• Tiada Hasil Ditemukan



Academic year: 2023





The copyright © of this thesis belongs to its rightful author and/or other copyright owner. Copies can be accessed and downloaded for non-commercial or learning purposes without any charge and permission. The thesis cannot be reproduced or quoted as a whole without the permission from its rightful owner. No alteration or changes in format is allowed without permission from its rightful owner.







Permission to


In presenting this thesis in fulfilment of the requirements for a postgraduate degree from Universiti Utara Malaysia, I agree that the Universiti Library may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for the copying of this thesis in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly purpose may be granted by my supervisor(s) or, in their absence, by the Dean of Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this thesis or parts thereof for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to Universiti Utara Malaysia for any scholarly use which may be made of any material from my thesis.

Requests for permission to copy or to make other use of materials in this thesis, in whole or in part, should be addressed to:

Dean of Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences UUM College of Arts and Sciences

Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010 UUM Sintok



Fast-growing of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) usage in Malaysia has risen a concern of courtesy expression including WhatsApp smiley usage. Lack of literature focusing on this particular matter, especially in the Malaysian setting. Moreover, it is strongly recommended to expand and retest Politeness Theory in a non-Western and online context. Previous studies have pointed out the need to address the factors influence and effect courtesy expression in online communication. Thus, this study determines the relationship between emoticons literacy; emotions and expression of courtesy, effect between emoticons literacy; emotions and expression of courtesy, and differences of demographic factors towards an expression of courtesy in WhatsApp smiley usage. This study employed a survey technique and collected data from 377 undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia. The data were analyzed using descriptive, inferential, and multivariate analysis. Results found that emoticons literacy is the best explains on the greatest effect towards the expression of courtesy in WhatsApp smiley usage. However, the results supported the majority of proposed paths pertaining to the theoretical model.

Besides, the study yields an interesting result that inconsistencies with most literature where 'anger' is the most used. Telco service provider, policymakers, universities, and users will be benefited from the results as well as significance to the body of knowledge.

Further retesting of Politeness theory is necessary for future studies in a future research context.

Keywords: Smiley, WhatsApp, Courtesy, Instant Messages, Computer Mediated Communication (CMC).



Peningkatan penggunaan Komunikasi Perantaraan Komputer di Malaysia telah meningkatkan perhatian terhadap penyataan kesopanan termasuk penggunaan smiley WhatsApp. Terdapat kekurangan kajian terdahulu yang memfokuskan pada isu dalam konteks Malaysia. Tambahan pula, usaha untuk mengembangkan dan menguji Teori Kesopanan dalam konteks selain Barat dan Komunikasi Perantaraan Komputer sangat disyorkan dalam kajian-kajian lepas. Kajian terdahulu telah menunjukkan keperluan untuk memahami faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi dan memberi kesan kepada penyataan kesopanan dalam Komunikasi Perantaraan Komputer. Oleh itu, kajian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara literasi emotikon; emosi terhadap penyataan kesopanan, kesan antara literasi emotikon; emosi terhadap penyataan kesopanan, dan perbezaan faktor demografi terhadap penyataan kesopanan dalam penggunaan smiley WhatsApp. Kajian ini menggunakan teknik tinjauan dan mengumpulkan data daripada 377 mahasiswa Universiti Utara Malaysia. Data dianalisis melalui analisis kekerapan, inferensi, dan regresi linear berganda. Hasil kajian menunjukkan literasi emotikon adalah yang terbaik menerangkan mengenai kesan terhadap penyataan kesopanan dalam penggunaan smiley WhatsApp.

Walaubagaimanapun, keseluruhan dapatan kajian menyokong hipotesis yang dicadangkan seperti hasil dari model teoritikal. Selain itu, hasil kajian menunjukkan dapatan yang menarik yang tidak konsisten dengan kebanyakan kajian iaitu smiley 'kemarahan' ialah yang paling banyak digunakan. Pembekal perkhidmatan telekomunikasi, pembuat dasar, universiti, dan pengguna akan mendapat manfaat daripada hasil kajian serta penting kepada pembangunan ilmu pengetahuan. Pengujian semula Teori Kesopanan dengan lebih lanjut sangat dicadangkan untuk kajian masa depan dalam konteks penyelidikan masa depan.

Kata kunci: Smiley, WhatsApp, Kesopanan, Mesej Segera, Komunikasi Perantaraan Komputer.




All Praise to ALLAH S.W.T the Almighty.

Alhamdulillah, all limitless praises to Allah for His blessings for giving me the blessing, health, sustenance, strength, chance, and endurance in completing this thesis.

Special appreciation goes to my supervisor, Dr. Romlah Binti Ramli for her supervision and constant support. Her invaluable help of constructive comments and suggestions throughout the thesis works have extremely contributed to the success of this research.

I would also like to thank the Chairs and panel of examiners of my proposal defend and viva session: Dr. Nik Adzrieman Bin Abdul Rahman, Prof. Dr. Che Su Binti Mustaffa, Dr. Norizah Binti Aripin, Dr. Joyce Cheah Lynn-Sze, Dr. Suhaini Binti Muda, Dr.

Subashini Annamalai and last but not least Dr. Mohd Zuwairi Bin Mat Saad who participated and contributed in the thesis. Without their passionate participation and input, this thesis could not have been successfully completed.

I must express my very profound gratitude to my late grandparents Hamid Bin Abas and Chik Binti Din, my parents Hashim Bin Wahab and Bedah Binti Hamid, as well as my beloved family for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my years of study. This accomplishment would not have been possible without them.

Finally, many thanks to my helpful friends, participants, SMMTC's staffs, and everyone who helps me directly or indirectly throughout the process of researching, writing, and completing this thesis.


