons will look clearer and easier for researchers to make a choice. The researchers decided to use qualitative methods. According to Beverley Hancock, he has mention about qualitative research:. "Qualitative research is concerned with developing explanations of social phenomena. That is to say, it aims to help us to understand the world in which we live and why things are the way they are. It is concerned with the social aspects of our world and seeks to answer questions about; Why people behave the way they do? How opinions and attitudes are formed? How people are affected by the events that go on around them? How and why cultures have developed in the way they have? The differences between social groups.". Beverly also has state that;. "Qualitative research is concerned with finding the answers to questions which begin with: why? how? in what way? Quantitative research, on the other hand, is more concerned with questions about: how much? how many? how often? to what extent?.". 26. MBA THESIS. will be able to see the advantages and disadvantages for the best to use for.

(38) are;. "Qualitative research is concerned with the opinions, experiences and feelings of individuals producing subjective data, while qualitative research describes social phenomena as they occur naturally. No attempt is made to manipulate the situation under study as is the case with experimental quantitative research. Understanding of a situation is gained through a holistic perspective. Quantitative research depends on the ability to identify a set of variables. Data are used to develop concepts and theories that help us to understand the social world. This is an inductive approach to the development of theory. Quantitative research is deductive in that it tests theories which have already been proposed‖.. For this research, researcher chose qualitative research as a way to make a research of the technology used in the batik industry. This is because qualitative research provides more freedom for researcher to working, but the researchers also need to know that they had a limit so the research done not too broad and there are no specific focus. This will make the result in the study is difficult to understand. Qualitative research requires an expert to give an opinion, knowledge and experience regarding to the research to be conducted by researcher.. 27. MBA THESIS. He also mention about how this research differs from quantitative research which.

(39) Data Collection. 3.3.1. Primary Data. The primary data are discusses about data that researcher get it direct from expertise. This data gains from different sources such as surveys, interviews, focus group, panels of respondents or observation. It is vital to have assembled primary and secondary data simultaneously. According to Uma Sekaran (2013) as follow:. ―…Primary data refer to information obtained first hand by the researcher on the variables on interest for specific purpose of the study…‖. Primary data are arises from specific research problem that collected using procedure that fulfil the research problem best. Related to that Joop. J. H. (2015) stress that:. ―…Primary data are refer to original data collected for a specific research goal…‖. 28. MBA THESIS. 3.3.

(40) The idea of qualitative survey to convert a theory within logic justification to makes clear the concept of the „researcher as research instrument‟. The main instrument is the researcher itself. According to Mengxuan Annie Xu (2012) mention that:. ―…researchers must learn how to effectively develop themselves to a research instrument capable of collecting rich data and developing a nuanced. and. complete. interpretation. congruent. with. the. philosophical underpinnings of the research…‖. Proper technique in data collection is important in order to have suitable primary data. For that reason the individual itself that running the research must select appropriate method being to have precise information.. Method of Data Collection. Uma Sekaran (2013) provides the method of data collection as the:. ―As an integral part in research design. There are several way of data collection. Each of its have advantages and disadvantages. To enhance the value of research is with use appropriate method. Data can be collected in a variety ways such as by using interviews, 29. MBA THESIS. Instruments.

(41) collecting primary data are main data in survey research. Usually interviews like face to face, telephone, on line via internet are use. While observation is through email and projective tests. Projective test also used to tap variables. For example respondents are asked to write a story, complete a sentence and offer their reaction. This is assume that respondent own thoughts, feelings, attitudes and expectations. Although interviewing has the advantage of flexibility in terms of adapting, adopting, and changing the questions as the researcher proceed with the interviews, questionnaires have the advantage of obtaining data more efficiently in term of research time, energy and cost. Modern technology nowadays playing a key role in shaping methods of data collection. The choice of data collection method are depends on facilities available. This is based on the degree of accuracy required, the researcher expertise, time of study, available data and cost factor.‖. Interviewing. This is suitable for data collection method. When exploratory stage, interviewing is the best method to use. During interview session, interviewer must try to control or limit bias by training that happen in a ways of voice inflection, differences in wording, and clarification. Interviews may be unstructured, structured or semi-structured and conducted face to face either 30. MBA THESIS. observation and administration questionnaire. This three type of.

