MILLING OF JUTE FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE USING UNCOATED CARBIDE
MIR AKMAM NOOR RASHID
A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science (Manufacturing Engineering)
Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Jute fibre reinforced polymer (JFRP) composite has become a great significance in a scope of applications. JFRP is being used in automotive, aircrafts, aerospace and domestic upholstery in industrial sectors as a result of its desirable properties, such as light weight, improved stiffness and rigidity, low thermal expansion and high chemical resistance. In this study, JFRP has been fabricated in different composition 60/40 and 70/30, by using Bangla Tossa grade one jute fabric and matrix material via hands lay-up technique. Here, jute fabric was used as reinforcement and epoxy used as matrix material, this hands lay-up processed composite plates were tested for mechanical test like tensile test, flexural test, impact test according to the ASTM standards. The machining process is like milling, drilling, turning, slotting which is necessary during the component assembling stage. Actually, various complexities arise during machining of Jute Fibre Reinforced Polymer (JFRP) such as poor surface finish, delamination, and tool wear. Thus, the objectives of this research are to determine the significant cutting parameters on JFRP milling that influence on the tool wear, tool life, surface roughness and delamination factor. Solid uncoated carbide cutting tool with diameter of 8.0 mm has been used in the CNC milling machine. A Central Composite Design (CCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to design the experimental run and to develop the mathematical model based on the collected data. The designed ranges of cutting parameters are spindle speed (671.573-6328.43 rev/min), feed rate (108.58-391.42 mm/min) and depth of cut (0.79-2.21 mm). Analysis of tool wear and surface roughness are conducted using Nikon Measuring Microscope and Veeco Wyko Optical Profiling System Microscope, respectively. In this study, it has been observed that the longest tool life of 41.6 minutes was achieved at lowest feed rate 108.58 mm/min, a cutting speed 3500 rev/min and depth of cut 1.50 mm. The polished and shiny surfaces of the tool wear area which was caused by the abrasive nature of the jute/epoxy composite. Less tool wear was observed at the lowest spindle speed 671.57 rev/min, a feed rate 250 mm/min and depth of cut 1.50 mm. Tool wear increased with the increase of spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Better tool life was obtained at low spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rate. For the measurement of surface roughness, it was observed that the good surface roughness (smoother) achieved at higher spindle speed but became worse with an increasing of feed rate and depth of cut. Higher spindle speed generates the heat between the cutting tool and work piece and burned the pull out fibre which causes less delamination. It was found that higher spindle speed gives lower delamination. Delamination became higher at higher feed rate 391.42 mm/min and depth of cut 2.21 mm. Based on the developed mathematical model, feed rate was identified as the most significant factors for tool life and delamination factor. Depth of cut has an effect on surface roughness but on tool life and delamination have minor effect. The optimized cutting parameter is at spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut of 4293.788 rev/min, feed rate 150 mm/min, and depth of cut 1.0 mm. These conditions yield optimum value of tool life, surface roughness, and delamination factor of 28.525 min, 1.188 µm, and 1.09, respectively.
ةصلاخ ثحبلا C
دقل تحبصأ تابكرملا
ها فايلأب توجلا (JFRP) اهل
ةيمهأ ةريبك يف قاطن ةيسدنهلا تاقيبطتلا .
