### MATHEMATICS ANXIETY AND TEACHING STYLES AMONG MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN PUBLIC

### SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN PADANG WEST SUMATERA INDONESIA

### BY

### WELA HASMAIDA

### A dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master ofEducation

### Kulliyyahof Education

### International Islamic University Malaysia

### SEPTEMBER 2016

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**ABSTRACT **

Mathematics anxiety is like a cycle (Puteh, 2002). Teachers who had bad experiences with their mathematics teachers in the past might influence their current students in learning mathematics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematics anxiety and teaching styles among mathematics teachers in Public Senior High Schools in Padang, West Sumatera Indonesia. Besides, this study aims to indentify the level of mathematics anxiety among mathematics teachers, to investigate variation of mathematics teachers‘ level of mathematics anxiety based on their gender, age, and number of years of teaching experiences. The quantitative method is used. Two sets of questionnaire are distributed to 102 mathematics teachers who are teaching in Public Senior High Schools in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia.

The data is analyzed using the descriptive, independent t-test analysis, one-way ANOVA, and Chi-square. The findings from the study show that mathematics teachers of Public Senior High Schools in Padang experience low level of mathematics anxiety and there is no significant mean difference in mathematics teachers‘ level of mathematics anxiety with regards to gender, age, and number of years of teaching experiences. In addition, there is no relationship between mathematics anxiety and teaching styles. High level of mathematics anxiety will prevent the mathematics teachers to use teacher-centered approach in teaching process (Hembre, 1990).

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**ثحبلا ةصلاخ**

### ةرئادلا لثم تايضايرلا ةدام ونح قلقلا برتعي

(Puteh, 2002)

### براتج مهيدل نيذلا نوملعلما .

### هذه فدته .ددلجا ةبلطلل تايضايرلا ميلعت في نورثؤي ابمرمهيملعم عم يضالما في ةئيس يملعم ىدل ميلعتلا طانمأو تايضايرلا ةدام ونح قلقلا ينب ةقلاعلا نع فشكلا لىإ ةساردلا نإ ةيبرغلا ةرطموس ،جناداب في ةماعلا ةيوناثلا سرادلما في تايضايرلا انهأ لىإ ةفاضلإاب .ايسينود

### ةفرعمو ،تايضايرلا يملعم ىدل تايضايرلا ةدام ونح قلقلا ىوتسم ةفرعم لىإ فدته تمو .ةيميلعتلا ةبرلخا تاونسو ،نسلاو ،سنلجا يرغتم بسح قلقلا اذه ىوتسم فلاتخا لىإ تانايبتسلاا نم ينتعوممج عيزوت تم دقو .ةساردلا هذله يمكلا جهنلما مادختسا 201

### نم

### ليلتح تمو .ايسينودنإ ةيبرغلا ةرطموس ،جناداب في ةماعلا ةيوناثلا سرادلما في تايضايرلا يملعم و ،يداحلأا افونأ ليلتحو ،لقتسلما ت رابتخاو ،يفصولا ليلحتلا مادختساب تانايبلا

Chi-

square

### جناداب في ةماعلا ةيوناثلا سرادلما في تايضايرلا يلمعم نأ ثحبلا جئاتن ترهظأو . ونح ةيئاصحإ ةللاد تاذ قورف دجوت لاو تايضايرلا ةدام ونح نيدتم قلق ىوتسم مهيدل .ةيميلعتلا ةبرلخا تاونسو،نسلاو ،سنلجا يرغتم بسح تايضايرلا ةدام ونح قلقلا ىوتسم .ميلعتلا طانمأو تايضايرلا ةدام ونح قلقلا ينب ةقلاع كانه تسيل ،كلذ لىإ ةفاضلإاب قلقلل لياعلا ىوتسلماو لخدم مادختسلا تايضايرلا يملعم عنيم فوس تايضايرلا ةدام ونح

### ةيميلعتلا ةيلمعلا في ملعلما ةيزكرم (

Hembre, 1990### )

### .

**ABSTRACT IN ARABIC**

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**APPROVAL PAGE **

I certify that I have supervised and read this study and that in my opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Master of Education.

………..

Joharry Othman Supervisor

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Master of Education.

………..