(42) (2008) on purpose of interview is to explore the views, experiences, beliefs and motivation of individuals on particular matters.. Refer to Gill et al. (2008), usually got three types of interview use as instrument which are known as structured, semi-structured and unstructured interviews.. ―As for the structured interview, the questions involved are verbally control and administered, providing almost no variation and further questioning possibility. As for the unstructured interview, the questions will be progressed based on the respond of the first asked question. Under this particular interview, the ability to control and manage the interview might be a challenge since there is only a little guidance on the topic that is going to talk about. The semi-structured interview sits between the structured and unstructured interview. For this particular interview, the interview begins with a few key questions that are important to the research to be used as the perimeter or theme of the interview. Later during the interview, various significant questions will be constructed and emerged to enable the researcher to learn on the topic even further and in depth.‖. 31. MBA THESIS. by telephone, on line or meet the respondents itself. According to Gill et al..

(43) view:. ―The interviewer does not enter the interview setting with planned sequence of questions to be asked of the respondent. A possible objectives of an unstructured interview is to bring some preliminary issues to the surface so that researcher can determine what factors need further. in. depth. investigation. After conducting the. unstructured interviews and data obtained, the researcher would know the variables that need greater focus and called for more depth information. The set the stage for interviewer to conduct further structure interview, for which the variables will have been identified.‖. Structure interview are researcher conduct known questions conferring to what information needed. Cohen D, et al. (2006) both author explain on the structure interview as follow:. ―Development of a structured interview guide or questionnaire requires a clear topical focus and well-developed understanding of the topic at hand. A well-developed understanding of a topic allows researchers to create a highly structured interview guide or questionnaire that provides respondents with relevant, meaningful and appropriate response categories to choose from for each 32. MBA THESIS. Unstructured Interviews based on Uma Sekaran (2013) point of.

(44) literature in a topical area is highly developed or following the use of observational and other less structured interviewing approaches that provide the researcher with adequate understanding of a topic to construct meaningful and relevant close-ended questions.‖. The semi-structured interview commonly used by interviewing people by talk freely and openly to get deep information. This valuable method are conducted in open framework, allow for conversation and two way communication. This kind of data collection the researcher already has some of the questions and the rest will exist during conversation. Semistructured interviews are conducted with an equally open framework, which allow for focused, conversational, two-way communication. They can be used both to give and receive information. The flexibility to get the information through both parties in order to able to follow topical trajectories in the conversation that may stray from the guide when he or she feels this is appropriate. Laforest (2008) delivered as below on the semistructured interview of in gaining information.. ―Semi-structured interviews are conducted with a fairly open framework. which. allows. focused,. conversational,. two-way. communication. The interviewer follows a guideline but is able to follow topical trajectories in the conversation that may stray from the guide when it seems appropriate. Not all questions are designed 33. MBA THESIS. question. Structured interviews are, therefore, best used when the.

(45) during the interview, allowing both the interviewer and the person being interviewed the flexibility to go into details when needed. Conducting a good semi-structured interview requires a thoughtful planning which includes: identifying respondents, deciding on the number of interviews and preparing the interviews. After having conducted the interview, a comprehensive analysis is needed.‖. Observations are including the activities of watching, recording, analysis, and interpretation of behaviour, actions or events. According to Uma Sekaran (2013) observation involved several approach as follow:. ―Various approaches of observation have been used. Observation involves going to ―the field‖ – the factory, the supermarket, the waiting room, the office, or the trading room watching room, the office or the trading room- watching what workers, consumers, or day traders do, and describing, analysing and interpreting what one has seen. Observational method are best suited for research requiring non-self-report descriptive data that is when behaviour is to be examined without directly asking the respondents themselves. Observation data are rich and uncontaminated by self-report bias. However, observation methods are also time consuming and challenging in a lot of other ways.‖. 34. MBA THESIS. and phrased ahead of time. The majority of the questions are created.

