• Tiada Hasil Ditemukan

Summary and recommendations for future work

action of the photovoltaic and triboelectric effects when the TENG was subjected to illumination.

Another implementation of the perovskite – nanogenerator hybrid device was the work of Zhang et al.[66]. They demonstrated a HC made of SC, PyENG and TPiENG (Triboelectric- Piezoelectric Nanogenerator) as in Fig. 10(c). Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) perovskite which has both pyroelectric and photovoltaic properties was used to harvest both solar and thermal energies while a nylon and FEP film-based contact separation TENG was used to harvest the energies from both friction and vibration. The design paradigm adopted was a single structure multi-effects design made possible by the unique characteristics of PZT. The HC generated a peak current of 5 µA and peak voltage of 80 V while also being capable of charging a commercial 10 µF capacitor to 5.1 V in 90 s.

other research groups have employed varying the units of each component in the HC to better manage the discrepancy in power generated by the individual components of the HC. Improvements in switching, rectification and filter circuits and the development of a tailored composite circuit to tackle the issues inherent to PV-NG HCs would lead to a considerable improvement in HC efficiency by reducing the power losses involved in the electrical output conversion, modulation and transmission.

 The consideration of newly developed SC technologies for HC integration – Bifacial solar cells are a case in point. The ability of these SCs to work with diffused and reflected radiation while also enabling the harvesting of radiation from multiple directions would lend themselves excellently to integration with NGs. The translucent properties of both the bifacial solar cells and NGs can be exploited to construct a multitiered sandwich structured HCs with improved energy utilization and power conversion efficiency. In addition, the capacity of bifacial cells to be mounted at considerably larger inclinations [69] would enable the NG components in the HC to harness a greater percentage of wind or raindrop electrostatic energies due to the increased angle of attack.

 Long term performance and Life cycle analysis of PV-NG HCs – Long term performance of HCs with NG which rely on friction and/or moving components such as CS-TENG, moving electrode TENG, PENG and polymer-based HCs may deteriorate owing to the repeated mechanical stresses arising from operating conditions. Resilience tests are essential to determine the useful productive life of HCs and coupled with the carbon footprint of the fabrication process will enable the life cycle analysis (environmental impact assessment) of HCs. This is essential for HCs to compete against conventional green energy technologies since they are presented as a replacement/retrofit/advancement compared to the conventional solutions.

 Improving degree of integration – Most PV-NG HCs employ some variation on the sandwich structure for integration. This results in a HC with physically distinct layers of SC and NG components. Methods of integrating both components in a single volume [41,43] may be investigated to reduce the HC footprint and improve the power density of HCs. The performance of TENGs is improved when the contact area increases which may be achieved by nano structuring the active layer to develop nanoscale roughness thus effectively increasing the contact area.

 Investigation of synergistic effects – Recent studies[65,68] have remarked upon the synergistic effects of the simultaneous operation of the photoelectric and triboelectric effects in TENGs with perovskite materials integrated in them. This effect enhances the nanogenerator performance in the presence of light and allows for a more seamless integration of photovoltaic and nanogenerator technologies. Further investigation in this area is required to identify similar synergistic phenomena while also cogitating upon how to better exploit the currently identified photo-triboelectric effect in PV-NG HC design.

Table 2: Summary of PV-NG HC

Article PV Nanogenerator Method of Integration Output

Energy Harvested (in addition to

Solar energy) Xu et

al.,2009[2] DSSC, ZnO based PENG, ZnO based Serially connected on same Si substrate

NG- 0.01V 1.1 µA/cm2 PV – 0.591V 6.9 µA/cm2 NG+PV- 0.6V 6.9 µA/cm2

Vibration (ultrasonic) Lee et al.,



PENG Vertically aligned ZnO NW array

pn hetero junction of QD and NG with ITO and Au electrodes

PV- DC Isc 57 nA Voc 6 mV NG- AC 22-45 nA 1.5-6 mV

under 50 Hz sound wave Vibration (sound)

Xu and Wang, 2011[35]

Solid-state DSSC PENG, vertical ZnO nanowire array

Convoluted back-to-back DSSC and PENG with ITO and GaN electrodes

DSSC+PENG serial connection- 34.5 µW/cm2 at Jsc 141 µA/cm2 and Uoc 0.243 V

Vibration (ultrasonic) Choi et al.,



coated PES) PENG (ZnO nanorod)

