• Tiada Hasil Ditemukan

PDF utpedia.utp.edu.my


Academic year: 2023

Share "PDF utpedia.utp.edu.my"

Tunjuk Lagi ( halaman)



Background of Study ............................................. 1-2

  • Problem identification
  • Significant of the project


Scope of Study

The relevancy of the project

Feasibility of the project



In fluid dynamics, drag, sometimes called air resistance or fluid resistance, refers to the forces that oppose the relative motion of an object through a fluid. Unlike other drag forces such as dry friction, which is almost independent of speed, drag forces are speed dependent l81. In this study, drag or simply drag force is defined by the force that must be overcome to move the fluid through the pipeline.

This drag is due to the stress on the wall due to the fluid shearing and causing the fluid pressure to drop.

Drag Reducing Agent ............................................. 6-8

The role of these additives is to suppress the growth of turbulent vortices by absorbing the energy released by the breakdown of lamellar layers, resulting in a higher flow rate at constant pump pressure. The effectiveness of DRA always depends on several factors, such as fluid viscosity, pipe diameter and flow rate, which indicate a dependence on the Reynolds number. Surfactant molecules will migrate to the water surface, where the insoluble hydrophobic group can extend out of the bulk water phase, either into the air or, if water is mixed with oil, into the oil phase, while the water-soluble head group remains in the water phase. water phase.

This alignment and aggregation of surfactant molecules on the surface changes the surface properties of water at the water/air or water/oil interface [91. Sodium stearate (SS) CzsHJsNaOz is white crystalline anionic filler with a molecular weight of 306.46 glgmol and active substance of 87%. The synonyms of Sodium stearate are Octadecanoic acid sodium salt or Stearic acid sodium salt [121•.

The performance of DRA in oil pipelines will be indicated by the pressure drop observed by the manometer. Where: VoRA = volume of DRA to be added VTotat = total system fluid volume CoRA = desired DRA concentration (ppm).

Figure 1:  Illustration of the mechanism of Drag Reducing Agent  1101 .
Figure 1: Illustration of the mechanism of Drag Reducing Agent 1101 .


  • Research Methodology
    • Title Selection ............................................. .l3
  • Gant Chart
  • Key Milestones
  • Tools, Equipments and Materials

The experiment will be conducted in a built up fluid circulation system with 1 inch galvanized iron (G.I) steel pipe. Next, the experiment will be conducted by running several different concentrations of sodium stearate injected into the pipeline. The result of the test must be the pressure drop before and after the addition of DRA and be representative in percentage of resistance reducing.

In any research, all variables must be identified first before starting the experiment. From both graphs, it is clearly shown that Drag Reduction % is increasing with increasing concentration. There are some cases when the experiment is performed where the calculated flow rate is lower even with higher concentration like at 600 ppm.

It is considered to be the result of errors made in the experiment and especially in the preparation of the solution. However, the effect of ORA on % drag reduction versus Reynolds number is not as clear from the graph. Therefore, it is difficult to manage the amount of money allocated for the assembly or construction of a trial installation and for the purchase of chemical use as a DRA.

First, the experimental setup was changed, such as using carbon steel pipe to galvanized steel pipe and from two inch pipe diameter to one inch pipe diameter. Since the experiment for DRA has to be assembled or manufactured by oneself, it is quite difficult for a person who not only had a limitation on budget but also on knowledge. A lot of trial and error processes had been done to improve the experiment setup so that it will be as perfect as possible to run the experiment.

Given a tight schedule to complete not only run the experiment and get a result, but also fabricate and assemble the experiment setup is very demanding. Systematic errors are always associated with a flaw in the equipment or in the design of the experiment. This type of error cannot be estimated even by repeating the experiment with the same equipment.

Below is the experiment data sheet and table of recorded and calculated data for each run in the experiment. Below are examples of lOOppm at low pump RPM obtained in Table 5: Recorded and calculated data for each run set in the experiment.

Figure 5: Pipe flow system layout from front view
Figure 5: Pipe flow system layout from front view



Things or factors must remain the same for the entire process of the experiment so that they do not affect the result. There are many examples of constant variables in this experiment, such as room temperature, water density, and the volume of DRA injected into the pipe.


Graphs and Discussions .......................................... .30-35

Therefore, the effect of ORA is much obvious when observed under high pressure. Thus, when the high speed is applied, the effect of ORA on drag reduction is more obvious. But as expected, there were also some undesirable results, such as at concentrations of 700 ppm and 800 ppm, where low speed had a higher drag reduction percentage compared to high speed, due to errors that occurred while running the experiment.

This is because the higher DRA in the concentration, it will lead to higher drag reduction. Perhaps the solution is not mixed well and Sodium Stearate does not mix completely in distilled water. Concentration graph for both Low and High RPM are combined together to carefully study the effect of RPM of pump to flow rate, it shows that flow rate will increase with increasing RPM of pump.