Table of Contents

Permission to Use ... . . 11

Abstract ... ... I I I Abstrak ... iv

Acknowledgement ... v

Table of Contents ... vi

List of Tables ... xi

List of Figures


X I I I ... List of Appendices ... xiv







1 . 1 Background of the Study ... 1

1 . 2 Problem Statement ... 9

1.3 Research Questions ... 15

1.4 Research Objectives ... 16

1.5 Scope of the Study ... I6 ... 1.6 Significance of the Study 17 1.7 Conceptual and Operational Definitions



WhatsApp ... 18

Smiley ... 1 9 Courtesy ... 26

1.8 Organization of the Study ... 26

1.9 Conclusion ... 27









2.1 Introduction 28 2.2 Expression of Courtesy ... 28

2.3 Politeness Theory



... 2.3.1 Politeness Theory and Expression of Courtesy ... 36

2.4 WhatsApp SmiZey Usage



2.5 Emoticons Literacy and WhatsApp Smiley Usage



2.6 Emotions and WhatsApp Smiley Usage



2.7 Emotions and Courtesy ... 49

2.8 Demographic Factors and WhatsApp Smiley Usage ... 51

2.8.1 Gender ... 51

2.8.2 Race



2.8.3 Educational background ... 53

2.8.4 Usage Frequency ... 53

2.9 Theoretical Framework



2.10 Hypothesis of the Study



2.1 1 Conceptual Framework



2.12 Conclusion





3.1 Introduction




3.2 Research Design 59


3.3 Sampling 60



3.4 Data Collection Method



3.4.1 Survey



3.5 Data Col lection Process



3.6 Validity and Reliability



3.7 Data Analysis



3.8 Conclusion









4.1 Introduction



4.2 Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)




4.2.1 Normality Test 73 4.3 Report on Descriptive Analysis



4.3.1 Gender



4.3.2 Race




4.3.3 Educational Background 83


4.3.4 Usage Frequency 83 4.3.5 Reason of Usage



4.3.6 Concern about Expression of Courtesy




4.3.7 Frequent Smiley Selection 85 i) Happyljoy



I I) . . Fear



... 111) Anger



iv) Sadness



v) Disgust



vi) Surprise



vii) Guilt



V I I I ) ... Discontentment




4.4 Report on Hypothesis Tests 98 4.4.1 The t-Test Analysis between Gender and Expression of Courtesy ... 99

4.4.2 One-way ANOVA between Race and Expression of Courtesy



4.4.3 One-Way ANOVA between Educational Background and Expression of Courtesy



4.4.4 One-Way ANOVA between Usage Frequency and Expression of Courtesy



4.4.5 Correlation Analysis between Emoticons Literacy and Emotions towards Expression of Courtesy



4.4.6 Regression Analysis between Emoticons Literacy and Emotions towards Expression of Courtesy



. . 4.5 Summary of Descr~pt~ve Analysis



4.6 Summary of the Hypothesis Tests on the Relationship



4.7 Summary of the Hypothesis Tests on the Differences



4.8 Conclusion ...

. . ...








5.1 Introduction



5.2 The Discussion of Demographic Factors; Gender. Race. Educational Background. and Usage Frequency



5.3 The Discussion of Frequent Smiley Selection


110 5.4 The Discussion of Reason of Usage and Concern about Expression of Courtesy . 1 1 2

5.5 The Difference between Gender and Expression of Courtesy


1 13

5.6 The Difference between Race and Expression of Courtesy



5.7 The Difference between Education Background and Expression of Courtesy ... 116

5.8 The Difference between Usage Frequency and Expression of Caul-tesy ... 118

5.9 The Relationship between Emoticons Literacy and Expression of Courtesy



5.10 The Relationship between Emotions and Expression of Courtesy



5.1 1 Limitations



5.12 Suggestions



5.1 3 Conclusion






List of Tables


Table 1.1 Operational Definition of Smiley 20


Table 3.1 Sample Size Formula 61

Table 3.2 Cronbach's Alpha Value for Emoticons Literacy, Emotions, and Expression of

Courtesy ... 67

... Table 3.3 Interpretation of the r Value 69


Table 4.1 Analysis of Test of Normality of Skewness and Kurtosis 74 ... Table 4.2 Analysis of Test of Normality of Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro- Wi l k 76


Table 4.3 Frequencies Analysis of Gender 82 Table 4.4 Frequencies Analysis of Race ... 83

Table 4.5 Frequencies Analysis of Educational Background ... 83

Table 4.6 Frequencies Analysis of Usage Frequency ... 84


Table 4.7 Frequencies Analysis of Reason of Usage 84 Table 4.8 Frequencies Analysis of Concern about Expression of Courtesy



Table 4.9 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Happyljoy) ... 86

Table 4.10 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Fear) ... 87

Table 4.11 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Anger) ... 89

Table 4.12 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Sadness) ... 90

Table 4.1 3 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Disgust)



Table 4.14 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Surprise) ... 93

... Table 4.15 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Guilt) 95 ... Table 4.16 Frequencies Analysis of Smiley Selection (Discontentment) 97 Table 4.17 Report on a t-Test of Expression of Courtesy on Gender ... 99

... Table 4.18 Report on One-way ANOVA on Expression of Courtesy on Race 100 Table 4.19 Report on One-Way ANOVA on Expression of Courtesy on Educational Background



Table 4.20 Report on One-way ANOVA on Expression of Courtesy on Usage Frequency ... 10 1 Table 4.21 Correlation Analysis between Emoticons Literacy. Emotions. and Expression of Courtesy ... 102

Table 4.22 Linear Regression Analysis of Emoticons Literacy and Emotions towards Expression of Courtesy ... 104

Table 4.23 Frequency and Percentage of Selected Smiley ... 105

Table 4.24 Summary of Hypothesis Tests on Relationship ... 106


Table 4.25 Summary of Hypothesis Tests on Differences ... 106



List of Figures

Figure 2.1 : Theoretical framework ... 55

... Figure 2.2. Conceptual framework 57 Figure 3.1 : Data analysis ... 70

... Figure 3.2. Researh design and procedure 71 Figure 4.1 : Skewness and Kurtosis of Emoticons Literacy



Figure 4.2. Skewness and Kurtosis of Emotions ... 75

Figure 4.3. Skewness and Kurtosis of Expression of Courtesy ... 75

... Figure 4.4. Histogram of Emoticons Literacy 77 Figure 4.5. Q-Q Plot of Emoticons Literacy ... 78

