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EXPRESSION OF COURTESY IN WHATSAPP SMZLEY USAGE AMONG UNDERGRADUATES

NOORILYANA BINTI HASHIM

MASTER OF MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA

2020

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Permission to

Use

In presenting this thesis in fulfilment of the requirements for a postgraduate degree from Universiti Utara Malaysia, I agree that the Universiti Library may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for the copying of this thesis in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly purpose may be granted by my supervisor(s) or, in their absence, by the Dean of Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this thesis or parts thereof for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to Universiti Utara Malaysia for any scholarly use which may be made of any material from my thesis.

Requests for permission to copy or to make other use of materials in this thesis, in whole or in part, should be addressed to:

Dean of Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences UUM College of Arts and Sciences

Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010 UUM Sintok

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Abstract

Fast-growing of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) usage in Malaysia has risen a concern of courtesy expression including WhatsApp smiley usage. Lack of literature focusing on this particular matter, especially in the Malaysian setting. Moreover, it is strongly recommended to expand and retest Politeness Theory in a non-Western and online context. Previous studies have pointed out the need to address the factors influence and effect courtesy expression in online communication. Thus, this study determines the relationship between emoticons literacy; emotions and expression of courtesy, effect between emoticons literacy; emotions and expression of courtesy, and differences of demographic factors towards an expression of courtesy in WhatsApp smiley usage. This study employed a survey technique and collected data from 377 undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia. The data were analyzed using descriptive, inferential, and multivariate analysis. Results found that emoticons literacy is the best explains on the greatest effect towards the expression of courtesy in WhatsApp smiley usage. However, the results supported the majority of proposed paths pertaining to the theoretical model.

Besides, the study yields an interesting result that inconsistencies with most literature where 'anger' is the most used. Telco service provider, policymakers, universities, and users will be benefited from the results as well as significance to the body of knowledge.

Further retesting of Politeness theory is necessary for future studies in a future research context.

Keywords: Smiley, WhatsApp, Courtesy, Instant Messages, Computer Mediated Communication (CMC).

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Abstrak

Peningkatan penggunaan Komunikasi Perantaraan Komputer di Malaysia telah meningkatkan perhatian terhadap penyataan kesopanan termasuk penggunaan smiley WhatsApp. Terdapat kekurangan kajian terdahulu yang memfokuskan pada isu dalam konteks Malaysia. Tambahan pula, usaha untuk mengembangkan dan menguji Teori Kesopanan dalam konteks selain Barat dan Komunikasi Perantaraan Komputer sangat disyorkan dalam kajian-kajian lepas. Kajian terdahulu telah menunjukkan keperluan untuk memahami faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi dan memberi kesan kepada penyataan kesopanan dalam Komunikasi Perantaraan Komputer. Oleh itu, kajian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara literasi emotikon; emosi terhadap penyataan kesopanan, kesan antara literasi emotikon; emosi terhadap penyataan kesopanan, dan perbezaan faktor demografi terhadap penyataan kesopanan dalam penggunaan smiley WhatsApp. Kajian ini menggunakan teknik tinjauan dan mengumpulkan data daripada 377 mahasiswa Universiti Utara Malaysia. Data dianalisis melalui analisis kekerapan, inferensi, dan regresi linear berganda. Hasil kajian menunjukkan literasi emotikon adalah yang terbaik menerangkan mengenai kesan terhadap penyataan kesopanan dalam penggunaan smiley WhatsApp.

Walaubagaimanapun, keseluruhan dapatan kajian menyokong hipotesis yang dicadangkan seperti hasil dari model teoritikal. Selain itu, hasil kajian menunjukkan dapatan yang menarik yang tidak konsisten dengan kebanyakan kajian iaitu smiley 'kemarahan' ialah yang paling banyak digunakan. Pembekal perkhidmatan telekomunikasi, pembuat dasar, universiti, dan pengguna akan mendapat manfaat daripada hasil kajian serta penting kepada pembangunan ilmu pengetahuan. Pengujian semula Teori Kesopanan dengan lebih lanjut sangat dicadangkan untuk kajian masa depan dalam konteks penyelidikan masa depan.

Kata kunci: Smiley, WhatsApp, Kesopanan, Mesej Segera, Komunikasi Perantaraan Komputer.

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Acknowledgement

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim.

All Praise to ALLAH S.W.T the Almighty.

Alhamdulillah, all limitless praises to Allah for His blessings for giving me the blessing, health, sustenance, strength, chance, and endurance in completing this thesis.

Special appreciation goes to my supervisor, Dr. Romlah Binti Ramli for her supervision and constant support. Her invaluable help of constructive comments and suggestions throughout the thesis works have extremely contributed to the success of this research.

I would also like to thank the Chairs and panel of examiners of my proposal defend and viva session: Dr. Nik Adzrieman Bin Abdul Rahman, Prof. Dr. Che Su Binti Mustaffa, Dr. Norizah Binti Aripin, Dr. Joyce Cheah Lynn-Sze, Dr. Suhaini Binti Muda, Dr.