همادختسأ مت ثيح (
)JFRP عاطق يفو ،ةيئاضفلا تابكرملا ،تارئاطلا ،تارايسلا عطق ضعب ةعانص يف
لثم .تامادختسلأا هذهل ةمئلام صئاصخ نم هل امل ةيلزنملا تاشورفملا ةعانص نزولا تفخ
ددمتلا طيسبلا يرارحلا ةمواقم هلو
ةيئايميك ةيلاع . يف هذه ةساردلا
، مت عينصت ( )JFRP ةبيكرتب ةفلتخم 60 / 40
و 70 / 30
، كلذو مادختساب جيسن
توجلا نم ةجردلا أشنملا يشيدلاقنبلا ىلولأا Bangla Tossa
ربع ةينقت طلخلا يديلأاب . انه
، مت مادختسا شامق
توجلا ةيوقم فايلأك تمدختسأ يسكوبيلإا ةدامو
رابتخا هذه حاوللأا ةبكرملا ةعونصملا لأاب
يدي تارابتخلال ةيكيناكيملا
لثم رابتخا دشلا
، رابتخاو مدصلا اًقفو ريياعمل .ASTM
تايلمع عينصتلا لثم
ةلحرم عيمجت تانوكملا . يف عقاولا
، كانه ديدعلا نم تاديقعتلا يتلا
أشنت ءانثأ عينصت رميلوبلا
ىوقملا فايللأاب ةيتوجلا
( )JFRP لثم حطسلا ةنوشخ
، يلاتلابو .عطقلا تادعم لكأتو
، نإف فادهأ
اذه ثحبلا يه ديدحت تاملعم عطقلا ةماهلا خيلجت يف (
)JFRP يتلا رثؤت ىلع لكآت تاودلأا
، رمعو ةادلأا
لماعمو ةلازإ قيقرتلا . مت مادختسا ةادأ عطقلا يديبركلا رطقب
8.0 ملم يف ةلآ ( خلجلا )CNC . امك
مت جمانرب مادختسا ميمصتلا
)CCD ةقيرطب ( )RSM ميمصتل ليغشتلا يبيرجتلا ريوطتو
ىلإ تانايبلا ةعمجملا . تاقاطنلا ةممصملا
يه ةعرس روحملا ( 671.573 -
/ ةقيقد )
، لدعمو ةيذغتلا ( 108.58-391.42 ملم
/ ةقيقد ) قمعو عطقلا ( 0.79-2.21 ملم
ءارجإ ليلحت ةنوشخ عطقلا تاودأ لكأتو حطسلا مادختساب
رهجم نوكين سايقلل رهجُمو ماظن طيمنتلا يرصبلا
، ىلع يلاوتلا . يف هذه ةساردلا
، ظحول نأ لوطأ رمع عطقلا ةادلأ 41.6
ةقيقد دق مت هقيقحت يف ىندأ
لدعم ةيذغت 108.58 ملم
، ةعرسو عطقلا 3500 ةفل / ةقيقد قمعو عطق 1.50 ملم . حطسلأا ةعملالا
ةلوقصملاو عطقلا ةادأ فاوح ىلع
ينورتكلألا رهجملا تحت ةحضاو تناك (SEM)
يتلا اهتببس ةعيبط فايللأا
توجلا / يسكوبيلاا .
ظحول ضافخنا لكأت
عطقلا ةادأ يف
ىندأ ةعرس روحملل 671.57 ةفل
، لدعمو ةيذغت 250 ملم / ةقيقد قمعو عطق 1.50 ملم . دادزا لكآت تاودلأا عم ةدايز ةعرس روحملا لدعمو
ةيذغتلا قمعو عطقلا . مت لوصحلا ىلع
يليغشت رمع لضفأ عطقلا ةادلأ
ةعرسب نارود قمعو عطق لدعمو ةيذغت
ضفخنم . سايق للاخ نمو ةنوشخ
، ظحول نأ ةنوشخ حطسلا ةديجلا ( رثكأ ةموعن ) دق تققحت دنع ةعرس
روحم ىلعأ اهنكلو تحبصأ أوسأ
عم ةدايز لدعم ةيذغتلا قمعو عطقلا . ةعرس نارود ةيلاعلا دلوت ةرارحلا نيب
ةادأ عطقلا ةعطقو لمعلا اهقرحتو فايللأا جرختو اهناكم نم
يتلاو ببستت يف ةيلمع اهفارطأ لسنت .
حضتأ دقو نأ
ةعرس روحملا ةيلاعلا يطعت لقأ فايللأل لسنت .