Figure 4.6. Box-plot of Emoticons Literacy



Figure 4.7. Histogram of Emotions ... 79

... Figure 4.8. Q-Q Plot of Emotions 79 Figure 4.9. Box-plot of Emotions ... 80

Figure 4.10. Histogram of Expression of Courtesy ... 80

Figure 4.1 1: Q-Q Plot of Expression of Courtesy ... 81

Figure 4.12. Box-plot of Expression of Courtesy ... 81


List of Appendices

Appendix A Questionnaire






1.1 Background of the Study

It is important to balance rapid technology and economic growth with community values, morals, and ethics based on a local courtesy as these are the foundation of a civilized society. Nowadays, Malaysian courtesy has become a concern with ongoing deterioration among the young generation. Lee (2015) mentioned a concern about imbalance development of physical and spiritual, again, stressed that courtesy and good values in Malaysia have apparently declined (Lee, 20 16). Furthermore, Farhanah, Ngo, and Chiam (201 5) echoed the same concern that Western culture have influenced a deterioration of this high courteous practice. Lee (2015) enthusiastically urges collective efforts to overcome these major challenges of courtesy ignorance and moral decline. Besides, responsible stakeholders should be proactive in increasing awareness of a new Information and Communications Technology (ICT) usage among Malaysians (Department of Statistic Malaysia, 20 16).

Moreover, Communications & Multimedia Blueprint 2018-2025 by Ministry of Communications and Multimedia Malaysia [KKMM] (2017) aims for sustainable development of a country's digital economy across multiple sectors and simultaneously emphasizes the importance of social interaction and the development of a strong national identity. Ministry of Communications and Multimedia Malaysia or known as Kementerian Komunikasi dan Multimedia Malaysia (KKMM) promoted a courtesy in daily encounters to secure our unique identity that leads to harmony in society through




Ahn, W., Park, J., & Han, K. (201 1). Emoticons convey emotion in CMC. BCS-HCI 'I I Proceedings ofthe 25th BCS Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 429- 430. Retrieved from https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2305389

A1 Rashdi, F. (20 15). Forms andfiinctions ofemojis in WhatsApp interaction among Omanis. A Dissertation of Doctor of Philosophy. (Doctoral Dissertation).

Georgetown University, Washington, USA). Retrieved from

https://www.researchgate.net/pubIication/326528286 Functions~of~emojis - in- WhatsApp~interaction~among~Omanis. doi: 10.10 1 Gj.dcm.20 18.07.00 1 An, S., Ji, L., Marks, M., & Zhang, Z. (201 7). Two sides of emotion: Exploring

positivity and negativity in six basic emotions across cultures. Front Psychol, 8.

doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.20 17.006 10

Asma Abdullah, & Pedersen, P. B. (2003). Understanding multicultural Malaysia:

Delight, puzzles, and irritations about Malaysian. Petaling Jaya: Prentice Hall Azyyati Ahmad. (2016, April 22). Grup WhatsApp kerja satu pendekatan baik. Astro

Awani. Retrieved from http://www.astroawani.com/berita-malaysidgrup- whatsapp-kerja-satu-pendekatan-bai k-idris-jusoh- 1 03390

Babbie, E. (20 1 3). The practice of social research, 13th Ed. Singapore: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Bai, Q., Dan, Q., Mu, Z., & Yang, M. (2019). A Systematic Review of Emoji: Current Research and Future Perspectives. Frontiers in psychology, 1 0 (222 I).

doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.20 19.0222 1

Barbieri, F., Ronzano, F., & Saggion, H. (201 6). What does this emoji mean? A vector space skip-gram model for Twitter emojis. Proceedings of the Tenth

International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2016) (pp. 3967-3972). Portoroi, Slovenia: European Language Resources

Association (ELRA).

Baron, N. S. (2004). 'See you online': Gender issues in college student use of Instant Messaging. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 23(4), 397-423.

Retrieved from http://nl.ijs.si/janes/wp-content/uploads/20 14/09/baron04.pdf Baron, N. S. (2008). Always on: Language in an online and mobile world. Oxford:

Oxford University Press.

Bernama. (20 16, November 4). Communication important in building global citizens with local values. Bernama.com. Retrieved from

http://www.bernama.com/bernamdv8/newsindex.php?id= 12836 12


Bieswanger, M. (201 3). Micro-linguistic structural features of computer-mediated communication. In S. C. Herring, D. Stein, & T. Virtanen (Eds.), Pragmatics of Computer-Mediated Communication (pp. 463-487). Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter.

Bolluyt, J. (20 15, April 29). The facts and stats you didn't know about using emoji.

Gear & Style Cheat Sheet. Retrieved from

https://www.cheatsheet.com/technology/which-emoj i-are-the-most-popu lar- around-the-worId.htmI/?a=viewalI

Bonetti, D. G., & Wright, T. A. (2014). Cronbach's alpha reliability: Interval estimation, hypothesis testing, and sample size planning. Journal of Organizational Behavior, J. Organiz. Behav. do i : 1 0.1 002/j o b. 1 960

Bosch, 0. J., & Revilla, M. (20 18). The use of emojis by Millennials. Research and Expertise Centre for Survey Methodology. RECSM Working Paper, 57.

Bradshaw, A. (2016, May 18). The world's first emoji translator. Todaranslator.

Retrieved from https:/lw.todaytranslations.com/news/the-world-s-first- emoj i-translator

Brennan, S. E., & Ohaeri, J. 0 . (1999). Why do electronic conversations seem less polite? The costs and benefits of hedging. Proceedings of the international joint conference on Work activities coordination and collaboration 1999, Sun Francisco, California, USA, 22-25. doi: 10.1 1451295665.295942

Brown, P. B., & Levinson, S. C. (1978). Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena. In E. N. Goody (Eds.), Questions andpoliteness: Strategies in social interaction (pp. 56-3 1 1). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brown, P.B


& Levinson, S.C. (1 987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Che Su Mutaffa, & Nan Zakiah Megat Ibrahim. (2014). Persepsi dan penggunaan media sosial dari perspektif ibu bapa: Satu analisis kualitatif. Jurnal Kornunikasi - Malaysian Journal of Communication, 30(Special Issue), 43-74. doi:


Comeau, J. D., & Lai. C. T. (2013). Re-defining the concepts of generational labelling perspective from Malaysia. ARPN Journal of Science and Technology, 3(3), 259-276. doi: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/ 1 0.1659/0276-

Creswell, J


W. (20 1 4). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed). Singapore: SAGE Publications Asia-Pacic Pte. Ltd

Croasmun, J. T., & Ostrom, L. (201 1). Using Likert-Type Scales in the Social Sciences.