NikSuryaniNik AbdulRahman Examiner

This dissertation was submitted to the Department of Educational Psychology and is accepted as a fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Education.

………..

Joharry Othman

Head, Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling

This dissertation was submitted to the Kulliyyah of Education and is accepted as a fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Education.

………..

Nik Ahmad Hisham Ismail Dean, Kulliyyah of Education

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**DECLARATION **

I hereby declare that this thesis is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degree at IIUM or other institutions.

.

WelaHasmaida

Signature ...Date ...

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**INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA **

**DECLARATION OF COPYRIGHT AND AFFIRMATION OF ** **FAIR USE OF UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH **

**MATHEMATICS ANXIETY AND TEACHING STYLES ** **AMONG MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN PUBLIC SENIOR **

**HIGH SCHOOLS IN PADANG WEST SUMATERA ** **INDONESIA**

I declare that the copyright holders of this dissertation are jointly owned by the student and IIUM

Copyright © 2016 by WelaHasmaidaand International Islamic University Malaysia.

All rights reserved.

No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below

1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgement.

2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.

3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.

By signing this form, I acknowledged that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Right and Commercialization policy

Affirmed by WelaHasmaida

……..……….. ………..

Signature Date

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*“Do not be troubled by your difficulties with mathematics, *
*I can assure you mine aremuch greater” *

*Albert Einstein. *

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**ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS **

In the name of Allah, the most Gracious and the most Merciful. I thank the Almighty
of Allah for His omnipotence and never ending watch and grant *hidayah over me. *

Thanks for His merciful protection and for being the ultimate source of energy and strength needed to pursue my dream of completing the study in Educational Psychology. Alhamdulillah.

The first person I would like to express my infinite gratitude, respect, and appreciation is my caring supervisor Assoc. Prof. Dr. Joharry Othman for his dedication, patience, full support, commitment and cooperation for sharing his knowledge, experiences, wisdom and professional advice in seeing to the success of this study. A million of thanks to him.

A special gratitude goes to all of my friends, for their encouragement, support, assistance, and advise during my study. There are also others who I did not mention but I will never forget their help and memories that we have shared. I pray that Allah will return their kindness.

Finally, I would like to express special thanks to my beloved family, my brother and sister, who always love me, support me and stand by me and my beloved parents HasanBasri and Rostati for their caring and support. They always give me strength by teaching me good things and giving me moral support. I have a deep sense of gratitude to both of them for believing in me that I can complete this study.

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**TABLE OF CONTENTS **

Abstract ... ii

Abstract in Arabic ... iii

Approval Page ... iv

Declaration ... iv

Copyright Page ... vi

Acknowledgements ... viii

List of Tables ... xi

List of Figures ... xii

**CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ... 1**

1.1 Background of the Study ... 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem... 4

1.3 Research Objectives... 5

1.4 Research Questions ... 5

1.5 Significance of the Study ... 6

1.6Delimitations of the Study ... 6

1.7 Conceptual framwork ... 7

1.8 Definitions of Terms ... 8

1.9 Summary ... 9

**CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ... 10**

2.1 Introduction... 10

2.2 Public Senior High School in Indonesia ... 10

2.3 Mathematics teachers... 10

2.4 Mathematics Anxiety ... 12

2.4.1 Mathematics Anxiety among Teachers ... 14

2.4.2 Measuring Mathematics Anxiety ... 16

2.5 Teaching Styles ... 18

2.5.1 Teacher-centered ... 19

2.5.2 Student-centered ... 20

2.5.3 Teacher-Centered VS. Student-centered ... 21

2.5.4 Measuring Teaching Styles... 23

2.6 Mathematics Anxiety and Teaching Styles ... 24

2.7 Summary ... 25

**CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 27**

3.1 Introduction... 27

3.2 Research Design ... 27

3.3 Population of the Study ... 27

3.4 Census Design ... 29

3.5 Instrumentation ... 29

3.6 Pilot Study ... 31

3.7 Establishing the Validity of the Instrument ... 31

3.8 Establishing the Reliability of the Instrument ... 32

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3.9 Data collection procedure ... 33