P3HT:PCBM polymer blend infiltrated nanorod array connected to the same substrate

Voc 0.55V Jsc 9.2 mA/cm2 – serially connected;

Mechanical (low frequency) Yang et al.,


Micro-pyramidal Si SC

CS-TENG (PDMS nanowire)

Protective glass coating of SC

replaced by TENG layer PV- Voc 0.6 V Isc 18 mA NG – 2.5 V rectified Wind Yang et al.,


BHPSC, ZnO – P3HT cell

PENG + PyENG, PVDF film based

Sandwich – SC + NG with ITO top electrode and Ag bottom electrode

NG – drove 5-digit LCD display

SC – under 1.5 AM with 100 mW/cm2 intensity, Voc 0.41 V, Isc 31 µA/cm2

HC- Li-ion battery charged to 1.5 V, drove 4 red LEDs connected parallelly

Thermal + mechanical (touch)

Zheng et al., 2014[17]

Monocrystalline Si


TENG placed of top of PV and assembly secured with PDMS

PV under 12 W/m2- Voc 0.43V Jsc 4.2A/m2

NG at dripping rate 0.116 ml/s- AC Voc 30V Jsc 4.2mA/m2

Raindrop electrostatic Liang et al.,

2015[70] Nil

S-TENG (transparent TENG) nanostructured

PTFE film

Nil (integration only proposed not demonstrated)

NG- maximum instantaneous power density of 11.56 mW/m2 at 5 KΩ load

At loads varying from 10 to 5 KΩ - Voltage 0.1 to 2.75 V and current 10 to 0.07 µA respectively

Raindrop electrostatic only

Zheng et al., 2015[19]

Micro-pyramidal Si SC


Sandwich structure- Water TENG (S- TENG) + contact TENG (CS-TENG) + PV cell

NG- 86 mW/m2 from dripping rate of 13.6 mL/s 8 mW/m2 from a wind speed of 2.7 m/s

Wind + raindrop electrostatic Jeon et al.,


Conventional Si SC

S-TENG, PDMS micro-

bowl textured surface Sandwich- TENG + SC Hybrid cell- 7 V, 128 nA, Pmax 0.27 µW, Raindrop electrostatic Fang et al.,




S-TENG, thin-film FEP Common electrode, SC deposited on S-TENG substrate

PV- Voc 0.74 V Jsc 5.8 mA/cm2 under AM 1.5

NG raised peak voltage to 1.9 V during combined operation

Mechanical (human body motions) Pu et al.,


Fibre-shaped DSSC (FDSSC)

CS-TENG, interdigitated Parylene

+ Ni (ELD coated)

FDSSCs and TENG woven onto the same fabric; TENG consisted of two sections: stator and slider

TENG- 3.2 W/m2 at sliding speed of 0.75 m/s FDSSC- PCE 6%, Jsc 10.6 mA/cm2 and Voc 0.6 V

Mechanical (human body motions) Chen et al.,

2016[23] FDSSC CS-TENG (F-TENG),


SC and TENG textiles are interwoven together

Hybrid cell capable of charging a 2 mF commercial capacitor up to 2 V in 1 minute

Mechanical (human body motions)

Wang et

al.,2016[51] Si-based solar cell CS-TENG, Kapton/FEP/Cu

Sandwich- PV+TENG; to be installed on roofs

TENG- 26 mW with 1 MΩ impedance SC- 8 mW at 600 Ω resistance

After impedance matching via a transformer, 12 mA net

Wind Dudem et

al., 2016[36]



TENG used to replace glass cover of SC; integration via common ITO/PET electrodes

HC - 18.2 V of output voltage and ∼ 1.4 µA of output current

at 0.5 Hz of external mechanical stimulus Mechanical +wind Wen et al.,

2016[39] FDSSC CS-TENG (F-TENG),


Sandwich- TENG + FDSSC + Fibre based Super Capacitor (F-SC)

FDSSC- Voc 0.74 V, Jsc 11.92 mA/cm2, PCE 5.64%

F-SC – specific capacitance 1.9 mF/cm

F-TENG – generated 0.91 µA from ambient human motions

Mechanical (human body motions) Zhang et al.,

2017[66] PZT based SC


+TE module

One structure multi- effects construction

HC – peak current 5 µA, peak voltage 80 V, charged a 10 µF capacitor to 5.1 V in 90 s

Thermal + mechanical

Shao et al.,2017[53]