This aligns with the theory that with higher RPM pumps; you can transfer more liquid because the pump is much faster and faster in its revolutions per minute. According to the predicted theory, the percentage of drag reduction will increase as the velocity of the transported fluid, represented by the Reynolds number (Re), increases. Increasing the degree of turbulence provides a suitable medium for the ORA reaction.

This shows that for low and high speeds, DRA with a concentration of lOOppm sets the highest efficiency factor compared to the others with an efficiency of 0.11 and 0.22, respectively. During the completion of this final year project, there have been several constraints that have affected any possible outcome for this project. Due to this limitation, many improvements need to be made to overcome this limitation.

Second, the medium in which the DRA can react has also changed from crude oil to water. For a moment, for an I Ooppm concentration, it will probably need about 4 hours to be thoroughly mixed and completely diluted in distilled water.

Figure 21: Drag Reduction % vs. Concentrations for  Low and High RPM
Figure 21: Drag Reduction % vs. Concentrations for Low and High RPM


As mentioned earlier, the only objective set at an early stage of the project is to study the effect of using sodium stearate as a DRA in the formulation. First, instead of observing the effect of sodium stearate in an oil pipeline, an adaptation is made where the effect of sodium stearate is monitored in a water pipeline. Thus, we can conclude that for the second goal in terms of seeing the effect of using sodium stearate as DRA, it is successful, but on the other hand, in terms of using DRA in oil pipelines, it is not achieved.

This project pushed me to learn and study how turbulence flow can affect the flow capacity of a single pipeline, and especially to discover the significance of DRA in the industry. But it is believed that if the limitation can be reduced in one study, the result of the study will be more satisfactory and accurate. Especially when it comes to minimizing the errors encountered in this research project and reducing the constraints during the implementation of the project.

Use a pump that can provide more variable RPM and can be set accurately. Use more precise injector mechanism to inject DRA directly into the core of the pipe, such as nozzle with a check valve, instead of using a tee section as an injector mechanism. All this recommendation hopes can improve the result of the experiment and give more accurate data.

Ian Greasby: "Drag Reduction Agent (DRA) in Main Oil Line", Petroleum Development Oman (PDQ). 34; Enhancing the Heating Capacity of Oil Production Bundles Using Drag-Reducing Surfactants", SPE 80238, paper presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, TX, February 5-7, 2003. 34; Effect of a drag-reducing agent resistance to Pressure drop and flow regime transitions in multiphase horizontal low-pressure pipelines", mag. dissertation presented to the Faculty of Fritz J.

The method used is quite basic, as limitation of equipment to measure flow rate accurately, such as digital-reading flow rate meter. After each set of experiments, the samples are taken back to the laboratory to measure the density of the solution using the Digital Density Meter. While density and dynamic viscosity are obtained from a sample of solution, they are analyzed in the laboratory using a digital density meter and viscometer.

Where: VoRA =Volume of DRA to be added (grams) VTotai =Total fluid volume of the system (mL) CoRA= Desired DRA concentration (ppm). SUGGESTED MILESTONE FOR THE SECOND SEMESTER OF 2 SEMESTER FINAL YEAR PROJECT -FYPZ BY UTP GUIDELINE.

Table 5:  Experiment data sheet
Table 5: Experiment data sheet


Figure 1:  Illustration of the mechanism of Drag Reducing Agent  1101 .
Figure  2:  Surfactant  classification  according  to  the  composition  of their  head:
Figure 3:  Molecular structure of Sodium Stearate  [Ill.
Figure 4:  Flow chart of the research methodology



This study found that the technique of crystallization had great potential to be applied to EFB residual oil extraction, as shown by the reduction in oil yield from crystallized

The evidence from Table A6 shown that, while higher elasticity on direct effect of IPR on EXP is recorded at 1.6 % (i.e., the highest coefficient recorded in FE specification),

Figure 4.4: Drag coefficient versus air conditioning unit design graph As showed in figure 4.4, initial drag coefficient of air conditioning unit showed significant reduction of

claimed in 22 that the control method of immune PID cascade control that is applied to main steam temperature control in thermal power plant based on self learning of the

The study show that the distance behind the leading AUV does not give much effect to drag force, but the position arrangement show significant important to

Framework development for COMPETENCE through regional Workshop on Rethinking Science Education targeting sustainability science, energy and other UNESCO science fields..

The major concern of this paper is to determine whether there are observable features of interference of L 1 (Malay) on L2 (English) particularly in the syntactic structures. This

It is hoped that this research can be useful to illustrate the legal status of and the rights granted to illegitimate

Calculation for these two parameters will be using the formula below respectively: Equation 3: Flow rate, Q gallon per minutes = Equation 4: Velocity = Where: Time = time taken