Journal of Adult Education, 40(1), 19-22.


Croda, R. (20 18, April 2 1). 8 reasons why messaging apps are taking over your organization. Workplace. Retrieved from


Cu lpeper, J. (20 1 1). Impoliteness: Using language to cause oflence. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press

Daft, R. L., & Lengel, R.H. (1984). Information richness: A new approach to managerial behavior and organizational design. Research in Organizational Behavior, 6, 1 9 1


233. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/record/I 984- 30 194-00 1

Dainton, M., & Zel ley, E. D. (20 1 5). Applying communication theory for professional life: A practical introduction. California: SAGE Publications Inc.

Darics, E. (2010). Politeness in computer-mediated discourse of a virtual team. Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviotlr, Culture, 6( 1 ), 129- 1 50. doi:

https://doi.org/lO. 15 15ljplr.20 10.007

Das, K. R., & lmon, A. H. M. R. (201 6). A Brief Review of Tests for Normality.

American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 5- 12. doi:

10.1 1648/j.ajtas.20 16050 1.1 2

David, M., & Katz, A. (2016). Emotional awareness: An enhanced computer mediated communication using facial expressions. Social Networking, 5, 27-38. doi:

http://dx.doi.org/l0.4236/sn.20 1 6.5 1 004

Department of Statistic Malaysia. (29 July 20 16). ICT use and access by individuals and households survey report, Malaysia, 201 5 [Press Release]. Retrieved from https://www.dosm.gov.my/v I /inde~.php?r=column/pdfPrev&id=Q3 I3 WXJFbG


Derks, D., Bos, A. E., & Von Grumbkow, J. (2008). Emoticons and social interaction on the internet: The importance of social context. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(1), 842-849. doi: https://doi.orgIlO. 10 16/j.chb.2004.11 .013 Desmet, P. M. A. (2004). Measuring emotions: Development and application of an

instrument to measure emotional responses to products. To be published in:

M.A. Blythe, A.F. Monk, K. Overbeeke, & P.C. Wright (Eds.), Funology: From usability to enjoyment. Retrieved from

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= 1


de Vaus, D. (2002). Social surveys. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

DeVito, J. A. (2009). Human communication: The basic course (1 1 th ed.). Boston:

Allyn & Bacon.


Dresner, E., & Herring, S. C. (2010). Functions of the non-verbal in CMC: Emoticons and illocutionary force. Communication Theory, 20(3), 249-268. doi:

10.1 1 1 l/j. 1468-2885.20 10.0 l362.x

Ekman, P. (1 970). Universal Facial Expressions of Emotions. California Mental Health Research Digest, 8(4), 15 1 - 158. Retrieved from

https://www.paulekman.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Universal-FaciaI- Expressions-of-Emotions I .pdf

Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1 97 1). Constants across cultures in the face and emotion.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17(2), 124- I 29. Retrieved from https://l ammce38pkj4 In8xkp 1 iocwe-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-

content/uploads/20 1 3/07/Constants-Across-Cultures-In-The-Face-And- Emotion.pdf

Emogi Research Team. (20 16). 2016 Emoji Report. Retrieved from http://cdn.emogi.corn/docs/reports/2O 16-emoj i-report-pdf

EmojiMeanings. (n.d.). Smileys andpeople emojis with their meaning. Retrieved from https://www.emojimeanings.net/list-smileys-people-whatsapp

Emoj ipedia. (20 1 9). WhatsApp 2.19.244. Retrieved from https://emoj ipedia.org/whatsapp/2. 19.2441

Essays, U K. (November 20 1 8). Online Politeness Strategies used by Malaysians cultzrral studies essay. Retrieved from

https://www.ukessays.com/essays/cultural-studies/online-po1iteness-strategies- used-by-malaysians-cultural-stud ies-essay.php?vref= 1

Fahlman, S. E. (20 12, April 25). Srniley Lore :-). Retrieved from https://www.cs.cmu.edu/-sef/sefSmiley.htm

Farhanah Abu Sujak, Ngo, K. L., & Chiam, K. S. (20 15). Back to basics: Revisiting courtesy among Malaysians. International Social Sciences Conference (ISSC) 201 4, Langkawi. Retrieved from

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/27693O 183-Back-to - Basics-Revisitjn g-Courtesy-among-Malaysians

Farrah Dina Yusop, & Melati Sumari. (2013). The use of social media technologies among Malaysian youth. Social and Behavior Sciences, 103, 1 204- 1 029. doi:


Fernandez-Dols, J-M., & Crivelli, C. (20 15). Recognition of facial expressions: Past, present, and future challenges. In M.K. Mandal and A. Awasthi (Eds.),

Understanding facial expressions in commzmication. doi: l0.1007/978-8 1-322- 1934-7-2


Filik, R., Turcan, A., Thompson, D., Harvey, lV., Davies, H., & Turner, A. (201 6).