(46) the whole population. To represent the whole population and selecting particular are foremost activities in sampling task. There are two major categories in sampling which is probability sampling and non-probability sampling Blackstone (2012). Probability sampling that is unbiased in selection of respondents, the respondents has been fixed and known. However for non-probability sampling there is no specific individual to be designated or to be part in research. There have pro and cons for both methods. Further, there are namely possibilities that use in quantitative research and non-probability sampling mainly used by the qualitative research. Blackstone (2012) describes the probability sampling as follow:. ―Probability sampling refers to sampling techniques for which a person‘s (or event‘s) likelihood of being selected for membership in the sample is known… in most cases, researchers who use probability sampling techniques are aiming to identify a representative sample from which to collect data. A representative sample is one that resembles the population from which it was drawn in all the ways that are important for the research being conducted.‖. Non-probability type of sampling broader does share the same principle as the quantitative research. This particular element is the most distinguish element separating the probability sampling with the non35. MBA THESIS. Sampling refers to choosing an exact group or sample to symbolize.

(47) (2012) refers it to:. ―…sampling techniques for which a person‘s (or event‘s or researcher‘s focus‘s) likelihood of being selected for membership in the sample is unknown. Because we don‘t know the likelihood of selection, we don‘t know with nonprobability samples whether a sample represents a larger population or not. But that‘s OK, because representing the population is not the goal with nonprobability samples.‖. Refer to Hafner (2012) there have three types of sampling namely purposive, quota and snowball sampling. This types of sampling are usually use in qualitative research. The popular one use is purposive, the criteria is to assembly the respondents according to purposed needed, which are connected and relevant to the research. Blackstone (2012) mentioned that in order to have a purposive sampling:. ―…a researcher begins with specific perspectives in mind that he or she wishes to examine and then seeks out research participants who cover that full range of perspectives.‖. 36. MBA THESIS. probability sampling. As for the non-probability sampling, Blackstone.

(48) ―Purposive sampling is a non-probability sampling method and it occurs when elements selected for the sample are chosen by the judgment of the researcher. Researchers often believe that they can obtain a representative sample by using a sound judgment, which will result in saving time and money.‖. According to Blackstone (2012) styles of sampling that use the quota and convenience are both can use in quantitative and qualitative research method. The element of proportion is use in selecting the respondents as below:. ―…a researcher identifies categories that are important to the study and for which there is likely to be some variation. Subgroups are created based on each category and the researcher decides how many people (or documents or whatever element happens to be the focus of the research) to include from each subgroup and collects data from that number for each subgroup (Blackstone, 2012).‖. The definition convenience sampling by Price (2013) is as below:. ―…any data that is neither a complete enumeration of all the possible data—a census—nor a careful, scientific sample.‖ 37. MBA THESIS. Further, by Black (2010) as below:.

(49) respondent for their research. Blackstone (2012) mentioned on this sampling as follow:. ―To draw a convenience sample, a researcher simply collects data from those people or other relevant elements to which he or she has most convenient access.‖. The examples of this sampling are reporter interview publics for information and a student uses his or her classmates in a research to be the respondents. Purposive is when researcher seeks out elements that meet specific criteria and applicable for qualitative method. Snowball is researcher relies on participant referrals to recruit new participants and applicable for qualitative research also. Quota is researcher selects cases from within several different subgroups and applicable for qualitative and quantitative research. Lastly, convenience make researcher gathers data from whatever cases happen to be convenient and applicable for qualitative and quantitative research.. 38. MBA THESIS. Using this sample, the researcher will make the easy access the.

(50) Secondary Data. Data collected that has been gathered (primary data) before this will be reviewed by one or more persons who collecting the data. Secondary data is always used in social and economic analysis, mostly when reaching to primary data is unreachable. For example, a survey of a group of economists (primary data) cannot be repetitive, so its results are used in subsequent research projects. If the data have been collected by already available source of information such as newspapers, television commercials or any other institute that has gathered data for their purposes, then those will be secondary data to the researcher or investigator. Furthermore, the sources that give the secondary data might have collected the data for the owner‟s specific purposes. These data may not have been tailored according to the purpose of the researcher. In fact, the secondary data have not been gathered with the objective of accomplishing the interest of the researcher but of the other data owners. Therefore, obviously it is clear that these secondary data for the researcher might be the primary data for the owner of the source of information. It is very interesting to know that primary data can be converted into secondary data by performing statistical operation on the primary data. In this specific case, primary data, which had been gathered by the researcher, 39. MBA THESIS. 3.3.2.