3.10 Data Analysis ... 33

3.11 Summary ... 33

**CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS ... 35**

4.1 Introduction... 35

4.2 Demographic Information ... 35

4.3 Statistical Analysis... 37

4.3.1 Research Question 1: What is the level of mathematics anxiety among mathematics teachers in public Senior High Schools in Padang, West Sumatera? ... 37

4.3.2 Research question 2: Is there any significant difference between mathematics anxiety and mathematics teachers variable with regards to gender, age and number of years of teaching experience? ... 39

4.3.3 Research Question 3: Is there any relationship between mathematics anxiety and teaching style in public senior high schools in Padang, West Sumatera? ... 41

4.4 Summary ... 42

**CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 44**

5.1 Introduction... 44

5.2 Discussion of findings ... 44

5.2.1 The level of mathematics anxiety among mathematics teachers ... 44

5.2.2 Mathematics anxiety and mathematics teachers variables with regards to gender, age and number of years of teaching experience ... 45

5.2.3 The relationship between mathematics anxiety and teaching styles among mathematics teachers ... 46

5.3 Conclusion ... 47

5.4 Recommendation ... 48

**BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 50 **

**APPENDIX I: QUESTIONNAIRE (ENGLISH LANGUAGE) ... 55 **

**APPENDIX II: QUESTIONNAIRE (INDONESIAN LANGUAGE) ... 57 **

**APPENDIX III: LETTER ... 59 **

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**LIST OF TABLES **

Table No. Page No.

3.1 The total population of mathematics teachers in Padang (2015) West

Sumatera, Indonesia 28

3.2 Mathematics anxiety scores 30

3.3 Teaching Styles Scores 31

4.1 Respondent based on gender 36

4.2 Respondent based on age 36

4.3 Respondent based on number of years of teaching Experiences 37 4.4 Descriptive statistics on mathematics anxiety among mathematics

teachers 38

4.5 The level of mathematics anxiety 38

4.6 Mean score mathematics anxiety between male and female 39

4.7 Descriptive Analysis: Age by MARS mean score 39

4.8 Descriptive Analysis: number of years of teaching experiences by

MARS mean score 40

4.9 Analysis of variance ANOVA 41

4.10 Mathematics anxiety and teaching styles 42

4.11 Chi-square test: mathematics anxiety and teaching styles 42

4.12 Summary of the findings 43

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**LIST OF FIGURES **

Figure No. Page No.

1.1 Mathematics Anxiety Cycle 2

1.2 Conceptual Framework of The Study 7

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**CHAPTER ONE** **INTRODUCTION**

**1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY **

The National Education System in Indonesia, under the Republic Act No. 20, 2003, Section 37, states that mathematics is one of the compulsory subjects for students in elementary and secondary levels of education. Mathematics plays an essential role in our lives. We encounter a variety of information and ideas that are conveyed through mathematical languages. However, based on the result of Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) performance, the interest of students towards mathematics in Indonesia is low. In 2012, Indonesia ranked number 64 out of 65 countries. In addition, many students failed in mathematics in the National Examination (UjianNasional). It implies that students have difficulties in learning mathematics.

Difficulties in learning mathematics raise the students‘ anxiety level toward this subject because they tend to think that mathematics is difficult to learn. Mathematics is considered to be the scourge for students which causes anxiety when dealing it.

Even though there are students who can easily understand teachers‘ explanation in mathematics, most of the students feel stressful and anxious toward this subject. As a result, excessive anxiety may lead to reducing effectiveness of students‘ performance in the classroom.

The anxious tendency towards learning mathematics is known as Mathematics Anxiety. It is defined as the feeling of tension, helplessness, mental disorganization and dread that one has when he or she is required to manipulate numbers or shapes and to solve mathematical problems (Ashcraft & Faust, 1994). Not only students who

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face mathematics anxiety, teachers can also experience similar problem (McAnnalens, 2010). Haycock (2001) found evidences that many pre-service, primary, and early childhood teachers have anxiety about mathematics.

Teachers have a big influence on their students‘ interests in learning mathematics. According to Smith (2004), teachers‘ practices in the classroom might lead students to dislike mathematics. Unfortunately, mathematics anxiety is like a cycle. Teachers who had bad experiences with their mathematics teachers in the past might influence their current students in learning mathematics. Teachers can transfer their own experience in learning mathematics toward their students.