Sarcasm and emoticons: Comprehension and emotional impact. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69(1 1 ), 21 30-2 146, doi:


Gehris, D. O., & Szul, L. F. (2002). Commzinication fechnologies. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Gettinger, J., & Koeszegi, S. T. (20 15). More than words: The effect of emoticons in electronic negotiations. In B. Kaminski, G. E. Kersten, & T. Szapiro (Eds.), Outlooks and Insights on Group Decision and Negotiation, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. 15th International Conference, GDN 2015,

Warsaw, Poland, 218,289-305 doi: 10.10071978-3-3 19- 195 15-5-23 Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation

processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and we1 I-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348-362. Retrieved from


Hadijah Rahmat. (2008). Membina minda dan budaya Melayu baru melalui perekayasaan pendidikan bangsa. Jurnal e-Utama, 1, 8-23. Retrieved from http://mlc.alc.nie.edu.sg/docs/hadijah~rahmat.pdf

Hafriza Burhanudeen. (2006). Language & social behaviour: Voices from the Malay world. Bangi: Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Hartman, J. L., & McCambridge, J. (201 1). Optimizing millennials' communication styles. Business Communication Quarterly, 74(1), 22-44. doi:

https:I/doi.org/lO. 1 17711 0805699 1 0395564

Haugh, M. (2004). Revisiting the conceptualization of politeness in English and Japanese. Multilingua- Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage

Communication, 23(1-2), 85-1 09. doi: https://doi.orgIlO. 15 15/mult.2004.009 Hays, J. (2008). Customs, Manners, and Etiquette in Malaysia. Facts and Details.

Retrieved from http:Nfactsanddetails.com/southeast- asia/Malaysia/sub5 - 4blentry-3639.html

Heale, R., & Twycross, A. (201 5). Validity and reliability in quantitative studies. Evid Based Nurs, 18(3), 66-67. doi: 10.1 136feb-20 15-1 02 129

Heriot- Watt University. (20 1 5). Cultural Guide to Malaysia: Malaysia Cultural Awareness, 2. Retrieved from

https://www.hw.ac.uk~students/doc/Malaysia~Cultural - awareness-docurnent.pd f

Herman Shah Anuar, Rafeah Mat Saat, & Zuraidah Abu Talib. (2009). A study on gender perception of emoticon in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC).


Journal of Technology Management, 2. Retrieved from

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/23602 12 16-A-Study-on-Gender-Per ception~on~Emoticon~in~Computer~Mediated~Communication~CMC Hinz, L. (20 15). The function of emoticons and pictograms in instant messagers.

IOpltisl: Living Linguistics, 1,92-103. Retrieved from

http:// I OpIus Ijournal.com/wp content/uploads/20 15/09/06-JOU-ART-Hinz.pdf Hsieh, S. H., & Tseng, T. H. (2017). The effects of emoticons and text-messaging on

social interaction: Playfulness in mobile instant messaging. Comptrters in Human Behavior, 69, 405-414. doi: https://doi.org/IO. 10 16lj.chb.20 16.12.052 Huang, A. H., Yen, D. C., & Zhang, X. (2008). Exploring the potential effects of

emoticons. Information & Management, 45(7), 466-473. doi:

https://doi.org/IO. 10 16/j.im.2008.07.001

Huffaker, D. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2005). Gender, identity, and language use in teenage blogs. Journals of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(2). doi:

10.1 1 1 I/j. 1083-6101.2005.tb00238.x

Hybels, S., & Weaver 11, R. L. (2007). Communicating effectively. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.

INTI International University and Colleges. (20 15). Internet Security, Turning Hobbies into Careers and Fear of Being Offline among key concerns of Gen Z in

Malaysia. Retrieved from mTI International University and Colleges website:


Izyani Mistar, & Mohamed Amin Embi. (201 6). Students' perception on the use of WhatsApp as a learning tool in ESL classroom. Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 4,96- 104. Retrieved from https:Nwww.jesoc.com/wp-

content/uploads/20 1 6/08/Edu-76.pdf

Joshi, A., Kale, S., Chandel, S., & Pal, D. K. (201 5). Likert Scale: Explored and explained. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 7(4): 396-403.

Kaiser, S., & Wehrle, T. (200 1). Facial expressions as indicators of appraisal processes.

In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Series in afSective science.

Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp. 285-3 00). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Karapanos, E., Teixeira, P., & Gouveia, R. (2016). Need fulfillment and experiences on social media: A case on Facebook and Whatsapp. Computers in Human

Behavior, 55, 888-897. doi: 10.101 6/j.chb.2015.10.0 15

Karimnia, A., & Khodashenas, M. R. (2017). Patterns of politeness in teacher-student interaction: Investigating an academic context. The Journal of Applied


Linguistics and Applied Literature: Dynamics and Advances, 5, (I), Winter and Spring, 20 17, pp. 69-87.

Kelly, C. (201 5). Do you know what I mean > :(- . A linguistic stzidy of the understanding of emoticons and emojis in text messages (Student thesis, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden). Retrieved from http://www.diva- portal .org/smash/get/diva2:783789/FU LLTEXTO 1 .pdf

Kelly, R., & Watts, L. (201 5 ) . Characterising the Inventive Appropriation of Emoji as Relational l y Meaningful in Mediated Close Personal Relationships. Experiences of Technology Appropriation: Unanticipated Users, Usage, Circumstances, and Design, Oslo, Norway.

Keyton, J. (20 1 1 ). Commzinication research: Asking questions, jnding answers (2nd Ed.). Crawfordville: McGraw Hill.

Komrskova, Z. (201 5). The use of emoticons in polite phrases of greetings and thanks.

International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 9(4), 1329- 1332. doi:

scholar.waset.org/l999.10/ 1000 1754

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-6 10. doi:

https://doi.org/lO. 1 177/001 3 16447003000308

Kwintessential.co.uk. (20 1 9). A gziide to Malaysia - Etiquette, customs, clothing and more. Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/guide- malaysia-etiquette-customs-culture-business

Labaree, R. V. (20 17). Organizing your social sciences research paper: Purpose of guide. Research Guides. Retrieved from University of Southern California website: http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide

Lai, S. M., Anis Idayu Aziz, & Mimi Mazlina Mohamad. (2015). Gender and Politeness Strategies in Facebook's conversations among students in UiTM Kelantan. The International Conference on Language Literature, Culture and Education 25 & 26 April 2015, 15-23. Retrieved from


Lai, T. D. (20 19, September 19). Malaysians pm for job openings with emojis and no manners. Hrnews.nzy. Retrieved from http://hrnews.my/20 19/09/19/malaysians- pm-for-job-openings-with-emoj is-and-no-manners/

Lauria, V. (20 17, May 8). LINE, WeChat, WhatsApp, Facebook: Where Most of Asia's Business Deals Are Being Done. Forbes. Retrieved from

https://www.forbes.com/sites/vinnielauria~20 1 7/05/08/1 ine-wechat-whatsapp- facebook-where-most-of-asias-business-dea1s-are-being-done/#20708c90757f


Lee, L. T. (201 5, October 6). Membina generasi muda kaya budi bahasa, nilai murni.