حبصيو ليسنتلا ىلعأ عم لدعم ةيذغت ىلعأ 391.42 ملم
قمعو عطق 2.21 ملم . نأ حضتأ يئاصحلأا جمانربلا نم ةيلع لصحتملا يضايرلا جذومنلا ىلع ءانبو لدعم
ةيذغت وه لماعلا رثكلأا ةيمهأ دلأ ةا عطقلا ةادأ رمع لماعو
غيرفتلا . قمع عطقلا هل ىلع ريثأت ةنوشخ
نكلو رمع ىلع عطقلا ةادأ
غيرفتلاو هل ريثأت فيفط . نإ ةملعم عطقلا ىلثملا يه يف ةعرس روحملا
، لدعم ةيذغتلا
قمعو عطقلا نم 4293.788 ةفل
، لدعم ةيذغتلا 150 ملم / ةقيقد
، قمعو عطقلا 1.0 ملم . هذه فورظلا
يطعت ةميقلا ىلثملا
،عطقلا ةادأ رمعل ةنوشخو
، لماعو غيرفتلا نم 28.525 ةقيقد
، 1.188 رتموركيم
، ىلع يلاوتلا .
I certify that I have supervised and read this study and that in my opinion; it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science (Manufacturing Engineering).
Nor-Khairusshima Muhamad Khairussaleh
Norshahida Binti Sarifuddin Co-Supervisor
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science (Manufacturing Engineering).
Suhaily Binti Mokhtar Internal Examiner
Che Hassan Che Haron External Examiner
This thesis was submitted to the Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering and is accepted as a fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science (Manufacturing Engineering).
Mohamed Abd. Rahman Head, Department of
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering
This thesis was submitted to the Kulliyyah of Engineering and is accepted as a fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science (Manufacturing Engineering).
Erry Yulian Triblas Adesta Dean, Kulliyyah of Engineering
I hereby declare that this dissertation is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted as a whole for any other degrees at IIUM or other institutions.
Mir Akmam Noor Rashid
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA DECLARATION OF COPYRIGHT AND AFFIRMATION OF
FAIR USE OF UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH
MILLING OF JUTE FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE USING UNCOATED CARBIDE CUTTING TOOL
I declare that the copyright holders of this thesis are jointly owned by the student and IIUM.
Copyright © 2017 Mir Akmam Noor Rashid and International Islamic University Malaysia. All rights reserved.
No part of this unpublished research may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder except as provided below
1. Any material contained in or derived from this unpublished research may be used by others in their writing with due acknowledgement.
2. IIUM or its library will have the right to make and transmit copies (print or electronic) for institutional and academic purposes.
3. The IIUM library will have the right to make, store in a retrieved system and supply copies of this unpublished research if requested by other universities and research libraries.
By signing this form, I acknowledged that I have read and understand the IIUM Intellectual Property Right and Commercialization policy.
Affirmed by Mir Akmam Noor Rashid
Firstly, I thank my creator Allah SWT who has bestowed upon me in numerous provisions and helped me in each step of my life. Without the will and help of my lord, this research could not have been conducted.
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Nor- Khairusshima Muhamad Khairussaleh for her knowledge sharing and patience guidance towards me to complete my research work and thesis writing. I am extremely grateful to her keen supervision, mental support, encouragement throughout the research work. She taught me many things and I hope her advice and inspiration will help me to continue further study. My co-supervisor, Dr. Norshahida Binti Sarifuddin also supported me by giving her valuable time and sharing her knowledge as well.
I am also grateful to the tool and die lab staff for supporting me in machining purpose. Special thanks go to the Brother Ibrohim and Zakaria who helped me to use the VEECO machine and SEM.
I am thankful to the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) for supporting me by providing research facilities in Composite lab, Sand Testing Lab, Tool and Die lab, Materials Testing lab, Metallurgy lab and material engineering workshop.