(51) intended purposes. In this manner, he is not using the original primary data, as they were, but edited data. It is very clear, that the original primary data become secondary data for the owner after operating the statistical techniques. By using the secondary data, costs can be eliminated. Apart from the information gathered by the media, the secondary data can also be gained from the information recorded in the interview or surveys. According to Prathamesh Parab (2013), defined that secondary data is:. ―Data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other than the current project. It is also data that has been collected for another purpose. It involves less cost, time and effort. Secondary data is data is being reused and usually in a different context.‖. The advantages of primary data are it is easy to access, low cost to acquire, clarification of research question and it is also may answer research question. According to Tran Thi (2013), stated that:. 40. MBA THESIS. have been changed so that he can use the edited data right away for his.

(52) recorded by someone else and readily available from other sources‖.. According to Vartanian (2010) analysis of secondary data, where. ―secondary data can include any data that are examined to answer a research question other that the questions for which the data were originally collected‖. According to Pamela E. W. (2010), details out that:. ―Secondary data analysis can be useful for researchers and is defined as further analysis of an existing dataset to address a different research question or to conduct research with data that was not collected for research purposes. These types of analyses usually uncover aspects of a research study that need further elaboration, either revisiting the research question, hypothesis, or measurements used that may need further exploration‖.. 41. MBA THESIS. ―Secondary data is the data that have been already collected and.

(53) external data. Internal data is information that is complete to use and needs advance. processing.. While. external. data. is. published. materials,. computerized data bases and syndicated services. The researchers chose to use primary and secondary data in producing this study. Primary data is used when seeking information about industry batik from batik entrepreneurs who also a batik craftsman which is the respondents. While secondary data obtained from previous studies, journals, newspapers and books to obtain literature review for more supporting and strengthen the research.. 3.4. Data Processing in Qualitative Research. In general, how we progress and examine data in a qualitative study on how we plan the strategies and interrelate the findings. Generally, there are three ways in which we can clarify our findings in qualitative research. As mentioned by Kumar (2014):. 1) Developing a narrative to describe a situation, episode, event or instance. 42. MBA THESIS. There are two sources of secondary data which are internal data and.

(54) transcription of your-in-depth interviews and writing about them, quoting extensively verbatim; and 3) In addition to (2) above, also quantifying by indicating their frequency of occurrence, the main themes in order to provide their prevalence.. Editing, as implied for quantitative studies, is however unsuitable and inappropriate for qualitative research. For that, there is a technique to assure whether we are precisely reflecting the situation or not; and that is by transliterating or transcribing the interviews or observational notes and share them with the respondents for confirmation and approval. Such confirmation and validation from the respondents is known as a very conclusive aspect to verify that the data collected is accurate and reliable. On the other hand Kumar (2014) also stated:. ―For writing in narrative form there is no analysis per se; however, you need to think through the sequence in which you need or want to narrate. For the other ways of writing about findings, you need to go through content analysis…‖.. Content analysis means investigative the content of interviews or observational field notes in order to recognise the main themes that arise from the 43. MBA THESIS. 2) Identifying main themes that emerge from your field notes or.

(55) This process involves a number of steps. According to Kumar (2014) firstly identify the main themes. Researcher need to carefully go through descriptive responses given by the respondents to each question in order to understand the meaning they communicate. From these responses, researcher can develop broad themes to reflect these meanings. After that assign codes to the main themes. Whether or not researcher assigns a code to a main theme is dependent upon whether or not researcher wants to count the number of times a theme has occurred in an interview. Next, classify responses under the main themes. Go through the transcripts of all interviews or notes and classify the responses or contents of the notes under different themes. Lastly, integrate themes and responses into the text of researcher report. Use verbatim responses to keep the „feel‟ of the responses, or count how frequently a theme has occurred, and then provide a sample of the responses.. 3.5. Data Analysis. In research, researcher will refer to the two methods which are deductive approach and inductive approach. Inductive and deductive approaches to research are very unique, yet they can be complimentary. The purpose of data analysis is to bring order to the data. Data analysis is a continuing action, which answer. 44. MBA THESIS. responses given by our respondents or the observational notes made by hearsay..

