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PDF Evaluation of Oxidizer Based Emulsifier for Diesel /Hydrogen Peroxide Blend


Academic year: 2023

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First of all, the author wishes to express his gratitude to Almighty Allah for His will; the author is currently doing her final year project titled “Evaluation of Oxidant Based Emulsifier for Petroleum/Hydrogen Peroxide Blend”. The author would also like to thank Dr Iqbal Ahmed, supervisor for the Final Year Project for his willingness to spend his time in the guidance and continuous supervision of the author. Thanks to him for his effort to ensure that the author's project always results in the completion of this interim report on time.

Finally, thanks to all parties who directly and indirectly guided and helped the author during her training.


  • Background of study
  • Problem statement
  • Research Objectives
  • Scope of Study
  • Feasibility of the Project within Scope and Time Frame

There are several studies conducted by researchers to determine the potential of hydrogen peroxide as an oxygenating chemical in diesel fuel. The emulsifier used in this research has a tendency to absorb moisture, which will help the hydrogen peroxide bridge with the diesel fuel for a longer period of time. A stabilized mixture of diesel fuel and hydrogen peroxide will be achieved with the help of a prepared emulsifier by reducing the density and surface tension of both liquids.

The ability of gelatin to absorb and retain excess oxygen in a mixture of diesel fuel and hydrogen peroxide.


  • Diesel fuel
    • Diesel Fuel Uses
    • Diesel Fuel Air Quality
    • Diesel Consumption
    • Properties of diesel fuel
  • Oxygenated Chemical
  • Emulsifying agent
    • Gelatine []
    • Acetone
  • Diesel/hydrogen peroxide blend fuel

In 2009, a study was conducted on the influence of the introduction of hydrogen peroxide during the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In addition, it has also been found that hydrogen peroxide injection in methane combustion can reduce carbon monoxide concentration and increase carbon dioxide production [18]. Hydrogen peroxide is known as the simplest form of peroxide compound, which consists of an oxygen-oxygen single bond.

The research has shown that the thermal efficiency of the brakes is increased and the temperature of the exhaust gases is reduced by the presence of hydrogen peroxide [20]. All of these chemicals will reduce the surface tension between diesel and hydrogen peroxide, in addition to improving the properties of the diesel. Nadeem et al., the application of emulsified diesel is considered as one of the possible approaches to reduce pollutant production in diesel engines and also fuel consumption without reducing engine performance.

Thus, adding hydrogen peroxide to the emulsified fuel is necessary to improve performance and reduce emissions, including NOx. Water-emulsified diesel fuel has the potential to improve diesel engine performance and emission characteristics. NOx and hydrocarbon emissions were found to decrease with increasing water percentage in the emulsified diesel.

The addition of water in the form of an emulsion improves combustion efficiency in a diesel engine as the engine speed increases. The role of hydrogen peroxide in the selected ratio of emulsified fuel and its comparison with diesel fuel.

Figure  2 [11]   represents  the  value  for  road  sector  diesel  fuel  consumption  (kt  of  oil  equivalent) in Malaysia was 4,988.00 as of 2009
Figure 2 [11] represents the value for road sector diesel fuel consumption (kt of oil equivalent) in Malaysia was 4,988.00 as of 2009


Research method

  • Input
  • Methodology
  • Output
  • Chemicals required
  • Some of the equipment used

Hydrogen peroxide and diesel blend emulsion are obtained by mixing the two immiscible liquids in the presence of surfactant. The surfactant acted to stabilize the hydrogen peroxide droplet phase within the diesel continuous phase. The stability test aimed to observe the most optimum percentage of hydrogen peroxide in emulsifier to form homogeneous mixture with the crude diesel.

The calorific value is a measurement of the heat energy released during complete combustion, while the cetane number is a measurement of the compression ignition delay of diesel. Calorific value and cetane number analysis can determine the combustion efficiency and quality of oxygenated diesel. In theory, diesel with a higher calorific value and cetane number has a better combustion efficiency due to more complete combustion.