Finally, my deep sense of gratitude goes to my parents for their blessings and moral support throughout the period of my research work.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ... ii
Abstract Arabic ... iii
Approval Page ... v
Declaration ... vi
Copyright Page... vii
Acknowledgements ... viii
Table of Contents ... ix
List of Tables ... xi
List of Figures ... xii
List of Abbreviation ... xvi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ... 1
1.1 Background ... 1
1.2 Problem Statement and Its Significance ... 4
1.3 Research Objectives ... 6
1.4 Research Methodology ... 7
1.5 Research Scope ... 8
1.6 Thesis Organization ... 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ... 10
2.1 Introduction ... 10
2.2 Jute Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites ... 10
2.2.1 Jute Fiber ... 12
2.2.2 Components of Jute Fibers ... 12
2.3 Matrix Materials ... 15
2.3.1 Thermosets ... 15
2.4 NFRP Thermosets Composite ... 17
2.5 Mechanical Properties ... 18
2.6 Machining of FRP ... 19
2.7 Milling ... 20
2.8 Surface Quality on FRP Composite... 21
2.9 Tool Wear on FRP Composite... 23
2.10 Delamination on FRP Composite ... 25
2.11 Design Of Experiment ... 26
2.12 Summary ... 27
CHAPTER THREE:EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN & METHODOLOGY ... 29
3.1 Introduction ... 29
3.2 Flowchart of Research Methodology ... 29
3.3 Cutting Tool, Material and Testings ... 32
3.3.1 Cutting Tool ... 32
3.3.2 Material ... 33
3.3.3 Mechanical Test of JFRP Panel ... 36
3.4 Experimental Equipment ... 40
3.4.1 Computer Numerical Control Milling Machine (CNC milling) ... 40
3.4.2 Nikon Measuring Microscope ... 42
3.4.3 Veeco Wyco Optical Profiling System Microscope ... 43
3.4.4 Scanning Electron Microscopy ... 44
3.5 Experimental Design ... 44
3.5.1 Experimental Design of JFRP Milling ... 45
3.6 Experimental, Procedure, Measurement, And Calculation ... 46
3.6.1 Machining Set up ... 46
3.6.2 Tool Wear and Tool Life Measurement ... 47
3.6.3 Surface Roughness Measurement ... 48
3.6.4 Delamination Factor ... 48
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ... 50
4.1 Introduction ... 50
4.2 Mechanical tests on fabricated JFRP ... 50
4.2.1 Tensile Test ... 50
4.2.2 Flexural Test ... 51
4.2.3 Impact Test ... 52
4.3 Preliminary Machining of JFRP ... 53
4.4 Tool Wear and Tool Life Analysis on Actual Machining ... 59
4.5 Growth of Tool Wear ... 67
4.6 Wear Mechanism ... 72
4.7 Analysis of Surface Roughness ... 74
4.8 Delamination Factor (Fd) ... 81
4.9 Mathematical Model ... 88
4.9.1 Mathematical Model of Tool Life ... 89
4.9.2 Mathematical Model of Surface Roughness ... 94
4.9.3 Mathematical Model of Delamination Factor (Fd) ... 100
4.10 Cutting Parameters Optimization ... 105
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 108
5.1 Conclusion ... 108
5.2 Recommendation For Future Works ... 109
REFERENCE ... 111
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS ... 119
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Geometrical properties of uncoated carbide cutting tool 31 Table 3.2 Physical properties of carbide cutting tool 32 Table 3.3 Chemical composition of uncoated carbide cutting tool 32
Table 3.4 General information of JFRP panel 35
Table 3.5 Composite properties 35
Table 3.6 CNC (Deckel Maho) Machining Center Universal 41 Table 3.7 Experimental design for dry machining of JFRP 45
Table 4.1 Preliminary machining parameters 53
Table 4.2 Results of tool life in minutes for all cutting parameters 59 Table 4.3 Results of Surface roughness for all cutting parameters 73 Table 4.4 Results of delamination factor (Fd) for all cutting parameters 81
Table 4.5 Machining condition for response output 88
Table 4.6 Data on carbide cutting tool for JFRP machining 88
Table 4.7 ANOVA model for tool life 91
Table 4. 8 Error analysis of tool life 94
Table 4.9 ANOVA model for surface roughness 96
Table 4.10 Error analysis of surface roughness 99
Table 4.11 ANOVA model response for delamination factor 101
Table 4.12 Error analysis of delamination factor 104
Table 4.13 Optimized solutions for machining JFRP 106
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Material used for automotive car component 4 Figure 2.1 Pictorial views of golden raw jute and jute plant 12