Figure 1.1 Mathematics Anxiety Cycle

Puteh (2002) argues that mathematics anxiety in students is caused by teachers‘

personalities and their styles of teaching. Most of the students have mathematics anxiety because their teacher cannot teach well or fail to teach well. They also think that most of their mathematics teachers are strict and demanding. McNaught (2007) states that a good teacher is a teacher who is able to create a good learning environment for students where students will have high expectations and positive thinking about what they are learning. A good mathematics teacher also has a

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cooperative attitude and is able to create a learning culture to encourage students in learning mathematics.

Some researchers have proposed that mathematics anxiety may stem from teaching methods that are conventional and rule bound (Tobias, 1993). The development of mathematics learning in Indonesia is very alarming. Most mathematic teachers are still using outdated textbooks that are not relevant to present day students‘

daily lives anymore. In addition, mathematics is taught in abstract form while neglecting students‘ abilities to think properly. In order to optimize the potential of students in learning mathematics, teachers should apply various methods and different strategies in the classroom. Teachers‘ efforts in accommodating different learning styles in teaching mathematics is also an important step towards better students performance. For that reason, teachers should be able to choose suitable learning strategies based on different students‘ learning models in order to achieve meaningful active learning environment in teaching mathematics.

Currently, teaching paradigm has shifted from teacher-centered to student- centered. It is believed that learning will be more meaningful if it is focused more on the learners rather than the teachers. On the contrary, in student-centered learning environment, teachers act as facilitators who encourage students to build their own understanding. In order for student-centered approach to be successful, teachers have to move emphasis on the student rather than focusing on the content that is covered.

Hence, presently teachers should promote a more active and creative learning environment since they are not the only source of knowledge for students anymore.

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**1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM **

Researches show that everyone has mathematics anxiety including adults (Perry, 2004). Pre-service teachers in the USA and Australia, for example, experienced higher levels of mathematics anxiety than otheruniversity undergraduate students (Gresham, 2007). According to Swars et al. (2007), the incidence of mathematics anxiety is significantly higher among elementary years education or early years education students. Research has also shown that females have greater anxiety compared to male counterparts (Bowd& Brady, 2003).

As mentioned above, teachers who have mathematics anxiety might influence students to be anxious in the process of teaching and learning. Sloan (2010) and Vinson (2001) believe that teachers who have higher levels of anxiety may inadvertently transfer their negative feelings, avoidance and fear of mathematics to students since anxiety is related to the way teachers teach mathematics. Besides that, mathematics anxiety had a statistically significant effect on mathematics teachinganxiety (Haciomeroglu, 2014).

Teaching mathematics emphasizes the process of thinking. However, the teaching and learning practice in Indonesia is still monotonous and teacher-centered.

Students have mathematics anxiety, thus teachers should develop various styles and learning strategies in teaching mathematics (Sutter, 2006). Even though students face difficulties in learning mathematics, teachers can motivate them through fun and creative classroom activities.

From the explanation above, researchers in mathematics anxiety and teaching style among mathematics teachers in Indonesia, especially in Padang, West Sumatera, are still limited. Even though mathematics anxiety is quite common among Indonesian students, but most of the previous researches are focused more on students‘

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achievement, performance and attitude. Hence, in this study, the researcher will study mathematics anxiety as a variable among mathematic teachers in public senior high schools in Padang, West Sumatera. Additionally, the researcher will look at possible relationship between mathematics anxiety and teaching styles among mathematics teachers in the schools.

**1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES **
This study has three main objectives:

1. To identify the level of mathematics anxiety among mathematics teachers in Public Senior High Schools in Padang, West Sumatera.

2. To investigate the difference between mathematics anxiety and mathematics teachers variables with regards to gender, age and number of years of teaching experience.

3. To investigate the relationship between mathematics anxiety and teaching styles in Public Senior High Schools in Padang, West Sumatera.

**1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS **

Based on the objectives above-mentioned, there are three research questions that guided this study:

1. What is the level of mathematics anxiety among mathematics teachers in Public Senior High Schools in Padang, West Sumatera?