BHonZine. Retrieved from http:Nwww.bharian.com.my/node/86837

Lee, L. T. (20 16, March 24). Kita sudah kurang budi bahasa. Utzisan online. Retrieved from http://www.utusan.com.my/rencana/kita-sudah-kurang-budi-bahasa-

1.2040 16

Lee, T. B. (2003). Emoticons Literacy. Retrieved from

http://www.ci i.illinois.edu/InquiryPage/bin/docs/u 12050 - emoticons-nal.doc Leu, D. J., Kinzer, C. K., Coiro, J., & Cammack, D. (2004). Toward a theory of new

literacies emerging from the Internet and other information and communication technologies. In R.B. Ruddell & N.J. Unrau (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (5th ed., (pp. 1570-1 6 13). Newark, DE: International

Reading Association. doi: 10.1598/0872075028.54

Lim, B. S. (2005). Malay sayings as politeness strategies. Journal of Modern

Languages, 16, 65-79. Retrieved from http://e-journal.um.edu.my/public/article- view.php?id=8059

Ling, H. Y. (20 16). Investigating the perceptions of Secondary School students in Kuching, Sarawak in tlsing WhatsApp for Communication and Learning Pzirposes (Unpublished Masters Dissertation, Wawasan Open University,

Penang, Malaysia). Retrieved from http://woulibrary.wou.edu.my/theses- projectIMED20 16-YLHSU.pdf

Logan, M. (20 1 5). Where toJind that missing emoji you needed. Retrieved from https://www.wired.com/20 15/06/find-missing-emoj i/

Lo, S. K. (2008). The non-verbal communication functions of emoticons in computer- mediated communication. Cybelpsychology & Behavior, 11, 595-597. doi:


Maclntyre, P. D., & Vincze, L. (2017). Studies in second language learning and teaching. Department of English Studies, Faculty of Pedagogy and Fine Arts, Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz SSLLT 7 ( 1 ). 6 1 -88. doi:


Maiz-Arevalo, C. (20 15). Typographic alteration in formal computer-mediated communication. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 212, 140- 145. doi:

10.10 16/j.sbspro.2015.1 1.3 1 1

Malaysian Digital Association. (20 16). 2016 Malaysia Digital Landscape. Digital Integration & Business Transformation Asia Conference, Kuala Lumpur.

Retrieved from http://www.malaysiandigitalassociation.org.my/wp- content/uploads/20 16/08/Malaysia-Digital-Landscape-August-2 1 6.pdf


Marder, B., Houghton, D., Erz, A., Harris, L., & Javornik, A. (2019). Smile(y) -and your students will smile with you? The effects of emoticons on impressions, evaluations, and behaviour in staff-to-student communication. Journal Studies in Higher Education. doi: https://doi.orgIlO. 1080/03075079.20 19.1602760 McCarthy, E. D. (1 994). The social construction of emotions: New directions from

Culture Theory. Social Perspectives on Emotion, 2, 267-279. Retrieved from http://faculty.fordham.edu/mccarthy/Socia1%20Construction%20ofD/o2OEmotion s%20 1 994.pdf

Merriman, M. (20 15). Rise of Gen 2: New challenge for retailers. Retrieved from Ernst

& Young LLP website: http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY-rise- of-gen-znew-challenge-for-retai lers/%24LE/EY-rise-of-gen-znew-chal lenge- for-retailers.pdf

Miller, H., Thebault-Spieker, J., Chang, S., Johnson, I., Terveen, L., & Hecht, B.

(20 16). "Blissfully happy" or "ready to fight": Varying interpretations of emoji.

Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Web and Social Media.

ICWSM 2016. 259-268. Cologne, Germany: AAAI Press.

https://grouplens.orgIsite-content/uploads/IC WSM 16-Emoj i-Final-Version.pdf Ministry of Communications & Multimedia Malaysia (KKMM). (20 17).

Communications & Mzlltirnedia Blueprint 2018-2025 Forum undpre-launch of

"Digitising & Humanising " [Press Release]. Retrieved from http://www.kkmm.gov.my/pdf/media/siaran-medial20 1711 71 2 13- PRESS%20RELEASE-bm.pdf

Ministry of Higher Education [MOHE]. (20 16). Malaysia Education Blueprint 2015 - 2025 (Higher Education). Retrieved from

https://www.mohe.gov.my/en/download/public/penerbitan/pppm-20 15-2025- ptl5-malaysia-education-blueprint-20 15-2025-higher-education

Mohd Baharudin Othman, & Mohd Khairie Ahmad. (2004). Pengantar komunikasi.

Sintok: Penerbit Universiti Utara Malaysia.

Morand, D. A., & Ocker, R. J. (2003). Politeness theory and computer-mediated communication: A sociolinguistic approach to analyzing relational messages.

Proceedings of the 36Ih Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS'03), I . doi: 10.1 109/HICSS.2003.1 173660

Muhammad Ariff Ahmad. ( 1993). Bicara tentang adat dan tradisi. Singapore: Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd.

Muhammad Rizal Fadhli Wibowo, Rufaida Ats-Tsiqoh, Siti Sangadah, Evy Sulfiani Komala, & Aris Budi Utomo. (20 16). The effect of emoji on person perception.

Conference: Universitas Indonesia Psychology Symposium for Undergraduate Research 2016, Depok, Indonesia, I .


Mulyono, H., Amalia, D. R., & Suryoputro, G. (201 9). Politeness strategies in teacher- student WhatsApp communication. A PASAA July - December 2019. (58).