Figure 2.2 Scheme of jute fiber structure 13
Figure 2.3 Different types of jute fabric 14
Figure 2.4 Chemical structure of Epoxy Resin 16
Figure 2.5 Typical resin stress/strain curve 17
Figure 2.6 Mercedes Benz 20% weights saving achieved by using jute/sisal 18 Figure 2.7 Schematic illustration of milling process 20
Figure 3.1 Schematic illustration of research flow diagram 31
Figure 3.2 Uncoated carbide cutting tool 32
Figure 3.3 Jute fabric (Tossa grade-1) 33
Figure 3.4 Pictorial views of epoxy resin and hardener 34
Figure 3.5 JFRP panel with different composition 35
Figure 3.6 JFRP panel with dimension 35
Figure 3.7 A L1oyd 10 KN Instron Universal Testing Machine (Tensile Test) 37
Figure 3.8 Tensile test specimen ASTM 412 type-4 37
Figure 3.9 A L1oyd 10 KN Instron Universal Testing Machines 38
Figure 3.10 Flexural test specimens ASTM-D790 38
Figure 3.11 SI-IC3 Pendulum Charpy Impact tester machine 39
Figure 3.12 Impact test specimen and dimension 40
Figure 3.13 CNC Machining Center DECKEL MAHO-DMU 35M Universal 42
Figure 3.14 Nikon Measuring Microscope 43
Figure 3.15 Veeco Wyko Optical Profiling System Microscope 43 Figure 3.16 JEOL Scanning Electron Microscopy Machine 44
Figure 3.17 Machining set up of JFRP 47
Figure 3.18 Milling operations on 200 mm JFRP distance 47 Figure 3.19 Surface roughness selection points on JFRP panel 48 Figure 3.20 Delamination observed on JFRP panel after milling 49 Figure 4.1 Tensile strength of different composition jute composite 51 Figure 4.2 Flexural strength of different composition jute composite 52 Figure 4.3 Impact strength of different composition jute composite 53 Figure 4.4 Measured flank wear at different composition
(spindle speed=1500rev/min, f = 150 mm/min, d = 1.0 mm) 54 Figure 4.5 Flank wear measured at spindle speed = 3500 rev/min in
different composition (feed rate = 150 mm/min and d = 1.0 mm) 55 Figure 4.6 Feed rate (F = 350 mm/min) effect on flank wear in different
Composition panel (spindle speed = 1500 rev/min and d = 1 mm) 56 Figure 4.7 Flank wear measured on different composition panel in
f = 350 mm/min, spindle speed = 3500 rev/min and d = 1.0 mm 57 Figure 4.8 Delamination factor on different composition in different spindle
speed (feed rate = 150 mm/min and depth of cut = 1 mm) 58 Figure 4.9 Delamination factor on different feed rate in different
composition (spindle speed = 3500 rev/min and d = 1mm) 59 Figure 4.10 Tool wear of carbide cutting tool in different spindle speed
(feed rate = 250 mm/min, depth of cut =1.5 mm) 61 Figure 4.11 Tool life of cutting tool with different spindle speed
(feed rate =250 mm/min, depth of cut= 1.50 mm) 62 Figure 4.12 Different feed rate effect on tool wear with same cutting speed and
depth of cut (spindle speed=3500 rev/min, depth of cut =1.50 mm) 63 Figure 4.13 Tool life on different feed rate (spindle speed=3500 rev/min,
depth of cut=1.50 mm) 64
Figure 4.14 Comparison of tool wear at different depth of cut
(spindle speed =3500 rev/min, feed rate = 250 mm) 65 Figure 4.15 Tool life comparison in different depth of cut
(spindle speed =3500 rev/min, feed rate = 250 mm/min) 66 Figure 4.16 Growth of tool wear at various spindle speeds
(feed rate = 250 mm/min, depth of cut = 1.50 mm) 68 Figure 4.17 Growth of tool wear at various feed rates
(spindle speed = 3500 rev/min, depth of cut = 1.50 mm) 69 Figure 4.18 Growth of tool wear at various depth of cut
(spindle speed = 3500 rev/min, feed rate = 250 mm/min) 71 Figure 4.19 Wear region observed with Nikon Measurement Microscope 72 Figure 4.20 Cutting tool wear micrograph observed under SEM 73 Figure 4.21 Surface roughness of JFRP at different spindle speeds
(feed rate = 250 mm/min and depth of cut = 1.50mm) 75 Figure 4.22 Surface roughness at various spindle speed 77 Figure 4.23 Surface roughness of JFRP at various feed rate
(spindle speed = 3500 rev/min and depth of cut = 1.50 mm) 78 Figure 4.24 Surface roughness at different feed rate 79 Figure 4.25 Surface roughness of JFRP at various depth of cut
(spindle speed =3500 rev/min and depth of cut = 1.50 mm) 80 Figure 4.26 Surface roughness at various depth of cut 81 Figure 4.27 Delamination at various spindle speeds