(56) information. The uses of such techniques will help researcher in testing the hypothesis. These two methods have a very different technique when researching doing the research. Inductive is more to open ended and experimental especially at the starting of the research. While deductive is more narrow and also focus with testing or confirming hypotheses.. Research Types. Deductive Approach. Inductive Approach. Quantitative. Qualitative. Figure 3.5: Types of research. 3.5.1. Deductive Research Approach. Creswell and Plano Clark (2007) mentioned the deductive researcher: 45. MBA THESIS. researcher question and objective as well gives researchers the headings for future.

(57) add to or contradict the theory‖ (p.23).. Deductive research approach works from the more general which is theory in general but will become to be more specific in confirmation whether to reject or confirm the research. Sometimes this is informally called a top-down approach. Deductive research approach always is used in quantitative research. This approach will convert data into information and knowledge and explore the relationship between variables.. Figure 3.5.1: Deductive Research Approach. 46. MBA THESIS. ―works from the ‗top down‘, from a theory to hypotheses to data to.

(58) approach process. Starting from theory and then make a hypothesis, doing observation and lastly confirmation based on the theory earlier. Researchers might begin to think about the interest or what they want to research. Next, researcher will narrow it down into specific hypothesis that can be investigated. A deductive way always deal with research is the one that individuals regularly connect with scientific investigation. The researcher thinks about what others have done and read existing theories of many phenomenon them studying. Observation will be made in this process to know the theory is same with the researcher study. Finally, researcher tests the hypothesis with specific data whether it is parallel with the theories that arise before and lead into the answer whether the research can be accepted or not.. 3.5.2. Inductive Research Approach. Inductive research approach works from the other technique of deductive research approach. From detailed observations to bigger broad view and theories and it is using in qualitative research. In inductive reasoning, researcher begin with precise observations and measures, starting to discover patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses. 47. MBA THESIS. Based on the picture above, this is how exactly deductive research.

(59) conclusions or theories.. Figure 3.5.2: Inductive Research Approach. Based on the picture above, this approach also known as bottom up approach or hill climbing approach. This approach begins with the specific to the general. Creswell and Plano Clark (2007) mentioned the inductive researcher as. ―someone who works from the ―bottom-up, using the participants‘ views to build broader themes and generate a theory interconnecting the themes‖ (p. 23).. 48. MBA THESIS. that researcher can explore, and finally end up developing some general.

(60) on that study to understand themes and nature of the research. From the theme researcher can generate the theory. Relationship between respondent and the researcher is very important to understand the study. From being specific into general, this will allows the researcher results clue to general conclusions or theories. So themes is very important in inductive research because it will lead the research to the study related otherwise it will maneuverer around and can be too general without researcher understand their study or field. In this research researcher using inductive approach whereby need a qualitative method as way to make a research.. 3.6. Data Validation. . Triangulation. Triangulation contains consuming various information sources in an examination to make understanding. Some view said triangulation can be a strategy for confirming findings and as a test for validity. The present substantial dependence on triangulation in allows an application confirms both to the respect agreed to this idea and to its apparent incentive in showing thoroughness. Triangulation addresses the issue of inner authority by using more than one strategy for information collecting to answer an investigation address. On a basic level, it 49. MBA THESIS. Inductive approach is using respondent views which are from expert.

(61) or center gatherings so as to get a more broad view.. Notwithstanding, triangulation is tough to perform rightfully: information collected using distinctive strategies come in numerous structures and challenges coordinate examination. This is valid for several sorts of subjective information, for example, meeting and center gathering transcripts, and also for the more clear contrasts amongst subjective and quantitative information. The making of comparable discoveries from various methods just gives approval or consolation; the nonappearance of comparative discoveries does not, in any case, give grounds to invalidation. According to Popay J. et al. stated;. ―Triangulation relies on the notion of a fixed point, or superior explanation, against which other interpretations can be measured. Qualitative research, however, is usually carried out from a relativist perspective, which acknowledges the existence of multiple views of equal validity‖.. While Richardson said;. ―That it is more helpful to conceive of complementary rather than competing perspectives and offers the term ―crystallization‖ as an alternative to triangulation‖.. 50. MBA THESIS. sounds famously reasonable to join, say, observational hands on work and meetings.