The composition of the oxygenated fuel, such as oxygen and sulfur content, is essential to understanding the use of hydrogen peroxide. The flash point, cloud point and pour point of the diesel samples provide the understanding of the fuel quality. Cloud point and pour point are the temperatures at which the diesel forms wax precipitation and loses its flow properties.

By understanding the important parameters of the oxygenated diesel, the effects of hydrogen peroxide as fuel oxygen can be determined. Comparative study of characterization of emulsified oxygenated diesel based on calorific value, cetane number and economic value.

Figure 5: Experimental Setup
Figure 5: Experimental Setup

Key milestone & Gantt Chart


Crude diesel properties

Hydrogen peroxide and diesel emulsion can be obtained by mixing the two immiscible liquids in the presence of an emulsifier. The dispersion mechanism produces a very small hydrogen peroxide droplet phase dispersed within the diesel continuous phase. An emulsifier is added to reduce the interfacial tension between hydrogen peroxide and diesel to produce the emulsion and to stabilize the hydrogen peroxide droplet phase within the continuous phase of diesel.

Stability Investigation

  • Different emulsifier formulation
  • Optimum volume of hydrogen peroxide to acetone

From Figure 12, 2 ml of emulsifier E, which consists of 1 g of gelatin, 15 ml of H2O2 and 5 ml of acetone, is the most stable emulsifier compared to emulsifiers A,B,C and D. Emulsifier E is few times more stable than Emulsifier A, B, C and D because there is an absence of methanol in the emulsifier formulation. From the test done, methanol is dissolved in hydrogen peroxide, but it is immiscible in diesel; while acetone is dissolved in both hydrogen peroxide and diesel.

Thus, the formulation of Emulsifier E with 75% hydrogen peroxide will be used to find the most optimal conditions to create the most stable emulsion between hydrogen peroxide and diesel. From the stability study, it is shown that emulsifier containing only hydrogen peroxide and acetone is the most stable. Emulsifier E.1 to E.3 with 75% to 85% hydrogen peroxide content shows almost the same time for separation, which is approx. 60 hours.

When the percentage of hydrogen peroxide increases to 90% and 95%, the time required for emulsion separation decreases to 45 hours and 40 hours, respectively. As emulsifier E.3 has the highest percentage of hydrogen peroxide with reasonable stability, 17 ml of hydrogen peroxide with 3 ml of acetone is chosen as the optimal volume for this emulsifier formulation.

Figure 12 : Time taken for 100% separation between emulsifier and diesel   (hours) vs types of emulsifier formulation
Figure 12 : Time taken for 100% separation between emulsifier and diesel (hours) vs types of emulsifier formulation

Solubility limit for oxygenated emulsifier (Emulsifier E.3) to crude diesel

  • Procedures
  • Varying volume of emulsifier in 100 ml diesel

The left side of Figure 14 shows 20 ml of hydrogen peroxide being added directly to 100 ml of crude diesel; while the right side of the figure shows 20 ml of oxygen-rich emulsifier (85% hydrogen peroxide) in 100 m of crude diesel. Color: Emulsified diesel with 85% hydrogen peroxide in emulsifier appears to be cloudier compared to the raw diesel with 20 ml of diesel. Direct addition of hydrogen peroxide to diesel will form two immiscible layers as shown on the left side of Figure 14; while emulsified diesel formed a homogeneous mixture between emulsifier with 85% hydrogen peroxide and diesel.

In order to obtain the maximum solubility of the emulsifier in 100 ml of diesel, five samples with different volumes of the emulsifier were carried out. The volume of emulsifier varies from 20 ml to 60 ml in 10 ml increments for each sample.

