• Tiada Hasil Ditemukan

12 2.1 Nickel and nickel oxide


Academic year: 2023

Share "12 2.1 Nickel and nickel oxide"

Tunjuk Lagi ( halaman)


SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MORPHOLOGY-DEPENDENT NICKEL OXIDE CATALYST TO AID HYDRODEOXYGENATION OF PHENOL TO BIOFUEL. A project thesis submitted to the Chemical Engineering program Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS as partial fulfillment of the requirement for


9 In this research paper we focus on the hydrodeoxygenation of phenols in the formation of biofuels. In general, bio-oils are continuously produced by fast pyrolysis of a large amount of biomass and have played a role as a feedstock for the renewable production of biofuels. To produce the biofuels, we use the method of hydrodexygenation of the phenols.

It is important for biofuels, which are derived from oxygen-rich precursors such as sugars.” Bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is a promising alternative fuel to replace fossil fuels. By bypassing hydrogenation and cracking reactions, hydrogen can be used efficiently due to the high oxygen content of the bio-oils and the desire for fully renewable fuels.

Bio-oil has environmental advantages compared to fossil fuels because when burned, bio-oil produces less pollution than fossil fuels, specifically half the NOx, negligible amounts of SOx emissions, and it is considered CO2 neutral. Bio-oil chemical properties vary with materials used for its production or the conditions under which it is produced.



Nickel and nickel oxide

In addition, some experimentalists found that nickel became a recovered catalyst for processes when used in a high pH atmosphere. The figure above shows the influence of temperature and water concentration on the physical characterizations of nickel oxide nanoparticles, from 623 to 923K for almost three hours were performed by XRD with changed amounts of water. It shows a common face-centered cubic (FCC) arrangement of nickel with three distinct peaks, labeled as replications from and {220} flat surfaces.

15 Accordingly, the formation of Ni and NiO nanoparticles and their structural features were strongly dependent on the calcination temperature. With increasing calcination temperature, the intensities of the diffraction peaks of NiO increased and the degree of crystallinity would be improved. To investigate the effects of H2O on the synthesis, 10, 20 and 40 mass% H2O were applied in the systems and nanoparticles of Ni and NiO were again obtained.

Considering the effects of H2O concentration on the formation of NiO nanoparticles, the metallic Ni nanoparticles are presented with few amounts of NiO at 623K (Fig. While the H2O concentration was increased at this calcination temperature (623 K), the diffraction peaks of NiO became more obviously, as shown in fig.


18 The diagram below shows the schematic diagram of a traditional hydrodeoxygenation pathway in a more detailed visual explanation. The rates of the four successive reactions of phenol hydrodeoxygenation were compared over two Ni catalysts. In three hydrogenation reactions of phenol, cyclohexanone and cyclohexene, Ni/Al2O3-HZSM-5 was more active than Ni/HZSM-5 due to the higher Ni dispersion on Ni/Al2O3-HZSM-5.

The cyclohexanol dehydration reaction rate on Ni/HZSM-5 was slightly higher due to higher BAS concentration, and such dehydration was strongly enhanced by close proximity of acidic sites and metal sites where cyclohexene is irreversibly hydrogenated[2].

Figure 6: Four main pathways of hydrodeoxygenation
Figure 6: Four main pathways of hydrodeoxygenation

Materials and Equipment


The table 1 below shows the pH value obtained for each bases before the preparation of the nickel oxide catalyst. It has been found that the lower the pH value of a base, the better it is, but this does not apply to some of the bases. The bases with one of the lowest pH values ​​are for example the 2M NaF and this base did not show any effects on the nickel oxide catalyst, as it was even difficult to dissolve it in the distilled water and also deionized water.

The best base to use is the 0.125M NaOH followed by 2M KOH, 2M NaOH, 4M NaOH, 2M Na₂CO₃, 5M NaOH and 2M NH₃. It is chosen based on few reasons just like the structure of the nickel oxide catalyst, the Raman results, the surface area of ​​the catalyst, XRD result and also the EELS result. As you can see from the images in Figure 5 and 6, the base reactivity does affect the structure of the nickel oxide catalyst. The lower the pH values ​​of the base, the better the structure of the nickel oxide catalyst.

The EELS of Figure 14 (a) which is nickel oxide with NaOH bases shows a better graph compared to the other one. The graph below shows the graph of the degree of reactivity against the pH values ​​of the bases. This proves that pH values ​​have an effect on the degree of reactivity as stated at the beginning of the research paper.