Commercial water-proof Si SC

CS-TENG, PTFE/Al/Cu/Kapton

Sandwich- 1 SC+ 4 FS-EMGs + 4 CS- TENGs

At 0.2 to 2.0 Hz, 4 TENGs- 142 V Voc, 7.2 to 23.3 µA, P 4.4 to 31.5 µW; 4 series FS-EMGs- Voc 0.07 to 0.66 V, Isc 0.31- 2.14 mA, p 2 to 66.9 µW

Blue energy harvesting (Solar +

wind + wave energies) Liu et al.,


Heterojunction Si SC


Sandwich- SC+TENG with a mutual

electrode (PEDOT:PSS) TENG- Isc 33 nA, Voc 2.14 V Rain

Yoo et al., 2019[49]

Conventional Si SC


TENG) Sandwich- MM-TENG+SC TENG- Voc 18.4 V, Isc 24.4 µA Rain

Cho et al., 2018[42]

(QDSCs), PbS QDs


Sandwich- TENG + QDSC with Au bottom electrode and ITO top electrode

6 QDSCs + 1 TENG –

Charged a 35 mF capacitor by 215 mJ, corresponding to a power of 59.7 µW

Vibration Cao et al.,


DSSC (TiO2/Pt/N179)

CS-TENG – ITO (rotor) and FEP (Stator)

Cylindrical acrylic frame holds the rotor and stator, DSSC and soft Li- battery (SLB) placed along axis shaft

HC – 150 µA Isc at 200 RPM wind speed and 2mW light intensity; after charging for 0.88 h SLB discharged for 4.12 h at 10 µA discharge rate

Wind (rotational) Qian and

Jing, 2018[20]

α-Si solar cell (UNISOLAR,



TENG components split into stator and rotor placed coaxially along with EMG; SC wrapped around the rotor

Pmax – TENG (2.13 mW under 3 MΩ loading resistance),

EMG (0.34 mW under 10Ω) at 1200 RPM Wind (rotational) Ahmed et

al., 2019[55]

Thin-film solar cell (Infinity PV,

Ltd., Jyllinge, Denmark)

PENG, LDT4-028K/L PVDF piezo film


PV+ artificial leaf + piezo film

Voc 5.071 V Isc 1.282 mA 3.42 mW at loading resistance of 5 kΩ; Charged 1000 µF capacitor when wind-driven

Wind + rain

Song et al.,

2019[37] FDSCC S-TENG, Silicone

rubber/carbon black


FDSSC + TENG + flexible Super Capacitor (SC)

TENG- 130nC Voc 300 V

Isc 0.8 µA at 0.5 Hz to 1.6 µA at 2 Hz Pavg per cycle at 1 Hz 0.6 µW

SC charged in 35 s to 0.63V, 0.77V and 0.87 V at 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz and 2 Hz respectively


Liu et al.,

2019[50] Si SC S-TENG, nano wrinkled PDMS

Sandwich structure, WD TENG deposited upon SC

Nano wrinkled PDMS improved PCE from 12.55 to 13.57%

and WD TENG Voc and Isc increased by 385.5% and 299.1%

respectively compared to planar PDMS WD TENG

Raindrop electrostatic

Ma et al.,

2019[54] α-Si SC, CS-TENG, ITO/ETFO

Sandwich TENG+SC,

ETFO encapsulation to retain transmittance

SC- charged a 2.1 mAh Li-ion battery from 3V to 3.6 V under typical daylight of 25 mW/cm2

TENG – continued to raise the voltage of the cell to 3.86 V

Mechanical Ren et al.,




Sandwich structure with common electrodes (PEN/ITO); encapsulated in GHF film

HC – charged a 10 µF capacitor from 0 to 0.7 V in 400 s Mechanical Roh et al.,

2020[18] α-Si SC S-TENG, FEP/ITO + CS-TENG, PTFE/Al

Rain TENG (S-TENG) + SC + Wind TENG (CS-TENG) sandwich structure

Vmax - Rain TENG (5 V), wind TENG (50 V), SC (4.2 V) HC – charged a 0.1 µF capacitor to 14 V in 0.66 s

Wind + rain drop electrostatic

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.


This work was supported by the Ministry of Higher Education, Government of Malaysia through its Fundamental Research Grant Scheme through grant FRGS/1/2019/TK10/TAYLOR/02/1.

This work was also supported by Taylor’s University through its Taylor’s PhD Scholarship programme.


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