(feed rate = 250.0 mm/min, depth of cut = 1.50 mm) 83 Figure 4.28 Delamination factor at different feed rates
(spindle speed = 3500 rev/min, depth of cut = 1.5 mm) 84 Figure 4.29 Delamination factor at different depths of cut
(spindle speed = 3500 rev/min, feed rate = 250 mm/min) 85 Figure 4.30 Spindle speed effect on tool wear, surface roughness and
Delamination factor during machining on JFRP panel 86 Figure 4.31 Feed rate effects on tool wear, surface roughness and
delamination factor during machining on JFRP panel 87 Figure 4.32 Depth of cut effect on tool wear, surface roughness and
Delamination factor during machining on JFRP panel 88
Figure 4.33 Normal probabilities of residual tool life data 92 Figure 4.34 Three dimensional contour graph of predicted tool life 93 Figure 4.35 Normal probabilities of residual surface roughness data 97 Figure 4.36 Three dimensional contour graph of predicted surface roughness 97 Figure 4.37 Normal probabilities of residual delamination factor data 102 Figure 4.38 Three dimensional contour graph of predicted delamination factor 103
Figure 4.39 Overlay plot of JFRP machining 107
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
FRP Fiber-reinforced polymer JFRP Jute fiber reinforced polymer
PCD Polycrystalline diamond
ASTM American society for testing and materials TGA Thermo gravimetric analysis
DSC Differential scanning calorimeter DMA Dynamic mechanical analysis SEM Scanning electron microscopy
FESM Field emission scanning electron microscopy CBN Cubic boron nitride
VB Flank wear
CFRP Carbon fiber reinforced polymer NFRP Natural fiber reinforced polymer BFRP Banana fiber reinforced polymer KFRP Kenaf fiber reinforced polymer HFRP Hemp fiber reinforced polymer
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
The improvement of humanity is characterized as far as advance uses in materials that are the Iron Age, the Stone Age, and the Bronze Age. The present time of material has been chosen for the composite materials owing to its higher strength, lighter weight, corrosion resistance, and durability. The composites are known to the humanity; it has a past filled with over 3000 years. In old Egypt, individuals used to manufacture dividers from the blocks made of mud with straw as reinforcement part (Azwa et al., 2013). The word “composites” has come from the Latin word “compositus” which means “put together” indicating something made by assembling diverse parts or materials (Das & Pourdeyhimi, 2014). Generally, composite materials are consisting two or more mechanically and physically different components, presenting in two or more stages (Ahmad et al., 2015). Usually, composites are two phases that is continuous and discontinuous. The discontinuous phase is typically stronger and rigid than the continuous phase which is known as reinforcement, and continuous phase is called as the matrix. Composites can be categorized in two ways, which are the reinforcement used for particle reinforced or fiber reinforced and the matrix used for polymer matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix (G. A. Khan et al., 2016).
Since long time ago, composites are being used to resolve the technological problems, but only in 1960s with the primary introduction of polymer based composites, it starts getting the attention of industries. From then, it has turned into a common industrial material (Sanjay et al., 2015). The growing demand in its application also came out because of greater consciousness in terms of product
performance and amplified competition in the world market for lightweight components (Kabir et al., 2012). Last few decades, the fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites attained an important space in the field of composite materials. In the reinforced polymer, the reinforcing agent may be either natural or synthetic. There is an extensive variety of different natural fibers which can be used as reinforcement or fillers. Various types of natural fibers are cotton, silk, wool, linen, hemp, ramie, kenaf, sisal, flax, coconut, jute, pineapple, kapok, angora, wood fiber, banana, bamboo etc.