(62) scientific capability of exemptions, permits an examination question to be analyzed from different edges. As Mays and Pope said;. ―Comprehensiveness may be a more realistic goal for qualitative research t han is internal validity.”. As shown by this approach, clear irregularities (or special cases) don't symbolize a threat to analysts' explanations; they only give encourage expansion to filtering theories. Therefore, rather than viewing triangulation to be a strategy for approval or check, qualitative researcher for the most part use this system to assurance that a record is rich, robust, comprehensive and all around created. This is because a single method cannot be clarified by the light of a phenomenon. But it is not the same if researcher uses a variety of methods which can help encourage understanding more clearly and totally. This is clarified by Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) which divides 4 types to make a triangulation.. i.. Methods triangulation - looking at the consistency of discoveries produced by various information accumulation techniques.. 51. MBA THESIS. Qualitative research, with its particular way to deal with outfitting the.

(63) It is regular to have subjective and quantitative information in a review.. . These illustrate corresponding parts of a similar wonder.. . Often the focuses were these information separate are of awesome enthusiasm to the qualitative analyst and give the most bits of knowledge.. ii.. Triangulation of sources - looking at the consistency of various information sources from inside a similar technique. For instance:. iii.. . At diverse focuses in time.. . In open versus private settings.. . Comparing individuals with various view focuses.. Analyst Triangulation - utilizing different investigator to survey discoveries or utilizing various onlookers and experts. . This can give a beware of particular observation and light up blind sides in an interpretive examination.. . The objective is not to look for agreement, but rather to comprehend various methods for seeing the information.. iv.. Theory/viewpoint triangulation - utilizing numerous hypothetical points of view to look at and translate the information.. 52. MBA THESIS. .

(64) Member Check. This is when information, diagnostic classes, understandings and conclusions are attempted with individuals from those collected from whom the information were originally obtained. This should be possible both formally and casually as open doors for part checks may arise in the midst the usual course of perception and discussion. Normally, part checking is understood as a technique for setting up to the rightfulness of a record. Lincoln and Guba (1985) set this is the most vital strategy for building up validity.. “Qualitative researchers who frame their studies in an interpretive paradigm focus on trustworthiness as opposed to the conventional, positivistic criteria of internal and external validity, reliability, and objectivity‖.. Positive parts of member checking are giving the chance to understand and measure any move made by part. Giving open doors additionally to right blunders and testing is viewed as one of the understanding of individuals. Likewise, gives the chance to volunteer extra data which might be animated by playing back the procedure. Along these lines, it give open door for early acknowledgment and give plan speaker chances to surveying the sufficiency of information and preparatory 53. MBA THESIS. .

(65) method is questionable because of the problems that may occur as stated by Morse (1994), Angen (2000) and Sandelowski (1993) that suggest an inclusive significant of the use of member checks for establishing the validity of qualitative research.. “Member checking relies on the assumption that there is a fixed truth of reality that can be accounted for by a researcher and confirmed by a respondent‖.. This is because, in terms of interpretive perspective, perception is created and there is no objective truth or the reality of the results that can be compared. This problem also leads to confusion rather than confirmation because respondents may change their mind about an issue that affects the study originally assessed during the interview and also a new experience that can be disturbing. In addition, another problem will arise on how member checking are such members are not coherent in giving the same data, the members are not in the best position to examine the data for which they have forgotten what was said, and members may not agree with the interpretation of researchers led it to become an issue.. 54. MBA THESIS. choice to confirm certain parts of determination. However, be that as it may, this.

(66) Audit. Outside reviews include having an analyst not included in the examination procedure analyze both the procedure and result of the exploration think about. The design is to assess the precision and assess regardless of whether the discoveries, elucidations and conclusions are upheld by the information. External audit give a chance to an untouchable to challenge the procedure and discoveries of an examination contemplate. This can give a chance to abridge preparatory discoveries and furthermore give a chance to evaluate ampleness of information and preparatory outcomes. Adjacent to that it gives an imperative input that can prompt extra information gathering and the improvement of more grounded and better verbalized discoveries. However, external audit share a heavy portion of an indistinguishable issues from members checking. External auditing is influenced by the assumption that there is a settled truth or reality that can be symbolized by an analyst and confirmed by an outside reviewer. An external audit can't know the data and additionally researcher immersed in the review and may not have a comparable point of view. This may prompt distinctive understandings of the information. Additionally, how to deal with these distinctive methods contrast with researchers' understandings. At that point the subject of whose translation should stand transforms into an issue.. 55. MBA THESIS. .