Munir Shuib, Razif Mohd, Sarjit Kaur, & Siti Hajar Che Man. (2010). How polite are Malaysian undergraduates? National Higher Education Research Institute (IPPTN), Universiti Sains khlaysia. Retrieved from

http:Neprints.usm.my/34743/1 /BULLETIN-I 5-PART-4.pdf

Murphy, H. A., Hilderbrandt, H. W., & Thomas, J. P. (1997). EfSective btlsiness communications (7th Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mushamir Mustafa. (201 5). Kids of generation Y and Z - The changes across time.

Malaysian Digest. Retrieved from

http://www.malaysiandigest.com/opinion/539242-kids-of-generation-y-and-z- the-changes-across-time.html

Nur Azmina Mohamad Zamani, Siti Zaleha Zainal Abidin, Nasiroh Omar, & Mohamad Zamani Zainal Abiden. (2014). Sentiment analysis: Determining people's emotions in Facebook. Applied Computational Science, 1 1 1 - 1 16. Retrieved from

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f072/a795575a78d884cdc85bec57ccac6d37 1 f .pdf

Nelson, N. L., & Russell J. A. (2013). Universality revisited. Emotion Review, 5, 8-1 5.

doi: 10.1 17711 7540739 12457227.

Newman, N., Fletcher, R., Kalogeropoulos, A., Levy, D. A. L., & Nielsen, R. K.

(20 17). Reuters Institute Digital News Report 20 17. Reuters Institutefor the Study of Journalism. Retrieved from

https:Nreutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/defauIt/files/Digital%20News%20 Report%2020 1 7%20web-0.pdf

Notar, C. E., & Cole, V. (2010). Literature review organizer. International Journal of Education, 2(2), 1 - 1 7. doi: https://doi.org/10.5296/ije.v2i2.3 19

Onursoy, S. (20 18). Using emojis: Self-presentation and Different Meaning Creation Approaches. Retrieved from

https:/lwww.academia.edu/38036506/Using~Emoji Self-

Presentation and Different - ~eaning-creation-~~iroaches. doi: 10.

1 6878/gsuile<.5~f954

Oxford Dictionary. (20 15). Word of the Year 2015. Retrieved from

https://languages.oup.com/word-of-the-year/word-of-the-year-20 1 5

Pilgrim, J., & Martinez, E. E. (2013). Defining literacy in the 21st century: A guide to terminology and skills. Texas Journal of Literacy Education I ( ] ) , 60-69.

Retrieved from


https://www.researchgate.net/pu bl icationl288246 1 3 1 -Defini n g l iteracy-inthe- 2 1 st - century - A - guide~to~terminology~and~skills.

Pranata, A. (20 14). Ekspresi komunikasi melalui computer mediated communication pada pengguna social network sites di Kota Surabaya. Jurnal E-Komunikasi, 2(3), 1


13. Retrieved from

http://id.portalgaruda.org/index.php?page=3&ipp= 1 O&ref=browse&mod=viewj ournal&journal=65 18

Perez-Sabater, C. (201 9). Emoticons in relational writing practices on WhatsApp: Some reflections on gender. In P. Bou-Franch & P. Garces-Conejos Blitvich (Eds.), Analyzing Digital Discourse: New Insights and Future Directions (chapter 7),

163- 189. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:

https://doi.orgllO. 10071978-3-3 19-92663-6-6

Romlah Ramli. (201 3). Culturally appropriate communication in Malaysia: Budi

Bahasa as warranty component in Malaysian discourse. Journal ofMulticultura1 Discourses, 8(1), 65-78. doi: l0.1080/17447 143.2012.753895

Sallo, S. (201 1). The faces of messenger emoticons in the virtual communication. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Social Analysis, 1(2), 307-332. Retrieved from http://www.acta.sapientia.ro/acta-socialC 1 -2/sociall2- l l .pdf

Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E., & Mc Daniel, E. R. (2007). Communication between cultures (6th Ed.). USA: Thompson Wadsworth.

Shnchez, C. (2015, January 1). When instant messaging gave SMS the final blow.

Mobile World Capital. Retrieved from

http://mobiIeworldcapital.com/20 1510 1/20/863/

Sanchez-Moya, A., & Cruz-Moya, 0. (20 15a). "Hey there! I am using WhatsApp": A preliminary study of recurrent discursive realisations in a corpus of WhatsApp statuses. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 212, 52-60. doi:

10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.1 I .298

Sanchez-Moya, A., & Cruz-Moya, 0. (20 15b). Whatsapp, textese, and moral panics:

Discourse features and habits across two generations. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 173,300-306. doi: 10.101 6lj.sbspro.20 15.02.069 Skiba, D. J. (2016). Face with Tears of Joy Is Word of the Year: Are Emoji a Sign of

Things to Come in Health Care?. Nursing educationperspectives,37(1), 56-57.

Spencer-Oatey, H. (2008). Cultzrrally speaking: Culture, communication, and Politeness Theory. Cornwal I: Continuum.

Stark, L., & Crawford, K. (2015). The communication of emoji: Work, affect, and communication. Social Media + Society July-December 2015, 1(2), 1-1 1. doi:

10.1 17712056305 1 15604853


Subashini A., & Sobihatun Nur Abdul Salam. (201 7). Undergraduates' interpretation on WhatsApp smiley emoji. Malaysian Journal of Communication, 33(4), 89- 1 03.

doi: https://doi.org/lO. 17576lJKMJC-2017-3304-06 SwiftKey. (20 15). Swiftkey Emoji Report. Retrieved from

http://~~~.~cribd.com/doc/26259475 l/SwiftKeyEmoji-Report

Syarizan Dalib, Minah Harun, & Norhafezah Yusof. (2017). Student intercultural competence in a Malaysian campus: A phenomenological approach. Journal of Multicziltural Discourses, 12( I), 42-62. doi: 10.1080/17447 143.201 6.1264408 Tan, C. B. Y., Sheppard, E., & Stephen, I. D. (201 5). A change in strategy: Static

emotion recognition in Malaysian Chinese. Cogent Psychology, Z(1). doi:


10801233 1 1908.20 1 5.108594.1

Tanimu Ahmed Jibril, & Mardziah Hayati Abdullah. (2013). Relevance of emoticons in computer-mediated communication contexts: An overview. Asian Social