2. Is there any significant difference between mathematics anxiety and mathematics teachers variables with regards to gender, age and number of years of teaching experience?

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3. Is there any relationship between mathematics anxiety and teaching styles In Public Senior High Schools in Padang, West Sumatera?

**1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY **

The results of this study are expected to provide input and contribute to the development of psychology, particularly the psychology of education, especially with regard to mathematics anxiety among mathematics teachers. In particular, this study aims to identify the level of mathematics anxiety among mathematics teachers in public seniors high schools in Padang, West Sumatera. Other than that, the results of this study will focus on the possible differences in mathematics anxiety among mathematics teachers across gender, age and number of years of teaching experiences.

In addition, this study will investigate the relationship between mathematics anxiety and teaching style among mathematic teachers in public seniors high schools in Padang, West Sumatera. The results of this study are also expected to provide useful information specifically to parents, school counselors, teachers and the entire community in order to provide better awareness and understanding related to mathematics. Thus, with this study, mathematic teachers will be able to develop suitable approaches and skills to control their anxiety and to increase their effectiveness in teaching mathematics. When their anxiety of mathematics is decreased, it is expected that students‘ performance will be improved.

**1.6DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY **

As one of delimitations, this study does not include the whole population of mathematic teachers in Padang, West Sumatera. Due to time limitation and other constrains, this research focuses on mathematic teachers who are teaching in public

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senior high schools. Only 16 public senior high schools were involved. Therefore, the result of the study may not be generalizable to the whole population of mathematics teachers in Padang.

**1.7 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK **

This study focuses on the mathematics anxiety among mathematics teachers and its relationship with teachers‘ teaching styles. Mathematics anxiety is like a vicious cycle (Puteh,2002). Mathematics anxiety does not always exist among students. Teachers have mathematics anxiety too, the students have mathematics anxiety because of their teachers. High level of mathematics anxiety among mathematics teachers can effect their student. One of causes of mathematics anxiety is teachers‘ teaching styles.

Teacher with high level of mathematics anxiety will use teacher-centered as their styles in teaching (Puteh,2002). This definition of general concept is only a starting point, the future description will be explained in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.2 Conceptual Framework of the Study

**Mathematics ** **Anxiety **

**Teaching ** **Styles **

High Mathematics Anxiety

Low Mathematics Anxiety

Teacher-centered

Student-centered

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**1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS **

**Mathematics **

Mathematics is the science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and arrangement. Mathematics is all around us, in everything we do. It is the building block for everything in our daily lives, including mobile devices, architecture (ancient and modern), art, money, engineering, and even sports

**Mathematics anxiety **

A feeling of apprehension that one experiences ―whenever one has to complete a task that involves mathematics‖ (Barnes & McCoy, 2006, p. 13).

**Mathematics anxiety rating scale-Short version (MARS) **

An instrument that measures mathematics anxiety related to mathematical concepts and the manipulation of numbers (Suinn, 1972).

**Teaching style **

Gregorc (1979)indicates that a teaching style ―consists of a teacher‘s personal behaviors and the media usedto transmit data to or receive it from the learner.

**Teaching Style Assessment Scale **

Teaching Style Assessment Scale (TSAS) is an instrument to determine what kind of styles teachers used in teaching. TSAS not only provides an overall score that indicates how teachers relate to the concepts in the adult education literature base, but it also provides five factor scores that identify specific classroom behaviors that make up this style. By critically analyzing their responses to each item in each of the factors,

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teachers can reflect upon their classroom actions related to that style and upon consistency in their style.

**1.8 SUMMARY **

Mathematic anxiety is a feeling of tension and that interfere with the manipulation of mathematical problems (Richardson &Suin, 1972). Teachers who have mathematics anxiety might influence students to be anxious in the process of teaching and learning.

Teaching and learning in Indonesia is still teacher-centered. Objectives of this study are to identify the level of mathematics anxiety among mathematics, to investigate the difference between mathematics anxiety and mathematics teachers variables with regards to gender, age and number of years of teaching experience, and to investigate the relationship between mathematics anxiety and teaching styles in Public Senior High Schools in Padang, West Sumatera. This study focuses on the mathematics anxiety among mathematics teachers and its relationship with teachers‘ teaching styles.