Subashini Annamalai and last but not least Dr. Mohd Zuwairi Bin Mat Saad who participated and contributed in the thesis. Without their passionate participation and input, this thesis could not have been successfully completed.

I must express my very profound gratitude to my late grandparents Hamid Bin Abas and Chik Binti Din, my parents Hashim Bin Wahab and Bedah Binti Hamid, as well as my beloved family for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my years of study. This accomplishment would not have been possible without them.

Finally, many thanks to my helpful friends, participants, SMMTC's staffs, and everyone who helps me directly or indirectly throughout the process of researching, writing, and completing this thesis.

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Table of Contents

Permission to Use ... . . 11

Abstract ... ... I I I Abstrak ... iv

Acknowledgement ... v

Table of Contents ... vi

List of Tables ... xi

List of Figures

...

X I I I ... List of Appendices ... xiv

CHAPTER ONE

...

1

INTRODUCTION

...

1

1 . 1 Background of the Study ... 1

1 . 2 Problem Statement ... 9

1.3 Research Questions ... 15

1.4 Research Objectives ... 16

1.5 Scope of the Study ... I6 ... 1.6 Significance of the Study 17 1.7 Conceptual and Operational Definitions

...

18

WhatsApp ... 18

Smiley ... 1 9 Courtesy ... 26

1.8 Organization of the Study ... 26

1.9 Conclusion ... 27

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CHAPTER TWO

...

28

LITERATURE REVIEW

...

28

...

2.1 Introduction 28 2.2 Expression of Courtesy ... 28

2.3 Politeness Theory

...

30

... 2.3.1 Politeness Theory and Expression of Courtesy ... 36

2.4 WhatsApp SmiZey Usage

...

37

2.5 Emoticons Literacy and WhatsApp Smiley Usage

...

42

2.6 Emotions and WhatsApp Smiley Usage

...

45

2.7 Emotions and Courtesy ... 49

2.8 Demographic Factors and WhatsApp Smiley Usage ... 51

2.8.1 Gender ... 51

2.8.2 Race

...

52

2.8.3 Educational background ... 53

2.8.4 Usage Frequency ... 53

2.9 Theoretical Framework

...

54

2.10 Hypothesis of the Study

...

55

2.1 1 Conceptual Framework

...

56

2.12 Conclusion

...

57

...

CHAPTER THREE 59 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... ... ... 59

3.1 Introduction

...

59

...

3.2 Research Design 59

...

3.3 Sampling 60

vii

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3.4 Data Collection Method

...

61

3.4.1 Survey

...

61

3.5 Data Col lection Process

...

64

3.6 Validity and Reliability

...

65

3.7 Data Analysis

...

67

3.8 Conclusion

...

71

CHAPTER FOUR

...

72

FINDINGS

...

72

4.1 Introduction

...

72

4.2 Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)

...

73

...

4.2.1 Normality Test 73 4.3 Report on Descriptive Analysis

...

82

4.3.1 Gender

...

82

4.3.2 Race

...

-82

...

4.3.3 Educational Background 83

...

4.3.4 Usage Frequency 83 4.3.5 Reason of Usage

...

84

4.3.6 Concern about Expression of Courtesy

...

84

...

4.3.7 Frequent Smiley Selection 85 i) Happyljoy

...

85

I I) . . Fear

...

86

... 111) Anger

...

-88

iv) Sadness

...

89

v) Disgust

...

91
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vi) Surprise

...

92

vii) Guilt

...

94

V I I I ) ... Discontentment

...

96

...

4.4 Report on Hypothesis Tests 98 4.4.1 The t-Test Analysis between Gender and Expression of Courtesy ... 99

4.4.2 One-way ANOVA between Race and Expression of Courtesy

...

99

4.4.3 One-Way ANOVA between Educational Background and Expression of Courtesy

...

100

4.4.4 One-Way ANOVA between Usage Frequency and Expression of Courtesy

...

101

4.4.5 Correlation Analysis between Emoticons Literacy and Emotions towards Expression of Courtesy

...

101

4.4.6 Regression Analysis between Emoticons Literacy and Emotions towards Expression of Courtesy

...

102

. . 4.5 Summary of Descr~pt~ve Analysis

...

104

4.6 Summary of the Hypothesis Tests on the Relationship

...

105

4.7 Summary of the Hypothesis Tests on the Differences

...

106

4.8 Conclusion ...

. . ...

106

CHAPTER FIVE

...

108

DISCUSSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

...

108

5.1 Introduction

...

108

5.2 The Discussion of Demographic Factors; Gender. Race. Educational Background. and Usage Frequency

...

109

5.3 The Discussion of Frequent Smiley Selection

...

110 5.4 The Discussion of Reason of Usage and Concern about Expression of Courtesy . 1 1 2
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5.5 The Difference between Gender and Expression of Courtesy

...

1 13

5.6 The Difference between Race and Expression of Courtesy

...