(67) researcher interviewed the expert itself so researcher got an answer from expertise and of course it is true.. 56. MBA THESIS. So, researcher chose triangulation because is more valid. It is because.

(68) FINDING. 4.1. Introduction. This chapter describes the information that has been obtained by researcher through interview the respondents (R) that have an expertise in the batik industry. Experts who were interviewed were from among entrepreneurs and they also a batik craftsman that has batik business along Pantai Cahaya Bulan.. 4.2. Batik Commercial. Batik commercial is a modern batik that has innovated or changed a little in terms of designs either colour or material. Among commercial batik is digital silk batik has been mentioned to the public nowadays. Digital silk batik is produced by using a computer and high-quality printing machine. Batik craftsman will sketch their ideas on the computer. All the sketches can be changed at any time, and then it will make it easier for batik craftsman to work. Then there are sketches that will be put into high-quality printer. As a result is a sketch of batik in the computer will be produced same as at a fabric which has been printed before. 57. MBA THESIS. CHAPTER 4.

(69) Design. The first question asked by the researcher is about the design that resulting in the digital batik. How is batik craftsman distinguishing design for digital batik and traditional batik? The answers given by respondents about the same, and they agreed that the resulting pattern of digital silk batik more too modern twist.. "Most of the design that has on digital batik is a more too modern pattern that has interest and demand by the dignitaries. This is because the design looks more modern and sophisticated "(R1). "Design on digital batik is usually more to abstract patterns, stripes and geometry" (R4). "Design more fresher highlighted so that people do not even bored even we follow the times and demand from customers. Customers are satisfied and happy with the latest design so we just followed their wishes. "(R5). 58. MBA THESIS. 4.2.1.

(70) pattern and more sophisticated. Along with the passage of time with more advanced most of customers want a bolder design and unique in their use of apparel.. 4.2.2. Colour. The second question about the user‟s choice of colour in the selection of batik commercial. How they focus the choice of colours on digital silk batik or same too traditional batik.. ―For us digital silk batik colour more to soft colours.‖ (R2). ―In the colour selection we have made a survey that customers prefer more too earthy colour, soft blue, khakis, mint green and tiffany blue. These warm colours are in trend and used by international fashion designers.‖ (R3). 59. MBA THESIS. All respondents agreed that pattern on commercial batik is a fresh.

(71) colours and more to earth tones such as green leaves, blue sea and brown ground.. 4.2.3. Fabric. The third question relates to the fabric used for digital silk batik. Fabric is the material used must comply with the heat from the printer and resistant. It is because the appropriate fabric is necessary so that colours are pasted on the fabric must be the same in the computer and long-lasting and not easily fade.. ―The materials we use are mostly from the jacquard, crepe and cotton type. Such material is also suitable for traditional batik but this material is more resilient to the heat of the printer which is for digital silk batik.‖ (R2). ―We always make silk fabric as an option for digital silk batik. Although the price for white silk fabrics is quite expensive but silk fabric has a high value as well as multiple layers of colour would look good on silk fabric.‖ (R5) 60. MBA THESIS. Respondents agree that highlighted colour for digital silk batik is soft.

(72) not only concerned about profits. This will make the batik value that they produce is high and competitive with batik producers from other countries such as China and Indonesia. Even the fabric used must also be in line with Malaysia's weather that is always hot and rainy throughout the year.. 4.3. Technology Influence. The influence of technology is important in the production of digital silk batik. This is because the existence of digital silk batik may have printer‟s technology and computer that can make a product.. 4.3.1. Fashion Trend. Fashion trend nowadays is growing due to demand from consumers who want variety and minimalist style yet sophisticated. Most users are not just wear batik for formal occasion batik but also for casual events.. 61. MBA THESIS. Respondents felt a craftsman need to identify the value of batik and.

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