Figure 13 : 20 ml of oxygenated emulsifier with 85% H 2 O 2 2.  Adding oxygenated emulsifier into 100 ml crude diesel
Figure 13 : 20 ml of oxygenated emulsifier with 85% H 2 O 2 2. Adding oxygenated emulsifier into 100 ml crude diesel

Characterization of emulsified diesel

  • Morphology of emulsified diesel
  • Density and surface tension of emulsified diesel
  • Kinematic viscosity of emulsified diesel
  • Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Sulfur Content
  • Flash point, pour point and cloud point of emulsified diesel
  • Cetane Number
  • Calorific Value

Overall, the density is reduced for emulsified diesel compared to the density of raw diesel. Kinematic viscosity of the emulsified diesel increases due to the high viscosity of the emulsifier, which is 6.2 cSt. The percentage of carbon that all emulsified diesel is varies from 84% to 86% for emulsified diesel (sample B to sample F) compared to raw diesel, 85%.

In terms of hydrogen content, crude diesel consists of the highest percentage of hydrogen, which is approximately 12.58%. In addition, the sulfur and nitrogen content of emulsified diesel is reduced compared to raw diesel. The flash point of emulsified diesel increases from 430 C for raw diesel sample A to 820 C for emulsified diesel sample F.

Because of its higher flash point temperature, emulsified diesel fuel is inherently safer than raw diesel. Cloud point is the temperature at which the initial crystallization or phase separation (freezing) of the fuel begins. It is a very rough indication of the lowest temperature at which fuel oil is ready to be pumped.

Thus, it is believed that the emulsified diesel has the ability to improve fuel efficiency, reduce the harmful emission as well as faster starting by increasing the cetane number. The cetane number and gas emission from the oxygenated diesel samples are also taken into account.

Figure 24 : Droplet Size Sample number E
Figure 24 : Droplet Size Sample number E


The kinematic viscosity of the emulsified diesel is increased due to the high viscosity of the emulsifier, which is 6.2 cSt, but it is still within the range of commercial diesel. Emulsified diesel does not change the percentage of carbon content, as it varies from 84% to 86%. The sulfur and nitrogen content is decreasing for emulsified diesel compared to raw diesel, which reduced the emission of SOx and NOx.

The pour point, cloud point and flash point for emulsified petroleum is increased within the range of commercial petroleum. The cetane number for emulsified diesel increases significantly, thus reducing harmful emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. The result showed that the calorific value of oxygenated oil is lower than crude oil (44,767 kJ/kg), but it is still higher than commercial oil, which is 39,581 kJ/kg.


Retrieved February 16 from GoArticles.com website: http://goarticles.com/article/Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-Diesel/1691758/. Nazha, “Systematic assessment of combustion characteristics of biofuels and emulsions with water for use as diesel engine fuels,” Energy Conversion and Management. The role of hydrogen peroxide in a selected emulsified fuel ratio and compare it with diesel fuel.

Retrieved February 22, 2013, from Diesel Fuel Definition: http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-diesel-fuel.htm. Retrieved February from Malaysia - diesel fuel consumption in the road sector: http://www.indexmundi.com/facts/malaysia/road-sector-diesel-fuel-consumption. Accessed February 18, 2013 American Petroleum Institute website: http://www.api.org/environment-health-and-safety/clean-water/ground-water/oxygenates.aspx.

Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://www.weishardt.com/doc/en-proprietes-gelatine.pdf. http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Acetone_Additive:FAQ#How_to. Diesel engine performance and emission evaluation using emulsified fuels stabilized by conventional and gemini surfactants. 29 C.Y.Lin, L.W.Chen, "Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics of Three-phase Diesel Emulsions Prepared by an Ultrasonic Emulsification Method," Taiwav, Fuel.

31 Kweonha Park, Inseok Kwak, Seungmook Oh. Effect of water emulsified fuel on highway bus diesel engine.


Figure 2 : Road sector diesel fuel consumption up to 2009 in Malaysia  [11]
Figure  2 [11]   represents  the  value  for  road  sector  diesel  fuel  consumption  (kt  of  oil  equivalent) in Malaysia was 4,988.00 as of 2009
Table 1 : Properties of diesel fuel  [13,14]
Table 2 : Properties of 30 wt% Hydrogen Peroxide  [19]



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