114

5.7 The Difference between Education Background and Expression of Courtesy ... 116

5.8 The Difference between Usage Frequency and Expression of Caul-tesy ... 118

5.9 The Relationship between Emoticons Literacy and Expression of Courtesy

...

119

5.10 The Relationship between Emotions and Expression of Courtesy

...

121

5.1 1 Limitations

...

122

5.12 Suggestions

...

123

5.1 3 Conclusion

...

124

BIBLIOGRAPHY

...

125
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List of Tables

...

Table 1.1 Operational Definition of Smiley 20

...

Table 3.1 Sample Size Formula 61

Table 3.2 Cronbach's Alpha Value for Emoticons Literacy, Emotions, and Expression of

Courtesy ... 67

... Table 3.3 Interpretation of the r Value 69

...

Table 4.1 Analysis of Test of Normality of Skewness and Kurtosis 74 ... Table 4.2 Analysis of Test of Normality of Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro- Wi l k 76

...

Table 4.3 Frequencies Analysis of Gender 82 Table 4.4 Frequencies Analysis of Race ... 83

Table 4.5 Frequencies Analysis of Educational Background ... 83

Table 4.6 Frequencies Analysis of Usage Frequency ... 84

...

Table 4.7 Frequencies Analysis of Reason of Usage 84 Table 4.8 Frequencies Analysis of Concern about Expression of Courtesy

...

85

Table 4.9 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Happyljoy) ... 86

Table 4.10 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Fear) ... 87

Table 4.11 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Anger) ... 89

Table 4.12 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Sadness) ... 90

Table 4.1 3 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Disgust)

...

91

Table 4.14 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Surprise) ... 93

... Table 4.15 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Guilt) 95 ... Table 4.16 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Discontentment) 97 Table 4.17 Report on a t-Test of Expression of Courtesy on Gender ... 99

... Table 4.18 Report on One-way ANOVA on Expression of Courtesy on Race 100 Table 4.19 Report on One-Way ANOVA on Expression of Courtesy on Educational Background

...

100

Table 4.20 Report on One-way ANOVA on Expression of Courtesy on Usage Frequency ... 10 1 Table 4.21 Correlation Analysis between Emoticons Literacy. Emotions. and Expression of Courtesy ... 102

Table 4.22 Linear Regression Analysis of Emoticons Literacy and Emotions towards Expression of Courtesy ... 104

Table 4.23 Frequency and Percentage of Selected Smiley ... 105

Table 4.24 Summary of Hypothesis Tests on Relationship ... 106

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Table 4.25 Summary of Hypothesis Tests on Differences ... 106

xii

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List of Figures

Figure 2.1 : Theoretical framework ... 55

... Figure 2.2. Conceptual framework 57 Figure 3.1 : Data analysis ... 70

... Figure 3.2. Researh design and procedure 71 Figure 4.1 : Skewness and Kurtosis of Emoticons Literacy

...

74

Figure 4.2. Skewness and Kurtosis of Emotions ... 75

Figure 4.3. Skewness and Kurtosis of Expression of Courtesy ... 75

... Figure 4.4. Histogram of Emoticons Literacy 77 Figure 4.5. Q-Q Plot of Emoticons Literacy ... 78

Figure 4.6. Box-plot of Emoticons Literacy

...

78

Figure 4.7. Histogram of Emotions ... 79

... Figure 4.8. Q-Q Plot of Emotions 79 Figure 4.9. Box-plot of Emotions ... 80

Figure 4.10. Histogram of Expression of Courtesy ... 80

Figure 4.1 1: Q-Q Plot of Expression of Courtesy ... 81

Figure 4.12. Box-plot of Expression of Courtesy ... 81

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List of Appendices

Appendix A Questionnaire

...

139

xiv

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

It is important to balance rapid technology and economic growth with community values, morals, and ethics based on a local courtesy as these are the foundation of a civilized society. Nowadays, Malaysian courtesy has become a concern with ongoing deterioration among the young generation. Lee (2015) mentioned a concern about imbalance development of physical and spiritual, again, stressed that courtesy and good values in Malaysia have apparently declined (Lee, 20 16). Furthermore, Farhanah, Ngo, and Chiam (201 5) echoed the same concern that Western culture have influenced a deterioration of this high courteous practice. Lee (2015) enthusiastically urges collective efforts to overcome these major challenges of courtesy ignorance and moral decline. Besides, responsible stakeholders should be proactive in increasing awareness of a new Information and Communications Technology (ICT) usage among Malaysians (Department of Statistic Malaysia, 20 16).

Moreover, Communications & Multimedia Blueprint 2018-2025 by Ministry of Communications and Multimedia Malaysia [KKMM] (2017) aims for sustainable development of a country's digital economy across multiple sectors and simultaneously emphasizes the importance of social interaction and the development of a strong national identity. Ministry of Communications and Multimedia Malaysia or known as Kementerian Komunikasi dan Multimedia Malaysia (KKMM) promoted a courtesy in daily encounters to secure our unique identity that leads to harmony in society through

I

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