Science, 9(4), 20 1-207. doi: 10.5539/ass.v9n4p20 1

Tchokni, S., '0 S'eaghdha, D., & Quercia, D. (201 4). Emoticons and Phrases: Status Symbols in Social Media. Association for the Advancement ofArtificial Intelligence. Retrieved from

http://researchswinger.org/publications/tchokni 14.pdf

Thompson, D., Mackenzie, I. G., Leuthold, H., & Filik, R. (2016). Emotional responses to irony and emoticons in written language: Evidence from EDA and facial EMG. Psychophysiology, 53, 1054-1 062. doi: 10.1 I 1 1 /psyp. 12642

Thurlow, C., & McKay, S. (2003). Profiling "New" communication technologies in adolescence. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 22(1), 94-1 03.

doi: 10.1 1771026 1927X02250060

TigweJl, G. W., & Flatla, D. R. (2016). "Oh that's what you meant!": Reducing emoji misunderstanding. In MobileHCI '16 Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services Adjunct (pp. 859-866). New York: Association for Computing Machinery. doi:

https://doi.org/10. 1 14512957265,296 I 844

TomiC, M. K., Martinez, M., & Vrbanec, T. (201 3). Emoticons. FZP Z(1). 35-42.

Retrieved from https://bib.irb.hr/datoteka/7 1099 1.20 13-EfectusTomic- Martinez-Vrbanec---Emoticons.pdf

Tossell, C. C., Kortum, P., Shepard, C., Barg-Walkow, L. H., Ahmad Rahmati, &

Zhong, L. (2012). A longitudinal study of emoticon use in text messaging from smartphones. Computer in Human Behavior, 28, 659-663. doi:

10.5539/ass.v9n4p20 1


Tung, L. C., & Comeau, J. D. (2014). Demographic transformation in defining Malaysian generations: The Seekers (Pencari), The Buiders (Pembina), The Developers (Pemaju), and Generation Z (Generasi Z). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4, 383-403. doi:


Utz, S. (2000). Social information processing in MUDS: 'The development of

friendships in virtual worlds. Journal of Online Behavior, l(1). Retrieved from http:// www.behavior.net/JOB/v 1 n l/utz.htmI

Vithya, S., & Norizan A bdul Razak. (201 4). Examining language usage and patterns in online conversation: Communication gap among Generation Y and Baby Boomers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 118,468-474. doi:

10.101 6lj.sbspro.20 14.02.064

Walther, P. J., & D'Addario, P. K. (2001). The impacts of emoticons on message interpretation in computer-mediated communication. Social Science Computer Review, 19(3), 324-347. doi: 10.1 177/089443930 10 1 900307

Wei, A. C. Y. (20 12). Emoticons and the non-verbal communication: With reference to Facebook (Unpublished master's thesis) Department of Media Studies, Christ University, Bangalore, India. Retrieved from


Wessing, T. (201 8, December 18). Informal instant messaging at work: is WhatsApp causing a headache? Lexology. Retrieved from

https:Nwww.lexology.com/li brary/detail.aspx?g=e3bbaebb-7246-4fac-b 1 de- 1 OdOe44ef938

Wetcher-Hendricks, D. (201 1). Analyzing qualitative data: An introduction for social researchers. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

WhatsApp Inc. (20 19). WhatsApp. Retrieved from https://www.whatsapp.com/

Wicke, P. (20 16). Ideograms as semanticprimes: Ernoji in computational linguistic creativity (Unpublished Bachelor Thesis). University of Osnabruck, Osnabriick, Lower Saxony, Germany. Retrieved from

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Phi1ippWicke/pbication/3 16 168050-Ide ograms-a

s~Semantic~Primes~Emoji~in~Computational~Linguistic~Creativity/1inks/58f4 b823aca2728 9c2 1 c9336/Ideograms-as-Semantic-Primes-Emoji-in-


Wolf, A. (2000). Emotional expression online: Gender differences in emoticon use.

CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3(5), 827-833. doi:

10.108911 09493 100501 9 1809


Wong, N. L., Kuang, C. H., & David, M. K. (20'10). Communication mode among Malaysians. Proceedings of 201 0 International Conference on Humanities, Historical and Social Sciences, CHHSS 2010. Singapore. Retrieved from http://repository.urn.edu.rny/623 I / I /communication%20mode%20among%20M alaysians.pdf

Wong, N . L., Kuang C. H., & David, M. K. (n.d.). Emotions: An insight into how Malaysia express themselves. Retrieved from

https://umexpert.um.edu.my/file/publication/00004545~10928 1 .pdf Yuasa, M., Saito, K., & Mukawa, IV. (2006). Emoticons convey emotions without

cognition of faces: An fMRI study. Extended Abstracts Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2006. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. doi: 10.1 14511 12545 1.1 125737

Yus, F. (20 14). Not all emoticons are created equal. Linguagem em (Dis)curso, 11(3), 5 1 1-529. doi: http:Ndx.doi.orgIlO. 1590/1982-4017-140304-0414

Yulia, M. F. (2016). Politeness Issues in Communication over Text Messages.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on English Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)) 4(2), (pp. 54-61). Sumatera Barat: Universitas Negeri Padang.




The extent of usage in these social communication networks, the perception among university students in audi Arabia towards social communication networks and the

Three predictors which were perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and behavioral intention were used to measure the acceptance factors contributing to mobile application

Utilitarian outcomes in this paper are defined as the extent to which computer enhances the effectiveness of household activities and main computer activity

However, the facilitation of customers’ continuous usage intention is important for the success of mobile loyalty applications.Therefore, this study concentrateson

The purposes of this study were to identify the usage of emoji in WhatsApp business interactions and to describe types of emoji employed among Malaysian Small and Medium

Thus, with the rapid increase in steel production and therefore the generation of its by-products, the most viable long-term solution lies in the utilisation ofEAF dust

However, the literature gaps in this research are foreign study, lack of the local study in Malaysia discuss about the usage of QR codes and IS Success Model.. The usage of QR

Considering the limited studies on advice-seeking and advice-giving strategies in computer-mediated communication (CMC), particularly those used by society of a specific culture,