The of a “sawtooth” pattern. This is chosen based on some reasons such as the structure of the nickel oxide catalyst, the Raman results, the surface area of ​​the catalyst, the XRD result and also the EELS result.

The rate of reaction of nickel nitrate is affected by the pH value of the bases used. The rate of reaction of nickel nitrate is affected by the pH value of the bases used and also their concentration. Finally, my recommendation is to provide more different nickel oxide catalyst structures with higher surface area and also to research a different method of nickel catalyst production other than the hydrothermal process.

Figure 9: Timelines for FYP II
Figure 9: Timelines for FYP II

Project Timeline ............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined

31 Moreover, as you can imagine in Figure 4, the bases are arranged in a descending order from the best base to be used to the lowest base to be used. 39 Figure 13 (b) and (d) shows the detailed and focused of 2M NaOH and also 4M NaOH using TEM „Transmission Electron Microscopy‟. EELS also known as "electron energy loss spectroscopy" is an equipment used for a contracted range of kinetic energies also known to be visible to a beam of electrons.

From the comparison, we can conclude that 0.125 M NaOH has the best result followed by 2 M KOH, then 2 M NaOH and finally 4 M NaOH. As you can see in the graph, as the pH increases, the rate of reactivity decreases. The examination from the pattern shows that it is a classic alpha-type nickel oxide in their powder form.

Table 2: The pH values of the selected bases with different molar.
Table 2: The pH values of the selected bases with different molar.

Steele, “Pretreat bio-oil to increase yield and reduce char during hydro-deoxygenation to produce hydrocarbons,” Fuel, vol. Lercher, “Comparison of kinetics, activity and stability of Ni/HZSM-5 and Ni/Al2O3-HZSM-5 for phenol hydrodeoxygenation,” Journal of Catalysis , vol. Savage, “Stability and activity of Pt and Ni catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation in supercritical water,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, vol.

Song, et al., "Synthesis of Fe-doped NiO nanofibers using electrospinning method and their ferromagnetic properties," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 34;Ferromagnetic Behaviors in Fe-Doped NiO Nanofibers Synthesized by Electrospinning Method," Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. Xing, et al., "Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of anisole as lignin model compound over supported nickel catalysts," Catalysis Today, vol.

34;Hydrodeoxygenation of mono- and dimeric lignin model compounds on noble metal catalysts," Catalysis Today, vol. 34;Preparation and characterization of alumina-supported nickel oxalate catalyst for the hydrodeoxygenation of oleic acid to normal and isoctadecane biofuel," Energy Conversion and Management, pp. Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO ) of phenol over supported molybdenum carbide, nitride, phosphide, and oxide catalysts. Catalysis Today.

De, “Synthesis and ferromagnetism at room temperature in Fe-doped NiO nanorods,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. Zhang et al., “Structures and magnetic properties of (Fe, Li)-codoped NiO thin films,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. Ying, “Improvement of ferromagnetic properties of NiO:Fe thin film by Li-doping,” Applied Physics Letters, vol.


Figure 1: “Total Primary Energy Supply by resource 1993, 2011 and 2013”
Figure 2: Transformation to produce biofuels
Figure 5: Properties of bio-oil versus crude oil.
Figure 6: Four main pathways of hydrodeoxygenation



In this work, DSP approach was used to synthesize the MoS z and the effects of the oxalic acid concentrations (1.e., 2M, 6 M and 10M; molar, M) on the growth

This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment on tensile properties of continuous kenaf fibre reinforced polymer composites using

It is indicated that increasing the concentration of NaOH increased in crystal size and this will potentially change the magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite [14] and

One of the methods to solve this problem is using the chemical treatment and the most commonly used in this treatment is sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the alkali

The main setback of the fabrication of titania nanotubes by the hydrothermal method is the long dissolution time and the usage of highly concentrated NaOH.. Our group

°C for 3 hours in a 2 M NaOH and nitrobenzene solution. One of the major products obtained from the breakdown of lignin is vanillin. The crystallization process was used as a method

a) To evaluate the application of an existing palm oil waste on thermophilic anaerobic digestibility of POME. b) To determine the best condition for NaOH solubilisation of POME. c)

It was intended to study the understanding, rationale, challenges and the solution in learning phonetics and phonology for UiTM TESL students. A total of 30 students from Semester

The pyrolysis with inexpensive and abundant sorbent such as NaOH and CaO could produce hydrogen-rich gas which is free of CO and CO 2 , and the process could be optimized at