Among all the natural fibers, jute is more promising as it is comparatively inexpensive and commercially available in various forms (Gon et al., 2012). Jute fiber has wide range of inherent advantages like high tensile strength, luster, low extensibility, high flexural strength, moderate heat and flame resistance and long staple length (Al-Oqla
& Sapuan, 2014).
Jute fibers are used to reinforce both thermoplastic and thermosetting matrices (Gassan & Bledzki, 1999). Thermosetting resins such as epoxy, polyurethane, polyester and phenolic, are usually used today in natural fiber composites, in which composites demanding higher performance applications. Jute fiber reinforcement polymer (JFRP) composite provide sufficient mechanical properties, in particular strength and stiffness, at acceptably cost effective (Bongarde & Shinde, 2014). Natural fiber composite is used in aerospace (cabin, chair), automotive, sport goods and domestic upholstery (Gowda et al., 1999).
The increasing demand of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) in various industries made researchers to look for new cost effective natural fibres as an alternative for synthetic fibres. Many types of natural fibres have been utilized by researchers along with several polymeric resins in the form of composite and the mechanical, chemical and physical properties of the developed composites are studied (D. Liu et al., 2012).
(Holbery & Houston, 2006) concluded that natural fibres are superior to synthetic fibres in terms of low price and better quality. Jute fibre reinforced polymer composite is now being applied to a surprise range in aircraft, automotive, sport goods and domestic upholstery because of its dimensional constancy over wide range of temperature, high strength and high stiffness weight ratio with low specific gravity (Babu et al., 2013c).
The research activities on jute fibre reinforced polymer (JFRP) composite are currently going through a transition phase. Moreover, material properties and theoretical mechanics have been the dominant research areas in the field of composite materials (Sathishkumar et al., 2012). With increasing demands, applications, inexpensive techniques of production are very important to achieve fully automated large scale manufacturing cycles. An important aspect of production technology is machining such as milling, drilling and slotting process (A. Azmi et al., 2013). Figure 1.1 shows that the door panel, trim panel, seat panel and various damping and insulation parts are being made by JFRP composite.
Figure 1.1 Material used for automotive car components (Fakultat, 2009)
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE
Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are using in several structural applications in which some machining operations like drilling, trimming, milling, slotting, grinding and surface finishing may involve. Due to different characteristic of the reinforcing constituents, above operation play important role in the time of machining. During machining, FRP composite create interaction during between the reinforcement and the matrix material (Calzada et al., 2012). Machining tends to interrupt the structure of the reinforcement through deterioration and permanent damage of the material.
Problem arises due to machining are such as matrix cracking fracture of fiber, inter laminar delamination, high tool wear, surface damage and poor cut surface quality (Holbery & Houston, 2006).
The success of machining depends on the properties and application of the composite. These characteristics and properties are summarized in terms of its
Rear parcel shelf
Seat cushion part
Door trim panel (all 4) Center console & trim
Various damping & insulation parts
machinability, which denotes the relative ease of machining using appropriate tool and cutting parameters (Hensher, 2016). A material that has good machinability requires less power or force, which will produce a good surface finish and longer tool life.
There are several aspects that need to be considered by the machinist during machining such as the type of fibers and their composition, cutting tool (carbide tool, ceramic and diamond), tool geometry, cutting parameters (feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut) and cutting methods (dry machining or machining with a coolant) in fact, these are some factors that affect the end products. Moreover, facilities such as the clamping method and the rigidity of the machine, can also impact the machinability (Yashiro et al., 2013).
Machining of FRP arises some difficulties because of abrasive nature of the fibres and some physical and mechanical characteristics of the fibre-matrix systems (Babu et al., 2013a). Regarding the quality of machining of FRP composite, the principal drawbacks are severe tool wear, surface delamination, and poor surface roughness. During machining surface roughness drawing attention for many years because it can affect the product performance, dimensional precision and production cost (Iovinella et al., 2013). In conventional machining methods, has proved that FRP composite material faces difficulties in achieving acceptable surface quality (Palanikumar, 2008). Fibre delamination occurs generally in drilling and milling and affects product quality. During machining, the heterogeneous FRP composite causes delamination and this reduces the bearing strength, structural integrity, durability, and tool wear. Therefore, researchers and manufacturers face greater pressure as they need to establish a better understanding of FRP cutting processes, in respect to accuracy and efficiency (Yashiro et al., 2013).