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**CHAPTER TWO ** **LITERATURE REVIEW **

**2.1 INTRODUCTION **

This chapter presents the review of the literature on mathematics anxiety and teaching style among mathematics teachers. It begins with the discussion about Public Senior High Schools in Indonesia, mathematics teachers, mathematics anxiety and teaching styles. Also included in this chapter is the relationship between mathematics anxiety and teaching styles among mathematics teachers.

**2.2 PUBLIC SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN INDONESIA **

Based on the Indonesian Government Regulation 2010, high schools – known as
*SekolahMenengahAtas or SMA for short, is a formal education in Indonesia after *

graduating from secondary school or *SekolahMenengahPertama (SMP). SMA is a *
preparation level of education for students prior to their entrance to university level.

There are two types of SMA or senior high schools: public and private school.

In general, SMA functions as a place to develop values and attitudes, sense of beauty and harmony, knowledge, abilities and skills of students. As the preparation level to higher education, the national education goals of SMA are to promote faith and piety, healthy life, expand knowledge and art, expertise and skills, and to prepare students to be responsible citizens.

**2.3 MATHEMATICS TEACHERS **

Mathematics is one of compulsory subjects that must be taken by every student from elementary to senior high schools. The contents of mathematic subject are designed

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based on the level of students‘ development and interrelated with other subjects.

Mathematics is the study of quantity, structure and change, such as arithmetic, algebra, geometry and analysis, hence most of studentstent to think that mathematics is difficult and they develop a sense of fear towards this particular subject (Sarma&

Ahmed, 2013). In Indonesia, mathematics is considered the most important subject in school, but students consider mathematics as difficult and tedious subject.

In addition, teachers also play a significant role in making the subject of mathematics as fearful to the students. Compared to other subject teachers, mathematic teachers looked like more intimidating to students. They are more likely to give punishment to students if the students are not disciplined. The relationship between teachers and students is important because it will affect the students‘ attitude towards mathematics (Puteh,2002). Teaching is a meaningful, rewarding and stimulating profession (Roffey, 2006), thus they must have competency and their job professionally.

As mentioned earlier, teachers who have negative attitudes toward mathematics, may inadvertently transfer negative feeling and anxiety to their students in learning mathematics (Ma, 1999; Hembree, 1990). On the other hand, when teachers show positive attitudes towards mathematics, it will positively impact students‘ attitudes towards the subject, and increase their beliefs and confidence in learning mathematics (Shields, 2005). Subsequently Mata et al (2012) states that, a positive attitude towards mathematics reflects a positive emotional personality, while a negative attitude towards mathematics relates to a negative emotional personality. In addition, mathematics teachers will get more attention from their students if they care for them. For example, the teacher shows kindness, patience, helpfulness, guiding, and always listen to their students‘ problems about mathematics.Good teachers will let

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their students to learn, succeed and interact at their ability. As Polya (1963) argues, perhaps students who get bored in learning mathematics are due to their teachers attitude and uninterested styles in teaching mathematics.

In Indonesia, all teachers must have competency in teaching. The illustrative note to the Teacher and Lecturer Law, and generated by Regulation of Minister of National Education No. 16/2007 about Teacher Academic Qualification and Competency Standard states that there are four key competencies required from teachers, which are professional competence, pedagogical competence, personal competence, and social competence. Based on the four competencies, we can know the quality of a mathematics teacher. Hence, students need competence and professional teachers in learning mathematics. Because of that, a good teacher is needed in mathematics learning.

**2.4 MATHEMATICS ANXIETY **

According to Richardson and Suinn (1972), mathematics anxiety is a feeling of tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of mathematical problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations.Ashcraft et al (1994) add that mathematics anxiety has a negative influence on working memory. Students failed in mathematic examination due to time limitation and not really concern about their understanding of the subject. Students get distressed about the time limit that can be lead to decreasing the quantity of working memory in doing the examination.

Mathematics anxiety has many consequences, such as lack of ability to do mathematics, the declining in mathematics achievement, the avoidance of mathematics subject, and the distaste of students toward mathematics. (Ma &Kishor, 1997; Richardson &Suinn, 1972). Mathematics anxiety is rooted in emotional and