Cutting temperature is one of the main problems during machining. The temperature increases at higher cutting parameters which generate worst scenario tool life and surface roughness. The cutting parameters to be addressed are cutting speed (V), feed rate (F) and depth of cut (D). It is most important to discover the most significant factors that affect the machinability of the materials.
The machining of JFRP is an important aspect and interest due to the excessive tool wear and poor surface quality and also the delamination and fibre pull-out during machining. It is time consuming and expensive during machining because of required shape, design and various automotive applications. To achieve high productivity and cost effective, many approaches have been attempted. In this study, to overcome the problems carbide cutting tool is used to cut JFRP. Applying uncoated carbide cutting tool, suitable cutting parameters and methods to produce quality parts while, machining JFRP is expected to improve tool life, surface smoothness and delamination factors.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The main purpose of this research is to study the machinability of jute fiber reinforced polymer composite for automotive application. The following are the objectives of the experiments.
a) To determine the most significant cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) that influence the tool life, surface quality, delamination factors during milling of jute composite.
b) To investigate the effect of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on tool life, surfaces roughness and delamination factor in JFRP composite machining.
c) To determine the optimum cutting parameters of milling on jute composite by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).
1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
To achieve the stated goals, the research methodologies adopted are as follows:
1) At first, fabrication of jute fibre reinforcement polymer composite was carried out through hands lay-up technique. The JFRP panel were fabricated in different composition like 60/40 and 70/30 which means 40% epoxy resin and 60% woven jute fabric and 30% epoxy resin with 70% woven jute fabric. The panel was formed according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) formula to continue mechanical tests.
2) Secondly, different composition of JFRP composite has been machined based on preliminary cutting parameters to find out the best composite for actual machining.
After machining, the results found that 60/40 panel is consisting less tool wear and delamination factor comparing to 70/30 panel. The panel 60/40 was selected for actual machining.
3) Thirdly, actual machining for 60/40 JFRP panel was carried out by using an solid uncoated carbide cutting tool. The cutting tool has a diameter of 8.0 mm. The machining experiment was conducted on Universal DECKEL MAHO-DMU 35M (CNC Milling)
4) Fourthly, to identify the data of tool life, surface roughness and delamination factor of the composite was carried out through Nikon Measuring Microscope MM-400 and VEECO Wyco Optical Profiling System Microscope respectively.
The tool wear mechanism was analysed by using Scanning Electron Microscope machine.
5) Finally, experimental design was done on the basis of Response Surface Methodology. Three machining variables were investigated which is described as input and output (response) variables. Following variables are given below:
a) Input Variables
i. Spindle speed (671.47 – 6328.43 rev/min);
ii. Feed rate: millimetre per min (108.58 – 391.42 mm/min); and iii. Depth of cut: millimetres (0.79 – 2.21 mm).
b) Response Variables i. Tool life (min)
ii. Surface roughness: micrometres (µm); and iii. Delamination factor
1.5 RESEARCH SCOPE
Jute fiber reinforced polymer composite was fabricated in different composition like 60/40 and 70/30 following the technique of hands lay-up. Machining of JFRP composite is performed on a flat panel with 5.0 mm thickness. The end milling was conducted on Universal DECKEL MAHO 35 MU Computer Numerical Control machining center which has a maximum spindle speed of 12000 rpm. A 2-flute 8.0 mm uncoated solid carbide cutting tool was used to mill the JFRP panel. The ranges of spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut, used for this research are 671.57-6328.43 rev/min, 108.58-391.42 mm/min and 0.79-2.22 mm respectively. The tool wear was determined through analyzing the tool life and tool wear mechanism. The quality of JFRP panel is studied in terms of surface roughness and delamination factors. Finally, the cutting parameter was optimized through Response Surface Methodology (RSM).